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Materials Design and Development

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1 Materials Design and Development
Week 11 Reviewing Grellet Receptive Skills Framework 1

2 Reflection on Homework
Homework for Next Week Start thinking about the kind of lesson you want to do: Reading or Listening and begin searching for the appropriate text Reflection on Homework Discuss in small groups or with a partner, your answers to the homework. Add details and examples.

3 Processing Questions Is teacher translation of the text an effective and efficient way to have Ss demonstrate their understanding? Why or why not? How does this quote relate to the above question: “ Give a man a fish feed him for a day. Teach a man to fish and feed him for a lifetime.”

4 Background Knowledge Choosing a text that Ss already knows something about helps Ss learn English faster Helps learners understand new and unfamiliar grammar Allows Ss to comprehend more of the text at a faster rate

5 In Receptive Skill Lessons Which Is More Important?
Vocabulary is more important than grammar in receptive skill lessons Grammar helps us use language, vocabulary helps us understand language Grammar Vocabulary

6 Task Sequencing in Receptive Skill Lessons
General  Specific Easy  Difficult Concrete  Abstract

7 The PDP Framework Is it for productive or receptive skills?
What skills can we teach using the PDP framework? What framework do we use to teach productive skills?

8 PRE What happens in each stage? DURING POST

9 Pre-Stage When does it happen in the lesson?
What happens in this stage? Why?

10 Schema Theory & Schema Activation

11 What needs to be activated and assessed prior to reading or listening?
General world knowledge about social relationships and casual structures Specific knowledge about topic of the text Knowledge about the text’s organization (genre)

12 Good readers and listener use prior knowledge to:
make predictions visualize ask questions to monitor comprehension draw inferences confirm hypothesis… that’s what I expected determine what is important in the text demonstrate to others that they have understood what they have read

13 During Stage When in the lesson does it happen?
What happens in this stage of the lesson? When are the tasks given to Ss? Why are the task given at that time? What is the purpose of a reading lesson? If we give tasks after the Ss watch, listen or read, what are we assessing; memory or comprehension? How does it happen; i.e., how are the activities sequenced?

14 Sequencing of Tasks Task are given before learners read or listen
Tasks are sequenced from: General to specific Easy to Difficult Concrete to abstract

15 During Stage What happens first: Skimming activities or scanning activities? Why? What are some example of skimming activities? What are some example of some scanning activities? Where in the PDP lesson is the SLO achieved? What kind of activity do we need to assess Ss comprehension of the listen/reading text? Can you give me some example of these kinds of activities?

16 Skimming Activities ordering/numbering items of main ideas
making a list of main or significant events reading or listening for the mood, feeling or tone of the text or passage outline the main or fill in an outline where the details are provided but not the main ideas ranking the importance of the main ideas or significant events checking off relevant information from a text or picture select the correct response such as what’s the best title for this passage label pictures, graph, or graphic organizer matching picture with description matching two general pieces of information writing summary statements

17 Scanning Activities checking off relevant information from a text or picture ordering/numbering items label pictures or parts of pictures matching two pieces of information select the correct response fill in graph, or graphic organizer fill in the blanks ranking true/false multiple choice writing short answers

18 A list of Comprehensive Assessment Activities
Summary Retelling Sequencing a summary Sequencing pictures Using pictures to retell the text Synthesis such as making inferences, drawing conclusion or reading/listening between the lines Application of new knowledge; e.g. using what they have learned to identify the technique being used Discussion Debate

19 During Stage A cloze activity checks Ss comprehension at the word/sentence level. Is this a good final assessment activity of a listening or reading text? Why or why not? Why do we need to check Ss comprehension at the text/discourse level? Is the whole meaning of a text stated directly? When we listen or read something and understand more than was said or written what are we doing? Is this an easier or harder task? Where in the reading lesson should Ss be reading/listening between lines, making inferences and drawing conclusions? Why?


21 Building Schemata Building Connections
Text to Self choose texts with characters the same age as the students, or had similar problems and experiences let learners share connections from past experiences ? ? ? ? ? ?

