Presentation on theme: "YL Material Design & Development Week 3 Tomlinson’s Introduction Halliwell’s Young Learners."— Presentation transcript:
YL Material Design & Development Week 3 Tomlinson’s Introduction Halliwell’s Young Learners
Housekeeping: Name Cards Name: _________________ English Nickname: _________ address: ______________ Phone #: __________________ Something about your self:_________ ______________________________ Your Picture
Homework for Next Week Read and answer the questions to Paul’s “Child Centered Learning” p. 161 (Qs) pp (reading) Reflection on Homework Discuss in small groups or with a partner: –What instincts, skills and characteristics do children have when they enter the classroom and how we use these instincts, skills and characteristics to help them learn a second language? –Make a list of teacher actions that can help students build confidence. Make a list of teacher actions that hinder student confidence. Why is building confidence and creating a safe and comfortable environment important? –How can we create opportunities for real communication in our classes and why is real communication important?
Questions about Tomlinson? Which of the 16 features of good materials do you have questions about?
1.Materials should achieve impact 2.Materials should help learners to feel at ease 3.Materials should help learners develop confidence 4.What is being taught should be perceived as relevant and useful 5.Materials should facilitate learner self-investment and discovery 6.Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught 7.Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use 8.Learner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the input 9.Materials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposes 10.Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed 11.Materials should take into account that learners have different learning styles 12.Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude 13.Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction 14.Materials should maximize learning potential 15.Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice 16.Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
1. Materials should achieve impact
2. Materials should help learners to feel at ease Things that a material developer can do to make Ss feel at ease: ’ –lots of white space –illustrations that learners can relate to –balance Ss academic and emotional needs, so…. –materials seem helpful rather than test like –materials that have a humane personality and voice rather than semi- official documents that one might find at a government office –use active voice rather than passive –examples and stories that make it seem more real; concrete and connect to the Ss lives and social context Language should be inclusive It’s the learner’s language, too! How material developers/Ts use of the target language shouldn’t make Ss feel inferior; the level and the way the TL is ‘used’ should neither demean nor patronize
Build rapport by sharing aspects of yourself
3. Materials should help learners develop confidence Challenge level (i+1). Staging and task sequencing Removing scaffolding and support language Success builds success and success = confidence
4. What is being taught should be perceived as relevant and useful Find out what your Ss like and want to learn through needs analysis Make task and activities “real” & “meaningful” Allow for Ss personalization of learning Use games, contest and competitions to create materials that have the perception of relevance
5. Materials should facilitate learner self-investment and discovery Learning situations are created in which the learning is often implicit Inductive methods are used Learner-centered, task-based, learn by doing Ss-Ss collaboration and peer learning maximized Teacher Talk Time (TTT) minimized Teacher’s don’t teach; students learn
Classroom that facilitate learner self-investment and discovery often look like this. Where’s the teacher? Present, but not directly involved.
6. Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught Materials are developed so Ts can easily do initial and ongoing assessment Materials are created with the understanding that Ss learn at different rates, and not all Ss are necessarily ready to acquire what is being taught Developmental sequence is taken into account
Developmental Sequence The terms above refers to the passage of learners through a series (of in most cases) progressively more accurate manifestations of a given feature such as negation, question-forms, etc…The developmental sequence for L2 learners is very similar to the developmental sequence for L1 learners of English.
7. Materials should expose the learners to language in authentic use Authentic Input: listening and reading texts created by native speakers for native speakers Authentic Output: Tasks and activities that have a real context of use
8. Learner’s attention should be drawn to the linguistic features of the input Meaning before form Materials help s to notice gap in interlanguage Recycling of key points or features to assure that Ss notice and acquire Use enhanced input techniques to drawn Ss attn to salient features of input Schema activation
Enhanced Input Jane plans to marry Tom. She likes Tom, but Tom doesn’t like her. Tom always runs when he sees her. She catches Tom. Tom falls in love. It ends happily. What do I want my Ss to notice? How is their attention drawn to the input?
Schema Theory & Schema Activation
Preparing Ss to learn new vocabulary and concepts
9. Materials should provided opportunities to use the TL for communicative purposes Information and opinion gaps Survey Mingle activities
10. Materials should take into account that the positive effects of instruction are usually delayed
11. Materials should take into account that learners have different learning styles This will be discussed in detail later in the lesson.
12. Materials should take into account that learners differ in affective attitude providing choice of… –different types of texts –different kinds of activities providing optional extras for highly motivated and higher level learners remembering variety is the spice of life including opportunities for Ss to discuss… –the value of learning English –their attitudes and feeling about the course and materials being aware of the cultural sensitivity of your learners giving Ss opportunities to connect classroom themes and topics to their own lives and experiences providing roles for reluctant learners who do not want to participate in group work
13. Materials should permit a silent period at the beginning of instruction
14. Materials should maximize learning potential Left Brain uses logic detail oriented facts rule words and language present and past math and science can comprehend Knowing Acknowledges order/pattern perception knows object name Right Brain uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and images present and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believes appreciates spatial perception knows object function
15. Materials should not rely too much on controlled practice
16. Materials should provide opportunities for outcome feedback
Discussing Halliwell Can you think of examples of how children are good at the following: –Interpreting meaning –Using language creatively –Learning indirectly –Having fun –Imagination –No fear of talking/Desire for interaction
Discussing Halliwell What does Halliwell believe teachers should base their teaching approaches on? The author talks about content and attitude goals; what are content and attitude goals and why does the author say attitude goals are to prioritized?
Discussing Haliwell Summarize the following in your groups –Special nature of language –Checking understanding –Treating Mistakes –Real exchanges –Teaching in the target language (TL)