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小马托福 010- 62699622 2014 YY 托福阅读题型串讲 陈亦柔

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Presentation on theme: "小马托福 010- 62699622 2014 YY 托福阅读题型串讲 陈亦柔"— Presentation transcript:

1 小马托福 010- 62699622 2014 YY 托福阅读题型串讲 陈亦柔 chenyirou@xiaoma.com

2 小马托福 010- 62699622 编辑信息 “ 课程 + 分数( 5,4,3,2,1 ,最高分 5 分,最低分 1 分) ” (例如:听力 +5 )发送至 “ 小马公开课 ” 微信,为老师打分,将有机会获得小马过河送出 的精美礼品一份。 小马公开课: http://bbs.xiaoma.com/plugin.php?id=active:index

3 小马托福 010- 62699622 课程安排 TPO 31-3 讲解  句子简化题  句子插入题

4 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q1. The word "prolonged" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. predictable B. destructive C. lengthy D. Unproductive

5 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 修辞目的题 Q2. In paragraph 2, the author mentions savannas in Central America, Brazil, and the island of Trinidad in order to A. argue that these savannas are similar to those in South America and Cuba B. point out exceptions to the pattern of savanna formation in areas with drought stress C. provide additional examples of savannas in areas with five- to eight-month wet seasons D. indicate areas where savannas are being gradually replaced by rain forests

6 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation P2: Savannas typically experience a rather prolonged dry season. One theory behind savanna formation is that wet forest species are unable to withstand the dry season, and thus savanna, rather than rain forest, is favored on the site. Savannas experience an annual rainfall of between 1000 and 2000 millimeters, most of it falling in a five-to-eight month wet season. Though plenty of rain may fall on a savanna during the year, for at least part of the year little does, creating the drought stress ultimately favoring grasses. Such conditions prevail throughout much of northern South America and Cuba, but many Central American savannas as well as coastal areas of Brazil and the island of Trinidad do not fit this pattern. In these areas, rainfall per month exceeds that in the above definition, so other factors must contribute to savanna formation.

7 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 修辞目的题 Q2. In paragraph 2, the author mentions savannas in Central America, Brazil, and the island of Trinidad in order to A. argue that these savannas are similar to those in South America and Cuba B. point out exceptions to the pattern of savanna formation in areas with drought stress C. provide additional examples of savannas in areas with five- to eight-month wet seasons D. indicate areas where savannas are being gradually replaced by rain forests

8 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q3. According to paragraph 3, rain forests and savannas differ in that A. the soils in rain forests contain fewer minerals than savanna soils do B. savannas affect soil conditions more than rain forests do C. unlike rain forests, savannas prefer sandy, well-drained soils to soils that are very wet D. unlike rain forests, savannas may develop under both very dry and very wet soil conditions

9 小马托福 010- 62699622 Q3 P3: In many characteristics, savanna soils are similar to those of some rain forests, though more extreme. For example, savanna soils, like many rain forest soils, are typically oxisols (dominated by certain oxide minerals) and ultisols (soils containing no calcium carbonate),with a high acidity notably low concentrations of such minerals as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, while aluminum levels are high. Some savannas occur on wet, waterlogged soils; other dry, sandy, well- drained soils. This many seem contradictory,but it only means that extreme soil conditions, either too wet or too dry for forests, are satisfactory for savannas. More moderate conditions support moist forests.

10 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q3. According to paragraph 3, rain forests and savannas differ in that A. the soils in rain forests contain fewer minerals than savanna soils do B. savannas affect soil conditions more than rain forests do C. unlike rain forests, savannas prefer sandy, well-drained soils to soils that are very wet D. unlike rain forests, savannas may develop under both very dry and very wet soil conditions

11 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q4.. The word "notably" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. similarly B. especially C. usually D. Relatively

12 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q4.. The word "notably" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. similarly B. especially C. usually D. Relatively

13 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 否定事实信息题 Q5 According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of savanna soils EXCEPT A. They have high concentrations of potassium. B. They contain high levels of aluminum. C. They are very acidic. D. They contain large amounts of certain oxide minerals.

