Presentation on theme: "Tentative strategy and timeline for ‘best bet’ feed interventions: Some issues to prompt reflection and analysis Ben Lukuyu MilkIT co-ordination meeting."— Presentation transcript:
Tentative strategy and timeline for ‘best bet’ feed interventions: Some issues to prompt reflection and analysis Ben Lukuyu MilkIT co-ordination meeting in Morogoro January 22-24, 2014
What is the objective of interventions? To solve a problem – to find a solution to current a pressing problem in villages To adapt technologies to local conditions (villages) and to the farmers’ specific interests and preferences
Some issues to consider for the strategy outline Targeting interventions using TechFit tool Need information for the TechFit tool - Context scores for all villages Scores on severity of feed ( Is feed an issue?) in all villages Need to select interventions to test per village (1 or 2 ?) What type of intervention may be needed? Technological Training Institutional Need to develop a protocol (for technologies), a guide (for training) and outline ( institutional) interventions. Need for planning, implementation and management of the interventions
Developing a protocol for technological interventions (action research) How many experiments are farmers undertaking simultaneously at individual, family or community level? [keep these very simple] Define roles and responsibilities related to managing experiments divided according to gender ( where applicable) Hypotheses: Formulate research questions How many variable and treatments levels (design)
Developing a protocol …. Non- treatment or control (design) With what will farmers compare the new practice or technology with? Do we use ‘control plots’ or ‘control animals’? If not, how will they take external influences into account when interpreting results? Layout and timing Location of the trials in the farms or a field? How big are experimental plots/fields What type of forages or animals to use? What is the timing from beginning to the end of the trials?
Developing a protocol …. Data collection and monitoring Who will be responsible for overall monitoring and gathering of the information? How will farmers gather information during the trial? How will farmers keep track of what was done and what resulted? What will farmers and or researchers observe and measure? When and how will the observations be made? What units of measurements and type of records will be collected? Remember to record farmer perceptions, criteria of assessing experiments/technologies etc. Data analysis
Planning and management of interventions Decide on who (lead and collaborations); and how to introduce interventions (implement protocol)? Through platforms where they exists Were platforms don’t exist use groups – existing or formed?
Technological interventions Engage platforms or groups (where this has not been done) To discuss with farmers the protocol i.e. selected interventions, objectives and systematize ways of experimentation/ testing so that they appreciate the logic behind it To be able to deal with any contradictions between current farmer practice and experimental/intervention logic and designs [the ‘how’ and ‘why’] To be able to identify ‘local experimenters’ i.e. individual who are known in the community to develop or try out new ways of doing things [these can be key in driving interventions] It is important to keep eyes and ears open to related perceptions, norms/taboos and interests of farmers. Be sensitive to social economic, gender issues etc. Allow platforms/groups to select test/volunteer farms/sites themselves etc.
A training intervention Training needs assessment (Identify if not already done) Define basis for training ( e.g. pasture management) What are the aims of the training? Why is it needed? What target groups is the training intended? Farmers or extension staff (level of education) What resources are available? Training manuals, guides, leaflets, brochures etc. Who will contribute to the program? How will responsibilities be divided amongst all parties? What provisions are needed for organizational support and follow up.
A training intervention Define the type of training needed A lecturer series of one to two hours spread over time? Brief exposure/orientation training – participants are exposed to new methods/technologies. Could include time to practice Longer exposure/orientation of 2-5 days course – participants gain a good grasp of basic principles, methods and core concepts. Useful for ToTs. Field based training (periods may vary) – aim to expose participants to a range of methods and allow them to test and or evaluate them. Trips may fall here Training of trainers (ToTs) – for extension staff Develop A PLAN OF TRAINING ACTIVITIES
A plan of training activities on pasture management in Manyinga village TimingActivityTopicsComments March 2014 - Week 1 Pre- training workshop with extension staff – 8 extension staff Basic principles of pasture establishment and management Refresher course for extension staff March 2014 - Week 2 Introductory training – 25 farmers Causes of low milk productivity To appreciate the problem at hand March 2014 Week 3 Field assignments with farmers in their location Importance and simple methods of improved pastures Appreciate state of current pasture and learn about improved pastures. April 2014 Week 2 Second trainingSimple methods of pasture improvement Impacting new knowledge April 2014 Week 4 Field assignments with farmers in their location Practical application of the pasture improvement techniques Strengthening farmer experimentation
A training intervention Selecting and preparing participants and trainers Who will train extensions staff and farmers? Select and prepare trainers and resource persons Define selection criteria for farmers/extension staff Is there need for special attention for participation of female participants? Consider the motivation of participants Communicate with participants timely on their training needs and practical issues Prepare the LOGISTICS Venue facilities, transport, invitations, documentation, teaching materials/audio visuals, fieldwork etc. Evaluate the training workshop
Institutional/organizational interventions Institutional arrangements.... Institutions are commonly defined as the 'rules of the game', including norms, beliefs, values, habits and behaviour in any kind of social structure (Menard, 2000) Institutional arrangements are defined as the rules and regulations governing resource use (Ostrom, 1990). They can also be norms based on culture (Mandondo, 1997). Institutional arrangements often form the basis for guiding the activities of an organisation, though they may also be informal, and not associated with any specific organisation.
Institutional/organizational interventions Problem identified by IP or group or community : With communally owned water sources like dams where people from different villages collect water from, in times of water shortage, skirmishes over the use of the water sometimes occur. Engage IP or group or community: Target identifiable groups of users who have a strong stake and desire to manage the water resources collectively (could also be grazing, cattle dips, etc.) The objectives is to enhance the understanding of the impacts of existing institutional arrangements on access to water resources (Isolate key problems and their root causes). What are the water sources in question? What are the institutional arrangements that govern access to various water sources? If any? How does the existence of different institutional arrangements affect the use and management of water resources in the micro-catchment area? Who benefits/looses out and what do they get from the institutional arrangements in place? etc
Institutional/organizational interventions Solicit for potential solutions Define the rules and regulations/agreements governing water use (see example) What are the mechanisms for enforcing the institutional arrangements? Roles and responsibilities? What are the existing social networks in the community. (they give weight to informal agreements by ensuring that the agreements are kept). Monitor how resilient the institutional arrangements in governing water use? Develop monitoring plan with timelines Other examples include establishing marketing arrangements for milk or a system for procuring drugs.
Jointly develop guidelines for intervention Water source UsesRules and regulations Handeni dam Livestock watering Livestock should use designated gates to reduce /control soil erosion. Every household which uses the dam should pay a yearly subscription fee of Tsh.5,000 No grazing of cattle around the dam as it may cause soil erosion and siltation of the dam Brick moulding Not allowed to mould bricks at the dam site but to fetch water and mould at some other location. Not allowed to cut wet wood near the dam for burning bricks Mawunga stream Livestock watering Laundry and bathing Brick moulding Irrigation Free access- no controls/rules in the dry season. In the cropping season only accessible to farmers who have fields near the stream
Group exercise Working in two groups (could have sub groups if needed) Tanzania Develop a tentative strategy and timeline for ‘best bet’ feed interventions by village A logical sequence of activities with timelines that will lead us to the testing of ‘best bets’ interventions in 2014 India Review progress of your strategy and timelines for ‘best bet’ feed interventions by village What challenges have you faced so far What improvements could be made Develop a strategy and timelines for improvements