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Click col mouse per avanzare Abu Bakr (r) Up to Hijrah A.S. Hashim, MD From and الدكتور احمد صبحي منصور.

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Presentation on theme: "Click col mouse per avanzare Abu Bakr (r) Up to Hijrah A.S. Hashim, MD From and الدكتور احمد صبحي منصور."— Presentation transcript:


2 Click col mouse per avanzare

3 Abu Bakr (r) Up to Hijrah A.S. Hashim, MD From and الدكتور احمد صبحي منصور

4 Sources of Reference Tabaqat ibn Sa'd Tarikh ar-Rusul wa al-Muluk Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Leiden al-Bidayah wa'an-Nihayah Life of Muhammad Sahih al-Bukhari, Tabari The Encyclopaedia of Islam. "The Life of Muhammad - A translation of Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah" by A. Guillaume, Oxford University Press, Qutayba al Dinawari. Al Imamah Wa'l Siyasa.

5 In this Slide Show Abu Bakr from birth to the Hijrah Lineage and Early Childhood Embracing Islam Influencing others to embrace Islam Freeing slaves Al-Siddique With the Prophet from Mecca to Medina

6 Lineage Abu Bakr was born in Mecca some time in the year 573 CE, In the Banu Taym branch of the Quraish tribe. His father was Uthman nicknamed Abu Quhafa, His mother was Selma nicknamed Umm al-Khair. The birth name of Abu Bakr was 'Abdullah (servant of Allah).

7 Lineage Father Uthman Abu Quhafa Mother Selma Umm al-Khair Abu Bakr Tribe Banu Taym of Quraish Tribe Banu Taym of Quraish

8 Description Abu Bakr was a thin man with fair skin. A’isha in describing her father Abu Bakr is quoted: He was a man with fair skin, thin, emaciated, with a sparse beard and a slightly hunched frame, He had sunken eyes and protruding forehead, and the bases of his fingers were hairless. He earned the nickname of Atiq. He was born in an affluent family.

9 Early Childhood Abu Bakr spent his early childhood like other Arab children of the time among the Bedouins who called themselves Ahlul Ba'eer اهل البعير- the people of the camel, In his early years he played with the baby camels and his love for camels earned him the nickname of Abu Bakr, the father of the baby camel. Bakr means baby camel

10 Early Life When Abu Bakr was 10 years old he went to Syria along with his father with the merchants' caravan. Like other children of the affluent Meccan families, Abu Bakr was literate and developed a fondness for poetry. He used to attend the annual fair at Ukadh سوق عكاظ, and participate in poetical symposia. He had a very good memory and Besides, he had a good knowledge of the genealogy of the Arab tribes.

11 Early Youth At the age of 18, Abu Bakr went into trade and adopted the profession of a cloth merchant which was the family's business. In the coming years Abu Bakr traveled extensively with caravans. Business trips took him to Yemen, Syria, and elsewhere. These travels brought him wealth and added to his experience. His business flourished and he rose in the scale of social importance. Though his father Abu Quhafa was still alive, Abu Bakr was recognized as chief of his tribe. Abu Bakr was assigned the office of awarding blood money in cases of murder.

12 The Friendship When Muhammad married Khadijah Bint Khuwaylid and moved to her house, he became a neighbor of Abu Bakr who lived in the same area. That area was the quarter of Meccan aristocracy. Like the house of Khadijah, the house of Abu Bakr was double storied and palatial in structure. As neighbors, Muhammad and Abu Bakr came in contact with each other. Both were traders and good managers, Muhammad being about two years older than Abu Bakr.

13 Embracing Islam On his return from a business trip from Yemen, Abu Bakr was informed by Muhammad about Islam. Abu Bakr declared his embrace of Islam right away. He was about 38 yrs old. Abu Bakr was the first to proclaim his embrace of Islam He was the first adult male to accept Muhammad's Prophethood outside Muhammad’s family The Shi’a maintain that Abu Talib and other adult members of Muhammad's immediate family who first embraced Islam.

14 Embracing Islam Some Sunnis accept Abu Talib may have been the first adult male convert, others dispute that. Scholars, as well as other Sunnis and all Shi'a Muslims maintain that the first male to publicly accept Muhammed as the messenger of Allah was Ali ibn Abi Talib, However, Ali was still a pre-pubescent, when he accepted Islam. He was 10 yrs old. Also Abu Bakr was the first person outside the family of Muhammad to openly become a Muslim.