14 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation P3: In many characteristics, savanna soils are similar to those of some rain forests, though more extreme. For example, savanna soils, like many rain forest soils, are typically oxisols (dominated by certain oxide minerals) and ultisols (soils containing no calcium carbonate), with a high acidity notably low concentrations of such minerals as phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and potassium, while aluminum levels are high. Some savannas occur on wet, waterlogged soils; other dry, sandy, well-drained soils. This many seem contradictory, but it only means that extreme soil conditions, either too wet or too dry for forests, are satisfactory for savannas. More moderate conditions support moist forests. A. They have high concentrations of potassium. B. They contain high levels of aluminum. C. They are very acidic. D. They contain large amounts of certain oxide minerals.

15 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 否定事实信息题 Q5 According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of savanna soils EXCEPT A. They have high concentrations of potassium. B. They contain high levels of aluminum. C. They are very acidic. D. They contain large amounts of certain oxide minerals.

16 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q6. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true of waterlogged soils? A. Their upper layers are usually sandy and porous. B. They cannot support savannas. C. They contain little oxygen. D. They are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals.

17 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation P4: Waterlogged soils occur in areas that are flat or have poor drainage. These soils usually contain large amounts of clay and easily become water-saturated. Air cannot penetrate between the soil particles, making the soil oxygen-poor. By contrast, dry soils are sandy and porous, their coarse textures permitting water to drain rapidly. Sandy soils are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals and so tend to be nutritionally poor. Though most savannas are found on sites with poor soils (because of either moisture conditions or nutrient levels of both), poor soils can and do support lush rain forest. A. Their upper layers are usually sandy and porous. B. They cannot support savannas. C. They contain little oxygen. D. They are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals.

18 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q6. According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true of waterlogged soils? A. Their upper layers are usually sandy and porous. B. They cannot support savannas. C. They contain little oxygen. D. They are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals.

19 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q7. The fact that "poor soils can and do support lush rain forest" suggests that A. poor soils alone may not be enough to explain why an area becomes a savanna B. rain forest vegetation can significantly lower the quality of soils C. drought stress is the single most important factor in savanna formation D. minerals are more important than moisture for the growth of trees

20 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation Paragraph 4: Waterlogged soils occur in areas that are flat or have poor drainage. These soils usually contain large amounts of clay and easily become water-saturated. Air cannot penetrate between the soil particles, making the soil oxygen-poor. By contrast, dry soils are sandy and porous, their coarse textures permitting water to drain rapidly. Sandy soils are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals and so tend to be nutritionally poor. Though most savannas are found on sites with poor soils (because of either moisture conditions or nutrient levels of both), poor soils can and do support lush rain forest. A. poor soils alone may not be enough to explain why an area becomes a savanna B. rain forest vegetation can significantly lower the quality of soils C. drought stress is the single most important factor in savanna formation D. minerals are more important than moisture for the growth of trees

21 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 细节题 Q7. The fact that "poor soils can and do support lush rain forest" suggests that A. poor soils alone may not be enough to explain why an area becomes a savanna B. rain forest vegetation can significantly lower the quality of soils C. drought stress is the single most important factor in savanna formation D. minerals are more important than moisture for the growth of trees

22 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essen tial information 主要信息主要逻辑 + 主要语义 去修饰成分

23 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 句子简化题 Q8 Frequent fire is a factor to which rain forest species seem unable to adapt, although ancient charcoal remains from Amazon forest soils dating prior to the arrival of humans suggest that moist forests also occasionally burn. A. Rain forest species seem unable to adapt to fires created by humans. B. Ancient charcoal remains suggest that, prior to the arrival of humans, fires occurred frequently in rain forests. C. Ancient charcoal remains in Amazon forests suggest that rain forest species adapted to the area long before the arrival of humans. D. Rain forest species appear unable to adapt to frequent fires, but evidence from the past suggests that rain forests sometimes do burn.

24 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 句子简化题 Q8 Frequent fire is a factor to which rain forest species seem unable to adapt, although ancient charcoal remains from Amazon forest soils dating prior to the arrival of humans suggest that moist forests also occasionally burn. A. Rain forest species seem unable to adapt to fires created by humans. B. Ancient charcoal remains suggest that, prior to the arrival of humans, fires occurred frequently in rain forests. C. Ancient charcoal remains in Amazon forests suggest that rain forest species adapted to the area long before the arrival of humans. D. Rain forest species appear unable to adapt to frequent fires, but evidence from the past suggests that rain forests sometimes do burn.

