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小马托福 010- 62699622 6.8YY 阅读点题班 孙彤 微博 : 小马过河孙彤. 小马托福 010- 62699622 点题? 压题! 文章背景知识 + 题型分类.

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Presentation on theme: "小马托福 010- 62699622 6.8YY 阅读点题班 孙彤 微博 : 小马过河孙彤. 小马托福 010- 62699622 点题? 压题! 文章背景知识 + 题型分类."— Presentation transcript:

1 小马托福 010- 62699622 6.8YY 阅读点题班 孙彤 微博 : 小马过河孙彤

2 小马托福 010- 62699622 点题? 压题! 文章背景知识 + 题型分类

3 小马托福 010- 62699622 文章与背景知识 太 TM 有用了啊! “ 如果考生不了解一篇文章所论述的主题也没有关 系,因为回答问题的所有信息都在文章中给出 ”

4 小马托福 010- 62699622

5 小马托福 010- 62699622

6 小马托福 010- 62699622 恐龙的灭绝 古生代 Paleozoic Era——Cambrian——trilobite 中生代 Mesozoic Era : Triassic 、 Jurassic 、 Cretaceous 新生代 Cenozoic Era 气候变迁: retreat ; advance 陨石撞击: meteorite , comet , asteroid , crater , Iridium

7 小马托福 010- 62699622 土壤、矿物元素与植物 必须的矿物质元素: 钙 calcium ,氮 nitrogen ,硝酸根离子 nitrate ion , 磷 phosphorus ,铁 iron depletion , deficiency , symptom , chlorosis , necrosis , anthocyanin formation , stunted overabundance , toxic , sodium chloride , heavy metal , nickel , cobalt , copper , zinc , manganese , lead , cadmium

8 小马托福 010- 62699622 生物多样性和生态系统 演替 succession :演替是指一个群落( community )被另 一个群落所替代的现象 pioneer 先锋 ——successional 演替 ——climax 顶级 diversity 多样性; stability 稳定性, stable ; resilience 恢复 力; patchiness ; symbiotic : alga ( algae ) + fungus ( fungi ) parasitism ( tapeworm 与 intestine ), commensalism, and mutualism ( legume plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria )

9 小马托福 010- 62699622 农业、城市发展、水资源 农业如何发展: hunting and gathering——nomadic—— agriculture ; pastoralism 畜牧主义; horticulture 园艺 reclaim 开垦; crop rotation 轮种; drainage system 排 水系统 reservoir 蓄水池; irrigation 灌溉 snowmelt ; precipitation ; hydrology 水文

10 小马托福 010- 62699622 古希腊与古罗马 古希腊: from scores of scattered cities ; along the Mediterranean seas lanes ; ships ; power ; literature 古罗马: from one single organism ; territorial conquest ; marching legions ; subtlety ; law, military organization, administration, and engineering

11 小马托福 010- 62699622 词汇题 exceedingly= extremely exceed=surpass , beyond , above hasten = speed up; accelerate ; get faster ;

12 小马托福 010- 62699622 词汇题 bulk = mass ; large portion ; great quantity ; major part ; majority contribute = give; add to ( contribute to ) enormous = huge ; immense ; great ; very large ; vast swift = fast; ready

13 小马托福 010- 62699622 词汇题 accumulate =build up ; collect ; pile up ( grow up ) subsequent= later ; ensuing ; following in time coincide ( with ) =happen/be at the same time ; accord with catastrophic=badly harmful

14 小马托福 010- 62699622 细节类题目 事实信息题 Factual Information Questions 否定事实信息题 Negative Factual Information Questions

15 小马托福 010- 62699622 事实信息题 According to the paragraph1, 关于于总哪个是正确 的 ? According to the paragraph1, 于总喜欢挊 because… According to the paragraph1, why 于总要挊 ?

16 小马托福 010- 62699622 事实信息题 解题步骤 1. 读题 2. 定位 3. 转移 4. 转化

17 小马托福 010- 62699622 事实信息题 读题的重要性 e.g. 于总思想特别肮脏,因此他总举一些猥琐的例 子。但是女神非常讨厌于总举一些猥琐的例子。 问:根据上面一段话,为什么于总举一些猥琐的 例子? 1. 于总思想特别肮脏; 2. 女神非常讨厌于总举一些 猥琐的例子

18 小马托福 010- 62699622 事实信息题 难度的形成(定位与转移困难) 1. 关键词在原文中为同意替换 2. 存在多个与关键词相关的句子 正门不通走后门! —— 排除法

19 小马托福 010- 62699622 事实信息题 错误或干扰选项的特征 1. 与原文信息相反 2. 为原文未出现的信息

20 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 1: Research has shown that certain minerals are required by plants for normal growth and development. The soil is the source of these minerals, which are absorbed by the plant with the water from the soil. Even nitrogen, which is a gas in its elemental state, is normally absorbed from the soil as nitrate ions. Some soils are notoriously deficient in micro nutrients and are therefore unable to support most plant life. So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. In modern agriculture, mineral depletion of soils is a major concern, since harvesting crops interrupts the recycling of nutrients back to the soil. 1. According to paragraph 1, what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soil?

