Presentation on theme: " Born in Mexico City Came to the United States at the age of nine Professor of Sociology and Ethnic Studies Research reflects research strategy."— Presentation transcript:
Born in Mexico City Came to the United States at the age of nine Professor of Sociology and Ethnic Studies Research reflects research strategy that seeks to introduce Latino Critical Theory to Critical Race Theory. Author of “Hombres Y Machos”
From the Description “…providing an integrated view of Latino men, masculinity, and fatherhood-in the process refuting many common myths and misconceptions. Examining how Latino men view themselves [he] argues that prevailing conceptions of men, masculinity, and gender are inadequate because they are based not on universal norms but on limited and culturally specific conceptions.”
Grew up in Tenochtitlan (Mexico City & Capital of Aztec Empire) After his parent’s divorce, he went to live with his dad and grandmother in Tacubaya, near Chapultepec He and his brother would go to the Castle of Chapultepec
Castillo de Chapultepec Los Niños Héroes -US Invasion of 1847-Military school boys defended the Castle -Rather than surrendering, died defending their country. One wearing flag.
1.Obsessive concern with manhood by Indian and Mestizo men as a result of the Spanish Conquest. Most negative view because it assumes that “Mexican Protest” is a result of feelings of powerless and weakness. 2.Emphasis on masculinity was a part of the Spanish society prior to the Conquest and it was imposed on the native population. 3.Masculine displays may have had pre-Colombian origins that predated the arrival of the Spaniards. (Aztecs divided into separate spheres). “Many societies build up an elusive or exclusionary image of manhood through cultural sanctions, rituals, or trials of skill and endurance” –Gilmore
Battle cry on Mexican Independence Day on September 16- all Mexicans are acknowledged as children of a single mythical mother. In The Labyrinth of Solitute Mexican philosopher Octavio Paz attributed feelings of inferiority to the conquest of Mexico which was a moral downfall as well as a military conquest. The problems were reflected through this phrase. La Chingada is a metaphorical mother who is symbolized by the native women that were raped by the conquistadores. She is passive and inert. Represented by La Malinche in folklore, who was given to Hernan Cortes as a slave and was labeled as a whore and traitor. This view holds that the “cult of machismo” developed an overly massive and aggressive response to compensate for feelings of weakness and powerlessness acquired during the conquest.
Samuel Ramos argued that hypermasculinity is a form of masculine protest which aims to mask feelings of inferiority. Argument does not suggest that they are inferior, they just feel that they are. Prototype of character is the pelado which means naked and connotes a lowly person. There exists a phallic obsession and attributes every type of power to the reproductive organ. The success of a man becomes attributed to his balls, despite lack of economic power and social status. “Yo soy tu padre” is used to assert power and dominance within a patriarchal society. Problem with theory: pelado is weak and cowardly. His aggressiveness and assertiveness are used to conceal feelings of insecurity. 1.Only applies to lower class We may not have art, but we have balls 2.Reveals a one dimensional character which refuses to acknowledge manifestations
A man who is a mueriego or womanizer is referred to as a conquistador, for symbolically “conquering” women. Machismo was associated with the sexual sphere during the colonial period and transferred to the political area once independence from Spain was attained. The Mexican Revolution in 1910 produced machismo and Pancho Villa became the epitome of Mexican Manliness. He was appealing because like the pelado he sympolized the lower class person standing against the dominant classes. He was brave, did not back down, and would not take from anyone. Invasion against the United States was celebrated not because of the outcome but because he had balls enough to take on the yanquis.
Sanchez Boys -Yelled things, trying to be intimidating. -Very poor -Chapulin stood on tracks -At tía’s house the boys threw a rock into the window, challenging his family to a fight -Father made brother Gordo go outside and fight the boy, urging him to confront his fears “Wanted us to face our fear directly and conquer it” & be “willing to defend the family honor.”