15 To Recognize the Truth In accepting Islam Abu Bakr has to: 1. To know the person of the Prophet 2. To evaluate the Message 3. To believe in the Message 4. To face the consequences 5. To enthusiastically spread the Message

16 Wives 1. Qutaylah قتيلة : She refused Islam, so Abu Bakr divorced her. Children: Abdullah and Asmaa 2. Umm Ruman ام رومان : Converted to Islam. Children Abdul Rahman and A’isha 3. Asmaa’ Bint Umais اسماء بنت عميس : Children: Muhammad 4. Habiba حبيبة: Children Umm Kulthoom (born after he had died) Early on all Abu Bakr’s children embraced Islam except Abdul Rahman from whom Abu Bakr separated. At a later date Abu Bakr’s father and son Abdul Rahman accepted Islam (just before the conquest of Mecca)

17 Bringing others to Islam Abu Bakr‘ brought many people to Islam. He persuaded his intimate friends to convert to Islam. He presented Islam to others in such a way that many of his friends opted for Islam such as: Uthman Ibn Affan Al-ZubayrTalhah Abdur Rahman bin Awf Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah Abu Hudhaifah ibn al-Mughirah and many others

18 Slavery at the time Slavery was common in Mecca, and many slaves accepted Islam. When an ordinary free man accepted Islam, despite opposition, he would enjoy the protection of his tribe. For slaves however, there was no such protection, and they were subjected to persecution. Abu Bakr felt for these slaves, and to safeguard them from persecution, he purchased them then set them free. Abu Bakr purchased the freedom of eight slaves, four men and four women.

19 Slave so Saved The men slaves Abu Bakr bought then set free were: Bilal ibn Ribah Abu Fakih Ammar ibn Yasir Abu Fuhayra The women were: LubaynahAl-Nahdiah Umm Ubays Harithah bint al-Muammil

20 Persecution by Quraish For three years after the advent of Islam, Muslims kept secret their faith, and did not pray in public. They used to pray twice a day, and fast on Mondays and Thursdays. When the Prophet called people to Islam in the open, Muslims were demeaned and they became the target for hurts and exposure to harm Abu Bakr did not escape such hurts Because of such treatments (that Abu Bakr received at the hands of Quraish), his mother converted to Islam. Insults and denigrations were common and frequent, and Abu Bakr among other Muslims did not escape them.

21 In an attempt to go to Abyssinia Muslims migrated to Abyssinia because of the horrible treatment they received at the hands of Quraish. Abu Bakr, feeling distress, set out for Yemen with the intention to go to Abyssinia from there. He met a friend (chief of the Qarah tribe) outside Mecca, who invited Abu Bakr to seek his protection against Quraish. Abu Bakr agreed and he went back to Mecca, but soon due to the pressure of Quraish, the protection was withdrawn. Once again Quraish were free to persecute Abu Bakr.

22 Title of al-Siddîque When Abu Bakr heard about Muhammad's Israa and Mi'raaj (night Journey), he testified to it without hesitation, By so testifying, he was given the title of al- Siddique, al-Siddique ألصدّيقْ means: "the truthful," "the upright," or "the one who counts true," due to his immediate belief of the Isra and Mi'raj.

23 The Roman-Persian Wars During the Roman-Persian Wars, the sympathies of the Quraish of Mecca was with the Persians who were Zoroastrian. The Muslims on the other hand had their sympathies for the Byzantines The Byzantines were Christians (the People of the Book). Verses of the Quran revealed of Surah Room: with the prophesy that Byzantine (Romans) would regain what they lost and the Persians would be defeated within few years.

24 23 The Verses Revealed Al-Room:1-5 الم غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ ۗ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمِنْ بَعْدُ ۚ وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ يَنْصُرُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ALM, The Roman Empire has been defeated in a land close by; but they, (even) after (this) defeat of theirs, will soon be victorious-Within a few years. With Allah is the Decision, in the past and in the Future: on that Day shall the Believers rejoice-With the help of Allah. He helps whom He will, and He is exalted in might, most merciful.

25 The Bet and the Wager Over this war Abu Bakr had a wager with Ubayy bin Khalf. Abu Bakr bet that the Romans would soon win. Ubayy bin Khalf bet that the Persian would remain the winners. It was decided that one who lost the wager will pay one hundred camels. With a decisive Byzantine victory in 627 against the Persians, Abu Bakr won the wager, Though Ubayy bin Khalf had died by then, his heirs however honored the agreement and gave Abu Bakr one hundred camels. Abu Bakr gave away all the camels as charity.

26 Migration to Medina With arrangement and invitation of the Muslims of Medina, Muhammad ordered Muslims of Mecca to migrate to Medina. The migration began in batches. Ali was the last to remain in Mecca, entrusted with responsibility for returning the Trusts to its owners, and famously slept in the bed of Muhammad when the Quraish led by Ikrima attempted to murder Muhammad as he slept. Meanwhile Abu Bakr accompanied Muhammad in his migration for Medina. Due to the danger of the Quraish, they did not take the direct road from Mecca to Medina. They moved instead in the opposite direction, and took refuge in a cave in Mount Thaur some five miles south of Mecca.

27 During Migration to Medina Abdullah, son of Abu Bakr, would listen to the plans and talks of Quraish, and at night he would carry the news to the two fugitives in the cave. Asmaa, daughter of Abu Bakr, brought them meals every day. Aamir a servant of Abu Bakr would bring a flock of goats to the mouth of the cave every night where they were milked.