21 小马托福 010- 62699622 So-called serpentine soils, for example, are deficient in calcium, and only plants able to tolerate low levels of this mineral can survive. 1. According to paragraph 1, what is true of plants that can grow in serpentine soil? ○ They absorb micronutrients unusually well. ○ They require far less calcium than most plants do. ○ They are able to absorb nitrogen in its elemental state. ○ They are typically crops raised for food.

22 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 3: The subjects of the paintings are mostly animals. The paintings rest on bare walls, with no backdrops or environmental trappings. Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. This theory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings. But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared. Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing. 2 . According to paragraph 3, scholars explained chips in the painted figures of animals by proposing that

23 小马托福 010- 62699622 Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting 2 . According to paragraph 3, scholars explained chips in the painted figures of animals by proposing that ○ Upper Paleolithic artists used marks to record the animals they had seen ○ the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals for hunting ○ the artists had removed rough spots on the cave walls ○ Upper Paleolithic people used the paintings to increase their luck at hunting

24 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 2: An ecologist who studies a pond today may well find it relatively unchanged in a year’s time. Individual fish may be replaced, but the number of fish will tend to be the same from one year to the next. We can say that the properties of an ecosystem are more stable than the individual organisms that compose the ecosystem. 3. According to paragraph 2, which of the following principles of ecosystems can be learned by studying a pond?

25 小马托福 010- 62699622 We can say that the properties of an ecosystem are more stable than the individual organisms that compose the ecosystem. 3. According to paragraph 2, which of the following principles of ecosystems can be learned by studying a pond? ○ Ecosystem properties change more slowly than individuals in the system. ○ The stability of an ecosystem tends to change as individuals are replaced. ○ Individual organisms are stable from one year to the next. ○ A change in the members of an organism does not affect an ecosystem’s properties.

26 小马托福 010- 62699622 4. According to paragraph 3, ecologists once believed that which of the following illustrated the most stable ecosystems ? ○ Pioneer communities ○ Climax communities ○ Single-crop farmlands ○ Successional plant communities

27 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 3: At one time, ecologists believed that species diversity made ecosystems stable. They believed that the greater the diversity the more stable the ecosystem. Support for this idea came from the observation that long-lasting climax communities usually have more complex food webs and more species diversity than pioneer communities. Ecologists concluded that the apparent stability of climax ecosystems depended on their complexity. To take an extreme example, farmlands dominated by a single crop are so unstable that one year of bad weather or the invasion of a single pest can destroy the entire crop. In contrast, a complex climax community, such as a temperate forest, will tolerate considerable damage from weather to pests. 4. According to paragraph 3, ecologists once believed that which of the following illustrated the most stable ecosystems ?

28 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 3: At one time, ecologists believed that species diversity made ecosystems stable. They believed that the greater the diversity the more stable the ecosystem. Support for this idea came from the observation that long-lasting climax communities usually have more complex food webs and more species diversity than pioneer communities. Ecologists concluded that the apparent stability of climax ecosystems depended on their complexity. To take an extreme example, farmlands dominated by a single crop are so unstable that one year of bad weather or the invasion of a single pest can destroy the entire crop. In contrast, a complex climax community, such as a temperate forest, will tolerate considerable damage from weather to pests. 4. According to paragraph 3, ecologists once believed that which of the following illustrated the most stable ecosystems ?

29 小马托福 010- 62699622 5.Which of the following statements about deer populations is supported by the information in paragraph 4? ○ Deer populations reached their highest point during the 1940s and then began to decline. ○ The activities of settlers contributed in unexpected ways to the growth of some deer populations in later times. ○ The cleaning of wilderness land for construction caused biotic changes from which the black-tailed deer population has never recovered. ○ Since the 1940s the winter populations of deer have fluctuated more than the summer populations have.

30 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 4: Reduction in numbers of game should have boded ill for their survival in later times. A worsening of the plight of deer was to be expected as settlers encroached on the land, logging, burning, and clearing, eventually replacing a wilderness landscape with roads, cities, towns, and factories. No doubt the numbers of deer declined still further. Recall the fate of the Columbian white-tailed deer, now in a protected status. But for the black-tailed deer, human pressure has had just the opposite effect. Wildlife zoologist Helmut Buechner(1953), in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time, says that “since the early 1940s, the state has had more deer than at any other time in its history, the winter population fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-tailed deer), which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period.”

