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小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 2013.12 YY 托福阅读点题班 孙彤 新浪微博 : 小马过河孙彤.

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Presentation on theme: "小马公开课 400-663-1986 小马公开课网址: 2013.12 YY 托福阅读点题班 孙彤 新浪微博 : 小马过河孙彤."— Presentation transcript:

1 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: YY 托福阅读点题班 孙彤 新浪微博 : 小马过河孙彤

2 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 注意注意再注意! 1. 细节类题目 2. 句子简化题 3. 插入句子题 4. 修辞目的题

3 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 细节类题目 事实信息题 —— 细节题 否定事实信息题 —— 排除题

4 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 细节类题目的一般解题步骤 1. 读题 2. 定位 3. 转移 4. 转化

5 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 细节类题目的一般解题步骤 1. 读题 定位更准 规避干扰选项

6 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: According to paragraph 2, which of the following principles of ecosystems can be learned by studying a pond? ○ Ecosystem properties change more slowly than individuals in the system. ○ The stability of an ecosystem tends to change as individuals are replaced. ○ Individual organisms are stable from one year to the next. ○ A change in the members of an organism does not affect an ecosystem’s properties.

7 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 2: An ecologist who studies a pond today may well find it relatively unchanged in a year’s time. Individual fish may be replaced, but the number of fish will tend to be the same from one year to the next. We can say that the properties of an ecosystem are more stable than the individual organisms that compose the ecosystem.

8 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: Paragraph 1 suggests that one reason Egyptian art is viewed less favorably than other art is that Egyptian art lacks ○ a realistic sense of human body proportion ○ a focus on distinctive forms of varying sizes ○ the originality of European art ○ the capacity to show the human body in motion

9 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: In fact, a lack of understanding the purposes of Egyptian art has often led it to be compared unfavorably with the art of other cultures: Why did the Egyptians not develop sculpture in which the body turned and twisted through space like classical Greek statuary?

10 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: According to paragraph 2, all of the following are reasons why Americans migrated westward EXCEPT the desire to move from one place to the next the hope of improving their socioeconomic status the opportunity to change jobs the need to escape religious or political crises

11 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 2: Why were these hundreds of thousands of settlers—most of them farmers, some of them artisans—drawn away from the cleared fields and established cities and villages of the East? Certain characteristics of American society help to explain this remarkable migration. The European ancestors of some Americans had for centuries lived rooted to the same village or piece of land until some religious, political, or economic crisis uprooted them and drove them across the Atlantic. Many of those who experienced this sharp break thereafter lacked the ties that had bound them and their ancestors to a single place. Moreover, European society was relatively stratified; occupation and social status were inherited. In American society, however, the class structure was less rigid; some people changed occupations easily and believed it was their duty to improve their social and economic position. As a result, many Americans were an inveterately restless, rootless, and ambitious people. Therefore, these social traits helped to produce the nomadic and daring settlers who kept pushing westward beyond the fringes of settlement. In addition, there were other immigrants who migrated west in search of new homes, material success, and better lives.

12 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: The European ancestors of some Americans had for centuries lived rooted to the same village or piece of land until some religious, political, or economic crisis uprooted them and drove them across the Atlantic. D 选项: the need to escape religious or political crises

13 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: In American society, however, the class structure was less rigid; some people changed occupations easily and believed it was their duty to improve their social and economic position. As a result, many Americans were an inveterately restless, rootless, and ambitious people. the desire to move from one place to the next the hope of improving their socioeconomic status the opportunity to change jobs

14 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: According to paragraph 6, each of the following methods has been used in attempts to control Spanina EXCEPT flooding plants cutting plants down repeatedly applying herbicides introducing predatory insects

15 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 6: Efforts to control Spartina outside its natural environment have included burning, flooding, shading plants with black canvas or plastic, smothering the plants with dredged materials or clay, applying herbicide, and mowing repeatedly. Little success has been reported in New Zealand and England; Washington State’s management program has tried many of these methods and is presently using the herbicide glyphosphate to control its spread. Work has begun to determine the feasibility of using insects as biological controls, but effective biological controls are considered years away. Even with a massive effort, it is doubtful that complete eradication of Spartina from nonnative habitats is possible, for it has become an integral part of these shorelines and estuaries during the last 100 to 200 years. 1.flooding plants ; 2.cutting plants down repeatedly ; 3.applying herbicides ; 4.introducing predatory insects

16 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: According to paragraph 6, each of the following methods has been used in attempts to control Spanina EXCEPT flooding plants cutting plants down repeatedly applying herbicides introducing predatory insects

17 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Efforts to control Spartina outside its natural environment have included burning, flooding, shading plants with black canvas or plastic, smothering the plants with dredged materials or clay, applying herbicide, and mowing repeatedly Work has begun to determine the feasibility of using insects as biological controls, but effective biological controls are considered years away.