Miguel Grande Fausto Alfredo’s Father
Created by Sandra Bem “Measurement of the extent to which respondents sort self- relevant information into distinct masculine and feminine categories.” “Provides independent assessments of masculinity and femininity in terms of the respondent’s self- reported possession of socially desirable, stereotypically masculine and feminine personality traits”
Rate yourself on each item, on a scale from 1 (almost never true) to 7 (almost always true) -20 masculine characteristics -20 feminine characteristics -20 neutral characteristics Add up your rankings for masculine characteristics and feminine characteristics. Divide the total of each by Questions Bem Sex Role Inventory
1. self-reliant 2. yielding 3. helpful 4. defends own beliefs 5. cheerful 6. moody 7. independent 8. shy 9. conscientious 10. athletic 11. affectionate 12. theatrical 13. assertive 14. flatterable 15. happy 16. strong personality 17. loyal 18. unpredictable 19. forceful 20. feminine 21. reliable 22. analytical 23. sympathetic 24. jealous 25. has leadership abilities 26. sensitive to the needs of others 27. truthful 28. willing to take risks 29. understanding 30. secretive 31. makes decisions easily 32. compassionate 33. sincere 34. self-sufficient 35. eager to soothe hurt feelings 36. conceited 37. dominant 38. soft-spoken 39. likable 40. masculine 41. warm 42. solemn 43. willing to take a stand 44. tender 45. friendly 46. aggressive 47. gullible 48. inefficient 49. acts as a leader 50. childlike 51. adaptable 52. individualistic 53. does not use harsh language 54. unsystematic 55. competitive 56. loves children 57. tactful 58. ambitious 59. gentle 60. conventional
1. self-reliant 2. yielding 3. helpful 4. defends own beliefs 5. cheerful 6. moody 7. independent 8. shy 9. conscientious 10. athletic 11. affectionate 12. theatrical 13. assertive 14. flatterable 15. happy 16. strong personality 17. loyal 18. unpredictable 19. forceful 20. feminine 21. reliable 22. analytical 23. sympathetic 24. jealous 25. has leadership abilities 26. sensitive to the needs of others 27. truthful 28. willing to take risks 29. understanding 30. secretive 31. makes decisions easily 32. compassionate 33. sincere 34. self-sufficient 35. eager to soothe hurt feelings 36. conceited 37. dominant 38. soft-spoken 39. likable 40. masculine 41. warm 42. solemn 43. willing to take a stand 44. tender 45. friendly 46. aggressive 47. gullible 48. inefficient 49. acts as a leader 50. childlike 51. adaptable 52. individualistic 53. does not use harsh language 54. unsystematic 55. competitive 56. loves children 57. tactful 58. ambitious 59. gentle 60. conventional -The Bem Scale showcases masculinity and femininity as independent -in order to explore validity, Latino respondents were considered
Latino men found themselves to be self-reliant, self-sufficient, and willing to take a stand to defend their beliefs. They have masculine traits such as independence, assertiveness, and leadership abilities. Hypermasculine traits represented: self-reliant, self- sufficient, and forceful. They thought of themselves as loving children, being loyal, compassionate, sympathetic, and sensitive to the needs of others. Traits defined as “feminine” such as “affectionate, warm, sympathetic, tender, emotional, and sensitive are more acceptable to Latino men. More culturally acceptable for them to cry and be emotional. Loyalty highly valued.
Masculine and feminine traits such as the items on the Bem scale are culture specific. -example: loyalty Anglo: more limited;monogamy and sexual fidelity Latino: more expansive concept; ‘not sex-linked’ quality -presence of role reversals indicated the 3 rd factor of hypermasculinity Why is it more acceptable for Latino men than Anglo men to have traits in both spectrums? Negative items in factor 3 = ‘feminine’ qualities Factor 3= non-feminine dimension
From this study, Latino men most identified with the hypermasculine persona. Situational and need sociocutltural context ‘Una persona decente’ ‘bien educada’ Could be why Latinos are sterotypically more ‘family-oriented’, ‘loving’, and ‘sensitive’ to name a few. Loosely prescribed male role and focuses on the restrictions of the female role.
Taken from dichos, consejos, cuentos, and corridos. (Cultural “truths”, words of advice passed on from elders to youth, stories, and folk ballads) Representation of traditional Latino values regarding role of men and women. - El hombre debe tener los calzones en la familia The man should wear the pants in the family -La palabra de un hombre vale mas que nada A man’s word is his most important posession -Es preferible morir parado que vivir en rodillas It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees -El verdadero hombre tiene respeto y autoridad completa en la familia A real man has complete respect and authority in the family Also concerns marital fidelity and the role of the male in the family. -A man should always be faithful to her husband -Even if a man cannot provide for his family, he should still be the boss -A married woman should not dance with another man unless her husband gives his permission
7 items directly relate to women, 3 to men but indirectly to women Traditional values of women Honor, respect and be faithful to man Men holding privileged position in home
1)A Double Sexual Standard for Men and Women A woman should always be faithful to her husband It is natural for a man to fool around before and after marriage 2) The Idea that the Male is or Should be the Dominant Figure in the Home A woman should honor and obey her husband A real man has complete respect and authority in the family The father is the more influential parent A man’s home is his castle 3)The Importance of Maintaining Honor and Integrity in the family A man should be willing to take a stand or take risks for something that he believes in, even at the risk of losing his life. Once a man gives his word or agrees to something, he should not change his mind One of the worst things that a man can do is to disgrace or dishonor his family 4)Toughness and the Notion that Men Should be Tough and Not Cry or be Too Emotional A sign of a real man is the ability to withstand pain, hardship, or failure Little boys should be taught that men do not cry Men should never cry or show their feelings A father should not kiss or be too emotional with his sons
Machissmo component Rank 6 doesn’t fit Refine analysis further: New factor Takes into consideration male sensitivity Niether masculine nor feminine
Conventional conceptions don’t directly apply to non majorities Items are culture specific MSRI= more valid Hypothesis= middle and upper class men would be less traditional and more androgynous MSRI- higher education and higher income less traditional conceptions of gender role i.e. Rain God BSRI- higher education and higher income higher masculinity (factor 1) ---not as valid differences in people who took the test in English or another language English= more traditional values Vs. Another language= more diverse opinions of gender traits Causes of gender identification
Results of gender identification Surprising results MSRI- men who ranked high in traditionalism were more likely to help with chores than men who ranked higher on the sensitivity component BSRI- only correlation with marital happiness -men who scored high on the feminine factor tended to have happier marriages -scale of androgyny didn’t show significant results