31 小马托福 010- 62699622 否定事实信息题 题目形式 According to the paragraph1, which of the following is NOT true of 于总 ? Paragraph1 mentions all of the following about 于总 EXCEPT… 正确选项的特点:与原文相反或没有提到 解题关键:找到三个出现的选项

32 小马托福 010- 62699622 否定事实信息题 解题步骤与事实信息题相同,但转化要求较低。

33 小马托福 010- 62699622 1. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as required for successful colonization of the Pacific islands EXCEPT ○ knowledge of various Austronesian languages ○ a variety of fishing techniques ○ navigational skills ○ knowledge of plant cultivation

34 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 3: The basic cultural requirements for the successful colonization of the Pacific islands include the appropriate boat- building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place, domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions, and a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques. It is now generally believed that these prerequisites originated with peoples speaking Austronesian languages (a group of several hundred related languages) and began to emerge in Southeast Asia by about 5000 B.C.E. The culture of that time, based on archaeology and linguistic reconstruction, is assumed to have had a broad inventory of cultivated plants including taro, yarns, banana, sugarcane, breadfruit, coconut, sago, and rice. Just as important, the culture also possessed the basic foundation for an effective maritime adaptation, including outrigger canoes and a variety of fishing techniques that could be effective for overseas voyaging.

35 小马托福 010- 62699622 the appropriate boat-building, sailing, and navigation skills to get to the islands in the first place domesticated plants and gardening skills suited to often marginal conditions a varied inventory of fishing implements and techniques. 1. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as required for successful colonization of the Pacific islands EXCEPT ○ knowledge of various Austronesian languages ○ a variety of fishing techniques ○ navigational skills ○ knowledge of plant cultivation

36 小马托福 010- 62699622 2. According to Paragraph2, which of the following is NOT a question that paleontologists asked about the Cambrian explosion? ○ Why was the origin of life a simple step in Earth’s history? ○ Why did it take so long for multicellular organisms to develop? ○ Why did animal life evolve so rapidly? ○ Why does the fossil record lack evidence of animal evolution during that time?

37 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 2: Scientists have asked important questions about this explosion for more than a century. Why did it occur so late in the history of Earth? The origin of multicellular forms of life seems a relatively simple step compared to the origin of life itself. Why does the fossil record not document the series of evolutionary changes during the evolution of animals? Why did animal life evolve so quickly? Paleontologists continue to search the fossil record for answers to these questions. 为啥迟? 为啥无 fossil ? 为啥快?

38 小马托福 010- 62699622 为啥迟? 为啥无 fossil ? 为啥快? 2. According to Paragraph2, which of the following is NOT a question that paleontologists asked about the Cambrian explosion? ○ Why was the origin of life a simple step in Earth’s history? ○ Why did it take so long for multicellular organisms to develop? ○ Why did animal life evolve so rapidly? ○ Why does the fossil record lack evidence of animal evolution during that time?

39 小马托福 010- 62699622 3. According to paragraph 1, which of the following statements about William Smith is NOT true? ○ Smith learned surveying by reading and by apprenticing for a local surveyor. ○ Smith’s family lived in a small English town and possessed little wealth. ○ Smith learned about fossils from books he borrowed from his uncle. ○ Smith eventually left his village to work on the excavation of an English canal.

40 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 1: In 1769 in a little town in Oxfordshire, England, a child with the very ordinary name of William Smith was born into the poor family of a village blacksmith. He received rudimentary village schooling, but mostly he roamed his uncle's farm collecting the fossils that were so abundant in the rocks of the Cotswold hills. When he grew older, William Smith taught himself surveying from books he bought with his small savings, and at the age of eighteen he was apprenticed to a surveyor of the local parish. He then proceeded to teach himself geology, and when he was twenty-four, he went to work for the company that was excavating the Somerset Coal Canal in the south of England.

41 小马托福 010- 62699622 Paragraph 1: In 1769 in a little town in Oxfordshire, England, a child with the very ordinary name of William Smith was born into the poor family of a village blacksmith. He received rudimentary village schooling, but mostly he roamed his uncle’s farm collecting the fossils that were so abundant in the rocks of the Cotswold hills. When he grew older, William Smith taught himself surveying from books he bought with his small savings, and at the age of eighteen he was apprenticed to a surveyor of the local parish. He then proceeded to teach himself geology, and when he was twenty-four, he went to work for the company that was excavating the Somerset Coal Canal in the south of England. ○ Smith learned surveying by reading and by apprenticing for a local surveyor. ○ Smith’s family lived in a small English town and possessed little wealth. ○ Smith learned about fossils from books he borrowed from his uncle. ○ Smith eventually left his village to work on the excavation of an English canal.

42 小马托福 010- 62699622 欢迎访问公开课网站,收看课程视频 公开课网站: bbs.xiaoma.com/gkk


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