18 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 细节类题目的一般解题步骤 3. 转移 有代词或表承接上文的连接词 读一句,对一下选项

19 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: According to paragraph 3, scholars explained chips in the painted figures of animals by proposing that ○ Upper Paleolithic artists used marks to record the animals they had seen ○ the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals for hunting ○ the artists had removed rough spots on the cave walls ○ Upper Paleolithic people used the paintings to increase their luck at hunting

20 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 3: The subjects of the paintings are mostly animals. The paintings rest on bare walls, with no backdrops or environmental trappings. Perhaps, like many contemporary peoples, Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury, and if that were indeed their belief, it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art. Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. This theory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings. But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared. Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing.

21 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: According to paragraph 2, why are Egyptian statues portrayed frontality? ○ To create a psychological effect of distance and isolation ○ To allow them to fulfill their important role in ceremonies of Egyptian life ○ To provide a contrast to statues with a decorative function ○ To suggest the rigid, unchanging Egyptian philosophical attitudes

22 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 2: The majority of three-dimensional representations, whether standing, seated, or kneeling, exhibit what is called frontality: they face straight ahead, neither twisting nor turning. When such statues are viewed in isolation, out of their original context and without knowledge of their function, it is easy to criticize them for their rigid attitudes that remained unchanged for three thousand years. Frontality is, however, directly related to the functions of Egyptian statuary and the contexts in which the statues were set up. Statues were created not for their decorative effect but to play a primary role in the cults of the gods, the king, and the dead.

23 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 句子简化题 Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. 理解句意 + 抓取主干

24 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 错误选项特征 1. 出现原句未提及的信息,或与原句信息相反; 2. 逻辑颠倒:因果倒置、让步转折倒置 3. 只包含次要信息

25 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 错误一 The amount of air exchanged is even lower in REM than NREM because, although breathing is more rapid in REM, it is also more irregular, with brief episodes of shallow breathing or absence of breathing. A. Because breathing is more shallow and irregular in REM than in NREM, less air is exchanged in REM B. Breathing in NREM is less effective than breathing in REM because of irregular episodes of rapid breathing during NREM. C. Because breathing is more rapid in NREM sleep than in REM sleep, breathing often becomes shallow.

26 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 错误二 Estimates indicate that the aquifer contains enough water to fill Lake Huron, but unfortunately, under the semiarid climatic conditions that presently exist in the region, rates of addition to the aquifer are minimal, amounting to about half a centimeter a year. ○ Despite the current impressive size of the Ogallala aquifer, the region’s climate keeps the rates of water addition very small. ○ Although the aquifer has been adding water at the rate of only half a centimeter a year, it will eventually accumulate enough water of fill Lake Huron.

27 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 错误三 It is significant that the earliest living things that built communities on these islands are examples of symbiosis, a phenomenon that depends upon the close cooperation of two or more forms of life and a principle that is very important in island communities. ○ Symbiosis-the close cooperation of pairs or small groups of living organisms-is especially important in these island environments. ○ The first organisms on these islands worked together closely in a relationship known as symbiosis, which is particularly important on islands.

28 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 特别注意! 原句: Some scholars expand on this idea by emphasizing a corresponding need for arable land to feed growing numbers of people: construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces, and field houses indicates that farmers were intensifying their efforts during the 1200s. As densities increased, domestic architecture became larger, culminating in crowded pueblos.

29 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: A. Some scholars even claim that the intensification of farmers' various efforts during the 1200s led to further population growth and the consequent need for more arable land B. Evidence of intensifying agriculture in the 1200s indicates a need to feed a larger population and so extends the argument that a growing population was the cause of the move to pueblos C. During the 1200s, farmers met the demand for more arable land, but they also succeeded in cultivating existing land more intensively with the help of agricultural construction projects D. Some scholars feel strongly that the construction of small dams, reservoirs, terraces and field houses in the thirteenth century is independent evidence for growth in the number of people.