25 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 1 TPO 6-3-11 Physiological immaturity may be part of why infants and toddlers do not form extremely enduring memories, even when they hear stories that promote such remembering in preschoolers. 主要逻辑:因果 原因: Physiological immaturity 结果: infants and toddlers do not form extremely enduring memories 主要语义: 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

26 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 1 TPO 6-3-11 Physiological immaturity may be part of why infants and toddlers do not form extremely enduring memories, even when they hear stories that promote such remembering in preschoolers. A. Incomplete physiological development may partly explain why hearing stories does not improve long-term memory in infants and toddlers. B. One reason why preschoolers fail to comprehend the stories they hear is that they are physiologically immature. C. Given the chance to hear stories, infants and toddlers may form enduring memories despite physiological immaturity. D. Physiologically mature children seem to have no difficulty remembering stories they heard as preschoolers. 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

27 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 1 TPO 6-3-11 Physiological immaturity may be part of why infants and toddlers do not form extremely enduring memories, even when they hear stories that promote such remembering in preschoolers. A. Incomplete physiological development may partly explain why hearing stories does not improve long-term memory in infants and toddlers. B. One reason why preschoolers fail to comprehend the stories they hear is that they are physiologically immature. C. Given the chance to hear stories, infants and toddlers may form enduring memories despite physiological immaturity. D. Physiologically mature children seem to have no difficulty remembering stories they heard as preschoolers. 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

28 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 2 The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. A. While stonewares and porcelains are found throughout most historical periods, religious sculpture is limited to the ancient period. B. Religious sculpture was created in most periods, but its history is less clear than that of stonewares or porcelains because some old forms continued to be used even when new ones were developed. C. While stonewares and porcelains changed throughout history, religious sculpture remained uniform in form and use. D. The historical development of religious sculpture is relatively unclear because religious sculptures sometimes resemble earthenware architectural ornaments. 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

29 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 2 The tradition of religious sculpture extends over most historical periods but is less clearly delineated than that of stonewares or porcelains, for it embraces the old custom of earthenware burial ceramics with later religious images and architectural ornament. A. While stonewares and porcelains are found throughout most historical periods, religious sculpture is limited to the ancient period. B. Religious sculpture was created in most periods, but its history is less clear than that of stonewares or porcelains because some old forms continued to be used even when new ones were developed. C. While stonewares and porcelains changed throughout history, religious sculpture remained uniform in form and use. D. The historical development of religious sculpture is relatively unclear because religious sculptures sometimes resemble earthenware architectural ornaments. 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

30 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 3 The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing. A. Even though Ambulocetus swam by moving its body up and down, it did not have a backbone. B. The backbone of Ambulocetus, which allowed it to swim, provides evidence of its missing fluke. C. Although Ambulocetus had no fluke, its backbone structure shows that it swam like modern whales. D. By moving the rear parts of their bodies up and down, modern whales swim in a different way from the way Ambulocetus swam. 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

31 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 3 The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing. A. Even though Ambulocetus swam by moving its body up and down, it did not have a backbone. B. The backbone of Ambulocetus, which allowed it to swim, provides evidence of its missing fluke. C. Although Ambulocetus had no fluke, its backbone structure shows that it swam like modern whales. D. By moving the rear parts of their bodies up and down, modern whales swim in a different way from the way Ambulocetus swam. 主要逻辑 + 主要语义

32 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 4 In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive. A. Arthur Einarsen ’ s longtime family with the Pacific Northwest helped him discover areas where deer had an increase in suitable browse. B. Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food. C. Biologist like Einarsen believe it is important to find additional open areas with suitable browse for deer to inhabit. D. According to Einarsen, huckleberry and vine maple are examples of vegetation that may someday improve the nutrition of deer in the open areas of the Pacific Northwest. 主要语义:去掉次要成分

33 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 4 In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive. 主要语义:去掉次要成分 A. Arthur Einarsen ’ s longtime family with the Pacific Northwest helped him discover areas where deer had an increase in suitable browse. B. Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food. C. Biologist like Einarsen believe it is important to find additional open areas with suitable browse for deer to inhabit. D. According to Einarsen, huckleberry and vine maple are examples of vegetation that may someday improve the nutrition of deer in the open areas of the Pacific Northwest.