22 Building Schemata Building Connections
Text to Text compare characters, their personalities, and actions compare story events and plot lines compare lessons, themes, or messages in stories find common themes, writing style, or perspectives in the work of a single author compare treatment of common themes by different authors compare different versions of familiar stories

23 Building Schemata Building Connections
Text to World create posters and ads write in a reading or listening response journals complete projects about the topic or theme perform role plays or skits

24 Post Stage When does it happen in the lesson?
What happens at this stage of the lesson? Why? If the POST stage is “extra icing on the cake” why do I believe it is essential to include in any reading or listening lesson? How does the POST stage relate to Tomlinson’s aspects of good materials?

25 PRE Why the diamond? DURING POST

26 Look at these two SLOs. How are they different?
By the end of the lesson SWBAT ask and answer questions using frequency adverbs (always, usually, sometimes, seldom, never) in the dialog (A: How often do you ___? B: I _____ _____.) BY doing a classroom survey. By the end of the lesson SWBAT demonstrate their comprehension of the text, “That’s Her Problem” BY retelling the story with picture support.

27 Receptive Skills SLO Formula
By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate their understanding/comprehension of the __________ (text/passage/story/dialog/conversation/article/etc.),_________ (title of text) BY ______(doing something)__________.

28 Example By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate their understanding of the conversations, “Problems at the Airport” BY describing the inferred conclusions about what each speaker will do.

29 You Try Write and SLO for the following:
fable “The Hungry Father-in-Law” debate “Should We Build the New Library” public service announcement “What to Do in Case of a Fire”

30 Compare Yours to Mine By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate their understanding of the fairytale, “The Hungry Father-in-Law” BY inferring the moral that we can learn form the story. By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate their understanding of the public service announcement, “Should We Build the New Library” BY summarizing the debate using a graphic organizer. By the end of the lesson, SWBAT demonstrate their understanding of the debate, “What to Do in Case of a Fire” BY drawing a diagram or making a poster that shows the sequence described in the announcement.

31 Look at these tasks. Put them in correct order using PDP framework
Give task a series of T/F statements, let Ss read statements, then Ss listen to text. Ss check answers together, T elicits correct answers from group Give Task: “Why is the older lady worried?” “What suggestion will the clerk make.” Ss read Qs. Ss listen to text. Ss check answers together, T elicits correct answers from group Give Ss a bus schedule and a map of the US. Ask Ss to plan a trip to some place in the US. Ss will describe what bus/buses they will take. How long it will take and the cost of the travel. Show picture of bus station. Elicit background knowledge by using guiding Qs: “Where do you think this is? What’s happening? Etc…” Give task: “How many people are speaking? Where are they?” Let Ss read Qs. Ss listen to the text. Ss check answers together, T elicits correct answers from group Introduce topic: “Long distance travel by bus.” Ask Ss if they have every gone a long distance by bus? Ask if they’ve traveled by bus in an English speaking country? Give task: Each Ss gets a bus ticket with a destination. Ss must listen and find their bus number. Different Destination for each Ss. When Ss hear their bus number they should stand up. T play tape several time until most/all Ss can stand up when their bus number is called.

32 What order did you come up with?
Pre 4: Assess Ss prior knowledge 6: Intros topic and allows Ss to share past experience to create interest and relevance During 5: It a general listening task 1: It a easy specific listening task. 7: It’s a more difficult specific listening task 2: It’s the most difficult listening task because it requires Ss to use inference and draw conclusion which assess Ss knowledge at the text/discourse level Post 3: Ss do a task that moves beyond the text that allows personalization of topic/theme and gives them a chance to connect topic theme to their own lives

33 Role of Grammar vs. Role of Vocabulary in the Language Classroom
Let’s start by looking at some statements. Give me a thumbs up if you agree Give me a thumbs down if you disagree

34 “That vocabulary is more important than grammar is not true
“That vocabulary is more important than grammar is not true. If you know a bunch of words and don’t know how to put them together, there are very few chances for you to be understood.”

35 “You don’t really need to teach grammar explicitly, saying things like, ‘this is the past perfect tense and you form it like this’. That’s unnecessary. I think it’s better to teach learners to communicate, to practice as much English as possible in class with real language. Grammar will look after itself.”