30 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 插入句子题 解题步骤 1. 精确的理解待插入的句子 2. 根据指示词推断句子前后可能出现的信息 3. 逐个位置对应推断 4. 验证答案

31 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 插入后请注意 1. 插入位置后面是否能够承接 2. 插入位置后面的代词是否改变指代对象

32 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 2: Continued sedimentation—the process of deposits’ settling on the sea bottom—buries the organic matter and subjects it to higher temperatures and pressures, which convert the organic matter to oil and gas. █ As muddy sediments are pressed together, the gas and small droplets of oil may be squeezed out of the mud and may move into sandy layers nearby. █ Over long periods of time (millions of years), accumulations of gas and oil can collect in the sandy layers. █ Both oil and gas are less dense than water, so they generally tend to rise upward through water-saturated rock and sediment. █ Unless something acts to halt this migration, these natural resources will eventually reach the surface.

33 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 1: It has long been accepted that the Americas were colonized by a migration of peoples from Asia, slowly traveling across a land bridge called Beringia (now the Bering Strait between northeastern Asia and Alaska) during the last Ice Age. ■ The first water craft theory about the migration was that around 11,000-12,000 years ago there was an ice-free corridor stretching from eastern Beringia to the areas of North America south of the great northern glaciers. It was the midcontinental corridor between two massive ice sheets-the Laurentide to the west-that enabled the southward migration. ■ But belief in this ice-free corridor began to crumble when paleoecologist Glen MacDonald demonstrated that some of the most important radiocarbon dates used to support the existence of an ice-free corridor were incorrect. ■ He persuasively argued that such an ice-free corridor did not exist until much later, when the continental ice began its final retreat. ■ Moreover, other evidence suggests that even if an ice-free corridor did exist, it would have lacked the resources needed for human colonization.

34 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 5: Above the tree line there is a zone that is generally called alpine tundra. █ Immediately adjacent to the timberline, the tundra consists of a fairly complete cover of low-lying shrubs, herbs, and grasses, while higher up the number and diversity of species decrease until there is much bare ground with occasional mosses and lichens and some prostrate cushion plants. █ Some plants can even survive in favorable microhabitats above the snow line. The highest plants in the world occur at around 6,100 meters on Makalu in the Himalayas. █ At this great height, rocks, warmed by the sun, melt small snowdrifts. █ This explains how, for example, alpine cushion plants have been found growing at an altitude of 6,180 meters.

35 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Paragraph 3: █ Watt‘s steam engine soon showed what it could do. █ It liberated industry from dependence on running water. █ The engine eliminated water in the mines by driving efficient pumps, which made possible deeper and deeper mining. █ The ready availability of coal inspired William Murdoch during the 1790s to develop the first new form of nighttime illumination to be discovered in a millennium and a half. The factories did not have to go to the streams when power could come to the factories .

36 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 修辞目的题 1. 不一定是例子 2. 观点位置不一定在前面 3. 选择与原文为同意替换的选项

37 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 注意一 例题: Why does the author use the phrase Note the word "net" in the passage? ○ To emphasize the impact of seepage on water levels ○ To point out that seepage is calculated differently from river flows and atmospheric exchanges ○ To compare the different methods of calculating seepage ○ To emphasize the difficulty of obtaining specific values for seepage inputs and outputs

38 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Note the word "net": measuring the actual amounts of groundwater seepage into the lake and out of the lake is a much more complicated matter than merely inferring their difference. To emphasize the difficulty of obtaining specific values for seepage inputs and outputs

39 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: In paragraph1, why does the author mention “the pressure of the overlying rock”? To show how water can be forced deep under Earth’s surface To show why groundwater is more plentiful than surface freshwater To correct a commonly made error about the location of groundwater To explain why most groundwater lies near Earth’s surface

40 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: There is more than 50 times as much freshwater stored underground than in all the freshwater rivers and lakes of Earth. At greater depths within Earth, the pressure of the overlying rock causes pores and cracks to close, reducing the space that water can occupy, and almost complete closure occurs at a depth of about 10 kilometers. The greatest water storage, therefore, lies near the surface.

41 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 关键就是替换! 例题: In paragraph 2, what is the author’s purpose in presenting the information about the decision by Meyer and Mendeleyev to leave gaps in the periodic table? ○ To illustrate their confidence that the organizing principles of the periodic table would govern the occurrence of all chemical elements ○ To indicate that some of their analyses of periodic physical and chemical properties were later found to be wrong ○ To support the idea that they were unwilling to place new elements in the periodic table ○ To indicate how they handled their disagreement about where to place new elements

42 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: When the German chemist Lothar Meyer and (independently) the Russian Dmitry Mendeleyev first introduced the periodic table in , one-third of the naturally occurring chemical elements had not yet been discovered. Yet both chemists were sufficiently farsighted to leave gaps where their analyses of periodic physical and chemical properties indicated that new elements should be located. Mendeleyev was bolder than Meyer and even assumed that if a measured atomic mass put an element in the wrong place in the table, the atomic mass was wrong.