34 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 5 This scenario begins with the planting of hyper accumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. 主要语义:去掉次要成分 A. Before considering phytoremediation, hyper accumulating species of plants local to the target area must be identified. B. The investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites in the target area to determine the extent of contamination. C. The first step in phytoremediation is the planting of hyper accumulating plants in the area to be cleaned up. D. Mines and irrigation ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by planting hyper accumulating species in targeted areas. phytoremediation

35 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子简化题 5 This scenario begins with the planting of hyper accumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. 主要语义:去掉次要成分 A. Before considering phytoremediation, hyper accumulating species of plants local to the target area must be identified. B. The investigation begins with an evaluation of toxic sites in the target area to determine the extent of contamination. C. The first step in phytoremediation is the planting of hyper accumulating plants in the area to be cleaned up. D. Mines and irrigation ponds can be kept from becoming contaminated by planting hyper accumulating species in targeted areas.

36 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q9. The word "markedly" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. dangerously B. noticeably C. rapidly D. Gradually

37 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q9. The word "markedly" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. dangerously B. noticeably C. rapidly D. Gradually

38 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q10.Paragraph 5 supports which of the following statements regarding the importance of fires in maintaining savannas? A. Fires prevent the growth of pyrophytes. B. Fires eliminate some species and thus reduce the overall diversity of the ecosystem. C. Fires that occur once every two years are unlikely to help maintain savannas. D. Fires prevent some species from eliminating other species with which they compete.

39 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation P5: Most savannas probably experience mild fires frequently and major burns every two years or so. Many savanna and dry-forest plant species are called pyrophytes, meaning they are adapted in various ways to withstand occasional burning. Frequent fire is a factor to which rain forest species seem unable to adapt, although ancient charcoal remains from Amazon forest soils dating prior to the arrival of humans suggest that moist forests also occasionally burn. Experiments suggest that if fire did not occur in savannas in the Americas, species composition would change significantly. When burning occurs, it prevents competition among plant species from progressing to the point where somespecies exclude others, reducing the overall diversity of the ecosystem. But in experimental areas protected from fire, a few perennial grass species eventually come to dominate, outcompeting all others. ■ Evidence from other studies suggests that exclusion of fire results in markedly decreased plant-species richness, often with an increase in tree density. ■ There is generally little doubt that fire is a significant factor in maintaining savanna, certainly in most regions.

40 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 事实信息题 Q10.Paragraph 5 supports which of the following statements regarding the importance of fires in maintaining savannas? A. Fires prevent the growth of pyrophytes. B. Fires eliminate some species and thus reduce the overall diversity of the ecosystem. C. Fires that occur once every two years are unlikely to help maintain savannas. D. Fires prevent some species from eliminating other species with which they compete.

41 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q11. The word "subsequent" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. expanded in area B. harmful C. following in time D. Repeated sub: 在... 下面 + sequent :顺序,序列

42 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 词汇题 Q11. The word "subsequent" in the passage is closest in meaning to A. expanded in area B. harmful C. following in time D. Repeated

43 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 否定事实信息题 Q12 . According to paragraph 6, human activity affects soils in all of the following ways EXCEPT: A. Decomposition of leaves occurs too fast for surface roots to obtain nutrients. B. Nutrients are not recycled. C. Humus is destroyed. D. Certain soils become unable to support vegetation other than savanna vegetation.

44 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation P6: ■ On certain sites, particularly in South America, savanna formation seems related to frequent cutting and burning of moist forests for pastureland. ■ Increase in pastureland and subsequent overgrazing have resulted in an expansion of savanna. The thin upper layer of humus (decayed organic matter) is destroyed by cutting and burning. Humus is necessary for rapid decomposition of leaves by bacteria and fungi and for recycling by surface roots. Once the humus layer disappears, nutrients cannot be recycled and leach from the soil, converting soil from fertile to infertile and making it suitable only for savanna vegetation. Forests on white, sandy soil are most susceptible to permanent alteration. A. Decomposition of leaves occurs too fast for surface roots to obtain nutrients. B. Nutrients are not recycled. C. Humus is destroyed. D. Certain soils become unable to support vegetation other than savanna vegetation.

45 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 否定事实信息题 Q12 . According to paragraph 6, human activity affects soils in all of the following ways EXCEPT: A. Decomposition of leaves occurs too fast for surface roots to obtain nutrients. B. Nutrients are not recycled. C. Humus is destroyed. D. Certain soils become unable to support vegetation other than savanna vegetation.

46 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation 句子插入题 Q13 Look at the four squares 【 ■ 】 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. In addition, humans have contributed to the conditions favoring the formation of savannas.