36 “I get really annoyed when I teach a grammar point and then a few minutes later they make a mistake with it.”

37 “For students to use grammar correctly it should be presented in a context, its meaning and use should be clarified, and then they should practice using it.”

38 “Without grammar, little can be said; without vocabulary, nothing can be said.”

39 “If you give students plenty of examples in different situations where the structure is used, they should be able to work out the rules for themselves.”

40 How many words? 500,000 to 1,000,000 words in English
Educated native English adult knows about 20,000 We learn about 1,000 a year We use about 1,800 in everyday conversation Now, as to vocabulary. Which ones? Vocabulary programs expand vocabularies, we looked for the essential words, those that teachers assume kids already have heard. 40

41 Threshold Levels Everyday conversation learners need 1800 to 2000 words for 80% comprehension. For non-academic reading texts learners need about 5000 words for 90% comprehension. For academic texts, the number of words needed for 80% comprehension varies dramatically by genre.

42 Three Lessons to be Learned
Identify what the most frequent 2,000 to 5,000 vocabulary items Help learners learn how to learn vocabulary on their own Don’t begin reading instruction with low level learners until they have a threshold vocabulary level of at 1200 words.

43 Introduction to Bloom’s Taxonomy
Sequencing of tasks and questions in reading activities is not a new idea Bloom introduced his taxonomy of reading questions in 1956 Bloom, like Grellet, believes that tasks should move from easier to more difficult, and from concrete to more abstract forms of thinking

44 Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis
Synthesis Evaluation Warning: This is more appropriate for Native Speaker learners, so use this information carefully.

45 Knowledge tell list describe relate locate write find state name
Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products tell list describe relate locate write find state name What happened after...? How many...? Who was it that...? Can you name the...? Describe what happened at...? Who spoke to...? Can you tell why...? Find the meaning of...? What is...? Which is true or false...? Make a list of the main events.. Make a timeline of events. Make a facts chart. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.  List all the .... in the story. Make a chart showing... Make an acrostic. Recite a poem.

46 Comprehension Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate summarize compare describe Can you write in your own words...? Can you write a brief outline...? What do you think could of happened next...? Who do you think...? What was the main idea...? Who was the key character...? Can you distinguish between...? What differences exist between...? Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event. Illustrate what you think the main idea was. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events. Write and perform a play based on the story. Retell the story in your words. Paint a picture of some aspect you like. Write a summary report of an event. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.

47 Application Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products solve show use illustrate construct complete examine classify Do you know another instance where...? Could this have happened in...? Can you group by characteristics such as...? What factors would you change if...? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own...? What questions would you ask of...? Would this information be useful if you had a ...? Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study. Make a paper-mache map to include relevant information about an event. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point. Make up a puzzle game suing the ideas from the study area. Make a clay model of an item in the material.

48 Analysis Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products analyze distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorize identify explain separate advertise Which events could have happened...? If ... happened, what might the ending have been? How was this similar to...? What was the underlying theme of...? Why did ... changes occur? Can you explain what must have happened when...? Design a questionnaire to gather information. Write a commercial to sell a new product. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. Make a family tree showing relationships. Put on a play about the study area. Write a biography of the study person.

49 Synthesis Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine propose devise formulate Can you design a ... to ...? Why not compose a song about...? Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with...? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with...? What would happen if...? Invent a machine to do a specific task. Design a building to house your study. Create a new product. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. Write about your feelings in relation to... Write a TV show, play, puppet show, role play, song or pantomime about...? Design a record, book, or magazine cover for...? Make up a new language code and write material suing it. Sell an idea. Devise a way to... Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody.

50 Evaluation Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems
Potential activities and products judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritize determine Is there a better solution to... Judge the value of... Can you defend your position about...? Do you think ... is a good or a bad thing? How would you have handled...? What changes to ... would you recommend? Do you believe? Are you a ... person? How would you feel if...? Prepare a list of criteria to judge a ... show. Indicate priority and ratings. Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest. Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important. Convince others. Form a panel to discuss views, eg "Learning at School." Write a letter to ... advising on changes needed at... Write a half yearly report. Prepare a case to present your view about...

51 Homework PDP Framework read and answer Qs
Post entry and reply to two others on discussion board

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