43 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 例题: In paragraph 2, what is the author’s purpose in presenting the information about the decision by Meyer and Mendeleyev to leave gaps in the periodic table? ○ To illustrate their confidence that the organizing principles of the periodic table would govern the occurrence of all chemical elements ○ To indicate that some of their analyses of periodic physical and chemical properties were later found to be wrong ○ To support the idea that they were unwilling to place new elements in the periodic table ○ To indicate how they handled their disagreement about where to place new elements

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45 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 阅读机经串讲 地理地质学 植物学 动物学 考古学 历史学

46 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 板块漂移 TPO27 plate tectonics 和 continental drift plate——mantle 地幔( crust 地壳、 earth core 地核) semiliquid 用 Hawaii 推测出地壳移动 侵蚀 erosion 、 erode

47 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 地下水 groundwater ( TPO1&TPO28 ) 量非常巨大,可再生 renewable aquifer 蓄水层( reservoir ): fossil aquifer 、 not recharge porosity 多孔性、 porous 多孔的 —— 储水的能力 permeability 渗透性、 permeable 可渗透的 —— 水流动的能力 water table 地下水位:随 annual rainfall 而改变, spring vadose zone 渗流区:主要为植物根系供水的区域

48 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 夏威夷的植物 TPO9 lichen : symbiosis 、 fungus ( fungi ) +alga ( algae )、 spore fern + moss : spore seed-bearing plant 种子植物: angiosperm 被子植物、 seed 、 blooming plant 开花植物 共性:通过风传播 spore 或 seed deciduous plant 、 herb 、 shrub

49 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 生态学和生态系统 TPO3&TPO19 生态学 ecology 、生态系统 ecosystem 物种 species 演替 succession :演替是指一个群落( community ) 被另一个群落所替代的现象 community 群落 —— 动植物;社区 —— 人 climax community ; pioneer community

50 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 生物多样性和生态系统 diversity 多样性; stability 稳定性, stable ; resistant to change ( lack of change ) resilience 恢复力、 resilient

51 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 动物的叫声 TPO11&TPO28 鸟类: swallow 、 robin 、 warbler 、 starling signal=communicate begging 、 call 、 cheep 、 peep

52 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 动物的叫声 优点: 1. 小鸟( nestling 、 hatchling 、 youngster )用以吸引 parent 、 parent 依靠叫声强度决定 喂食、越 vigorously 越喂食 2. 吸引异性: induce and synchronize fertility in female 3. 表明身份与划分领地: provide information on the individual identity of animal 缺点: 吸引 predator ( haw 、 raccoon )

53 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 体温的保持 TPO15 温血动物 warm blooded 冷血动物 cold blooded reptile 爬行动物 amphibian 两栖动物 mammal 哺乳动物 冬眠 hibernate

54 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 化石的保存 TPO20 vertebrate 脊椎动物、 invertebrate 无脊椎动物 脊椎 back bone 、 spine 灭绝 extinction 、 extermination 影响因素: scavenger 食腐动物、 bacteria 细菌、 decay 腐烂、 erosion 侵蚀、 oxygen 氧气 skeleton : calcium carbonate 、 aragonite (不稳定的石头)和 calcite (非常 稳定的石头)、 silica 二氧化硅 permineralization 矿化、 petrifaction 石化、 carbonization 碳化

55 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 农业 TPO7&TPO14&TPO21&TPO23 origin of agriculture nomadism 游牧、 pastoralism 田园畜牧、 horticulture 种植 发展过程: hunting&gathering 打猎和采集 ——nomad 游牧 —— pastoralism 田园畜牧 ——agriculture 农业( horticulture ) 发展到农业的劣势: methods of storage and irrigation ; sedentary ; worse state of health 原因:人口增长 population growth ;气候变化 climatic change pueblo 小村庄

56 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 农业 农业的发展 more land into cultivation ( reclamation ) facilitate rural industry ( wool & textile )

57 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: Industrial Revolution TPO6&TPO8 类似于城市经济的发展 population growth ; labor higher literacy location on a natural trade route& access to the sea political institution ( liberal trade policy ) steam engine ; cost ; transportation ; efficiency railway

58 小马公开课 小马公开课网址: 欢迎访问公开课网站,收看课程视频 公开课网站: bbs.xiaoma.com/gkk

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