47 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation When burning occurs, it prevents competition among plant species from progressing to the point where somespecies exclude others, reducing the overall diversity of the ecosystem. But in experimental areas protected from fire, a few perennial grass species eventually come to dominate, outcompeting all others. ■ Evidence from other studies suggests that exclusion of fire results in markedly decreased plant-species richness, often with an increase in tree density. ■ There is generally little doubt that fire is a significant factor in maintaining savanna, certainly in most regions. P6: ■ On certain sites, particularly in South America, savanna formation seems related to frequent cutting and burning of moist forests for pastureland. ■ Increase in pastureland and subsequent overgrazing have resulted in an expansion of savanna. The thin upper layer of humus (decayed organic matter) is destroyed by cutting and burning. Humus is necessary for rapid decomposition of leaves by bacteria and fungi and for recycling by surface roots. Once the humus layer disappears, nutrients cannot be recycled and leach from the soil, converting soil from fertile to infertile and making it suitable only for savanna vegetation. Forests on white, sandy soil are most susceptible to permanent alteration. In addition, humans have contributed to the conditions favoring the formation of savannas.

48 小马托福 010- 62699622 Savanna Formation When burning occurs, it prevents competition among plant species from progressing to the point where somespecies exclude others, reducing the overall diversity of the ecosystem. But in experimental areas protected from fire, a few perennial grass species eventually come to dominate, outcompeting all others. ■ Evidence from other studies suggests that exclusion of fire results in markedly decreased plant-species richness, often with an increase in tree density. ■ There is generally little doubt that fire is a significant factor in maintaining savanna, certainly in most regions. P6: ■ On certain sites, particularly in South America, savanna formation seems related to frequent cutting and burning of moist forests for pastureland. ■ Increase in pastureland and subsequent overgrazing have resulted in an expansion of savanna. The thin upper layer of humus (decayed organic matter) is destroyed by cutting and burning. Humus is necessary for rapid decomposition of leaves by bacteria and fungi and for recycling by surface roots. Once the humus layer disappears, nutrients cannot be recycled and leach from the soil, converting soil from fertile to infertile and making it suitable only for savanna vegetation. Forests on white, sandy soil are most susceptible to permanent alteration. In addition, humans have contributed to the conditions favoring the formation of savannas.

49 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 核心词重复 指代关系 - this/these/he/they/there/such 逻辑关系 - therefore/thus/consequently/ but/however/even/another/ 观点与例子 - argument 在前, details 在

50 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 1 Paragraph 2: Nearly any kind of plant of the forest understory can be part of a deer's diet. Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. What keeps the black-tailed deer alive in the harsher seasons of plant decay and dormancy? One compensation for not hibernating is the built-in urge to migrate. █ Deer may move from high- elevation browse areas in summer down to the lowland areas in late fall. █ Even with snow on the ground, the high bushy understory is exposed; also snow and wind bring down leafy branches of cedar, hemlock, red alder, and other arboreal fodder. Paragraph 3: █ The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. █ The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River on November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstances. There food is available and accessible throughout the winter. 指代

51 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 1 Paragraph 2: Nearly any kind of plant of the forest understory can be part of a deer's diet. Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. What keeps the black-tailed deer alive in the harsher seasons of plant decay and dormancy? One compensation for not hibernating is the built-in urge to migrate. █ Deer may move from high- elevation browse areas in summer down to the lowland areas in late fall. █ Even with snow on the ground, the high bushy understory is exposed; also snow and wind bring down leafy branches of cedar, hemlock, red alder, and other arboreal fodder. Paragraph 3: █ The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. █ The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River on November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstances. There food is available and accessible throughout the winter. 指代

52 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 1 Paragraph 2: Nearly any kind of plant of the forest understory can be part of a deer's diet. Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. What keeps the black-tailed deer alive in the harsher seasons of plant decay and dormancy? One compensation for not hibernating is the built-in urge to migrate. █ Deer may move from high- elevation browse areas in summer down to the lowland areas in late fall. █ Even with snow on the ground, the high bushy understory is exposed; also snow and wind bring down leafy branches of cedar, hemlock, red alder, and other arboreal fodder. Paragraph 3: █ The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. █ The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River on November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstances. There food is available and accessible throughout the winter. 指代