28 The Quranic Verse Revealed The Quraish sent search parties in all directions, looking feverishly for the Prophet (pbuh). One party came close to the entrance to the cave where they were hiding, but was unable to sight them. It is said that a spider’s web was at the mouth of the cave, and a dove perching on her nest was at the mouth of the cave too. This lead to the conclusion that no one could ever be inside the cave. Due to this the following verse of the Quran was revealed:

29 The Quran Says: [Quran 9:40] الا تنصروه فقد نصره الله اذ اخرجه الذين كفروا ثاني اثنين اذ هما في الغار اذ يقول لصاحبه لا تحزن ان الله معنا فانزل الله سكينته عليه وايده بجنود لم تروها وجعل كلمة الذين كفروا السفلى وكلمة الله هي العليا والله عزيز حكيم If you will not aid him, Allah certainly aided him when those who disbelieved expelled him, he being the second of the two, when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion: Grieve not, surely Allah is with us. So Allah sent down His tranquility upon him and strengthened him with hosts which you did not see, and made lowest the word of those who disbelieved; and the word of Allah, that is the highest; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

30 Cave of Thaur Muhammad (pbuh) and Abu Bakr hid in Cave Thaur Cave Thaur lies 5 miles south of Mecca They were in hiding for 3 days and nights Spider web and dove nest at the entrance News and food was supplied

31 Abu Bakr Narration of the Journey It is narrated from Anas from Abu Bakr he said, “I said to the Prophet when we were in the cave, "If only they had looked under their feet we would assuredly be seen" The Messenger answered, "ﻣﺎ ﻇﻨﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺃﺑﺎ ﺑﻜﺮ ﺑﺎﺛﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﷲ ﺛﺎﻟﺛﻬﻤﺎ"What do you think O' Abu Bakr about two people if Allah is the third, meaning God was with them. After staying at the cave for three days and three nights, Abu Bakr and Muhammad proceeded to Medina, staying for some time at Quba, a suburb of Medina.

32 Abu Bakr Narration of the Journey At last we continued the journey And while the mushrikeen kept looking for us, not one that could pursue us except Suraqah ibn Malik who rode his horse, So I said to the Messenger of Allah, "This man has succeded in pursuing us O' Messenger of Allah," but he answered, "ﻻ ﺗﺤﺰ ﻥ ﺇ ﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ“Worry not, verily Allah is with us). "ﻻ ﺗﺤﺰ ﻥ ﺇ ﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ“Worry not, verily Allah is with us).

33 Hadiths through Abu Bakr Nawawi states that only one hundred and forty-two (142) Hadiths of the Prophet are narrated from Abu Bakr. Nawawi then comments: "The reason for this scarcity, despite the seniority of his companionship to the Prophet, is that his death pre-dated the dissemination of Hadiths and the endeavor of the followers to hear, gather, and preserve them” Among Abu Bakr’s sayings: "Whoever fights his ego for Allah’s sake, Allah will protect Him against what He abhors."

34 Select Sayings of Abu Bakr Knowledge is the life of the mind. If you want to control other people, first control yourself. God helps those who fear Him. Maybe a thing that you do not like is really in your interest. It is possible that a thing that you may desire may be against your interest. O man you are busy working for the world, and the world is busy trying to turn you out. Have an earnestness for death and you will have life. Allah will help him who moves in the way of Allah.

35 Western Writers about Abu Bakr Edward Gibbon wrote about Abu Bakr as: The moderation, and the veracity of Abu Bakr confirmed the new religion, and furnished an example for invitation. William Montgomery Watt writes: From 622 to 632 he (Abu Bakr) was Muhammad's chief adviser, but had no prominent public functions except that he conducted the pilgrimage to Mecca in 631, and led the public prayers in Medina during Muhammad's last illness.

36 Western Writers about Abu Bakr William Muir states that: Abu Bakr's judgment was sound and impartial; his conversation agreeable and his demeanor affable and much sought after by the Quraish and he was popular throughout the city.... The faith of Abu Bakr was the greatest guarantee of Muhammad's sincerity in the beginning of his career, and indeed, in a modified sense, throughout his life. To have such a person as a staunch adherent of his claim, was for Muhammad a most important step.

37 Worthy Reference Mu'awiya's answer to Muhammad son of Abu Bakr’s letter: In Arabic: المكاتبة التي جرت بين محمد ابن أبي بكر وبين معاوية It points out how Mu’awiya considered: both Abu Bakr and Omar and his evaluation of the Saqifa events in regard to the Khilaafah

38 In Conclusion Abu Bakr from birth up to the Hijrah from Mecca to Medina Abu Bakr’s lineage and childhood During his youthful life Abu Bakr the Muslim, influencing others Freeing some slaves Escaping Mecca with of the Prophet (pbuh) The arduous journey to medina

39 Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ

40 THANK YOU Be in God’s Care Dr. A.S. Hashim

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