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Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 1 Bits and Bytes

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BIT Modern computers are binary: Everything is represented as being on one of two possible states: the state of being a 1 the state of being a 0 A bit is the name for this smallest unit of storage in a computer. Bit is sort-of derived from "Binary digIT". Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 2

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Digital Marketing and advertising folks have decided to characterize anything that is based on bits as being "digital". Digital Cable TV Digital Telephone Digital Camera Digital Audio A better name might actually be discrete... Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 3

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Byte A ordered sequence of 8 bits. Modern computers are based on memory systems organized as bytes of memory. Memory sizes are typically given in numbers of bytes: "I would like a burger, fries and 512 Mega bytes of memory". "I have a 32Giga byte iPhone, so I am better than you". Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 4

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64 bit machine A machine that processes information in 64 bit chunks. The processor simply transports the information 64 bits at a time The data-path, or bus, that runs to and from the processor is 64 bits wide. 8 bits still = byte, 8 bytes at a time Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 5

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How many bytes are there? Keep in mind that a byte is a sequence of 8 bits. Each bit can be either a 0 or a 1. How many sequences of 8 0/1s are possible? Here are a few: 00000000 00010000 10000000 10101010 Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 6

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# of byte values: derivation 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 # of bytes = 2 8 = 256 There are 256 possible byte values. Although I may have 4 billion+ bytes in my iPod, there are only 256 different values, so many of them are identical! Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 7 10011101

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Base 2 Numbers (binary numbers) We can talk about byte values by treating a byte as a base 2 number: 64 + 16 + 4 + 2 = 86 01010110 2 = 86 10 Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 8

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Hexadecimal Base 16 is also used when talking about byte values. Each group of 4 bits corresponds to a single hex digit. Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 9 BinaryHexDecima l BinaryHexDecima l 000000100088 000111100199 0010221010A10 0011331011B11 0100441100C12 0101551101D13 0110661110E14 0111771111F15

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Binary to Hex 11010110 2 = D6 16 = 214 10 Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 10

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Binary-Hex-Decimal Quiz Fill in the blanks Intro to IT - Bits and Bytes 11

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