53 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 2 Paragraph 5: Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent. █ By following the fossils, Smith was able to put all the strata of England's earth into relative temporal sequence. █ About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while studying the rocks around Paris. █ Soon it was realized that this principle of faunal (animal) succession was valid not only in England or France but virtually everywhere. █ It was actually a principle of floral succession as well, because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. The findings of these geologists inspired others to examine the rock and fossil records in different parts of the world . 指代

54 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 2 Paragraph 5: Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent. █ By following the fossils, Smith was able to put all the strata of England's earth into relative temporal sequence. █ About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while studying the rocks around Paris. █ Soon it was realized that this principle of faunal (animal) succession was valid not only in England or France but virtually everywhere. █ It was actually a principle of floral succession as well, because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. The findings of these geologists inspired others to examine the rock and fossil records in different parts of the world . 指代

55 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 2 Paragraph 5: Not only could Smith identify rock strata by the fossils they contained, he could also see a pattern emerging: certain fossils always appear in more ancient sediments, while others begin to be seen as the strata become more recent. █ By following the fossils, Smith was able to put all the strata of England's earth into relative temporal sequence. █ About the same time, Georges Cuvier made the same discovery while studying the rocks around Paris. █ Soon it was realized that this principle of faunal (animal) succession was valid not only in England or France but virtually everywhere. █ It was actually a principle of floral succession as well, because plants showed the same transformation through time as did fauna. The findingngs of these geologists inspired others to examine the rock and fossil records in different parts of the world . 指代

56 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 3 Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. ■ How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? ■ Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans. ■ Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. ■ In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale. The fossil was officially named Pakicetus in honor of the country where the discovery was made. Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old. The river that formed these deposits was actually not far from an ancient ocean known as the Tethys Sea. 12. This is a question that has puzzled scientists for ages. 指代

57 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 3 Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. ■ How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? ■ Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans. ■ Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. ■ In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale. The fossil was officially named Pakicetus in honor of the country where the discovery was made. Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old. The river that formed these deposits was actually not far from an ancient ocean known as the Tethys Sea. 12. This is a question that has puzzled scientists for ages. 指代

58 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 4 Paragraph 1: What do you remember about your life before you were three? █ Few people can remember anything that happened to them in their early years. █ Adults' memories of the next few years also tend to be scanty. █ Most people remember only a few events — usually ones that were meaningful and distinctive, such as being hospitalized or a sibling ’ s birth. █ 13.Other important occasions are school graduations and weddings. 语义逻辑

59 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 5 Another explanation for the focus on animals might be that these people sought to improve their luck at hunting. █ This theory is suggested by evidence of chips in the painted figures, perhaps made by spears thrown at the drawings. █ But if improving their hunting luck was the chief motivation for the paintings, it is difficult to explain why only a few show signs of having been speared. █ Perhaps the paintings were inspired by the need to increase the supply of animals. Cave art seems to have reached a peak toward the end of the Upper Paleolithic period, when the herds of game were decreasing. █ 13 . Therefore, if the paintings were connected with hunting, some other explanation is needed. 语义逻辑

60 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 6 Paragraph 6: █ Ecologists are especially interested to know what factors contribute to the resilience of communities because climax communities all over the world are being severely damaged or destroyed by human activities. █ The destruction caused by the volcanic explosion of Mount St. Helens, in the northwestern United States, for example, pales in comparison to the destruction caused by humans. █ We need to know what aspects of a community are most important to the community ’ s resistance to destruction, as well as its recovery. █ 13 . In fact, damage to the environment by humans is often much more severe than damage by natural events and processes. 语义逻辑 观点例子

61 小马托福 010- 62699622 句子插入题 6 Paragraph 6: █ Ecologists are especially interested to know what factors contribute to the resilience of communities because climax communities all over the world are being severely damaged or destroyed by human activities. █ The destruction caused by the volcanic explosion of Mount St. Helens, in the northwestern United States, for example, pales in comparison to the destruction caused by humans. █ We need to know what aspects of a community are most important to the community ’ s resistance to destruction, as well as its recovery. █ 13 . In fact, damage to the environment by humans is often much more severe than damage by natural events and processes. 语义逻辑 观点例子

62 小马托福 010- 62699622 编辑信息 “ 课程 + 分数( 5,4,3,2,1 ,最高分 5 分,最低分 1 分) ” (例如:听力 +5 )发送至 “ 小马公开课 ” 微信,为老师打分,将有机会获得小马过河送出 的精美礼品一份。 小马公开课: http://bbs.xiaoma.com/plugin.php?id=active:index


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