Superconducting RF Cavities for Particle Accelerators: An Introduction Ilan Ben-Zvi Brookhaven National Laboratory.

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Superconducting RF Cavities for Particle Accelerators: An Introduction Ilan Ben-Zvi Brookhaven National Laboratory

In a word: Superconducting RF (SRF) provides efficient, high-gradient accelerators at high duty-factor. SRF accelerator cavities are a success story. Large variety of SRF cavities, depending on: – Type of accelerator – Particle velocity – Current and Duty factor – Gradient – Acceleration or deflecting mode

What is a resonant cavity and how do we accelerate beams? A resonant cavity is the high- frequency analog of a LCR resonant circuit. RF power at resonance builds up high electric fields used to accelerate charged particles. Energy is stored in the electric & magnetic fields.

Pill-box cavity Q=G/R s G=257  R s is the surface resistivity.

Some important figures of merit U=PQ/  A cavity is characterized by its quality factor Q and the geometric factors R/Q and G Dissipated power per cavity depends on voltage, surface resistivity and geometry factors. V 2 =P·Q·R/Q For a pillbox cavity R/Q=196  Per cavity: P = V 2 · R s · 1/G · Q/R Other quantities of interest for a pillbox cavity: E peak /E acceleration =1.6 (~2 in elliptical) H peak /E acceleration = 30.5 Gauss / MV/m (~40 in elliptical cavities)

RF Superconductivity Superconducting electrons are paired in a coherent quantum state, for DC resistivity disappears bellow the critical field. In RF, there is the BCS resistivity, arising from the unpaired electrons. H c (T)=H c (0)·[1-(T/T c ) 2 ] For copper  = 5.8·10 7  -1 m -1 so at 1.5 GHz, R s = 10 m  For superconducting niobium R s = R BCS + R residul and at 1.8K, 1.5 GHz, R BCS = 6 n  R residual ~ 1 to 10 n 

Various SRF materials – only one practical and commonly used MaterialT c (K)H c1 (kGauss)H c2 (kGauss) Lead7.70.8 Niobium9.21.74 Nb 3 Sn180.5300 MgB 2 400.335 “Superheating” field for niobium at 0 K is 2.4 kGauss

Design Considerations Residual resistivity: R actual  R BCS +R residual Dependence on field – shape, material, preparation – “Q slope” Electropolishing, baking – Field emission- cleanliness, chemical processing – Thermal conductivity, thermal breakdown – High RRR Multipacting – cavity shape, cleanliness, processing Higher Order Modes – loss factor, couplers Mechanical modes– stiffening, isolation, feedback

Measure of performance: The Q vs. accelerating field plot Magnetic fields of 1.7 kGauss (multi-cell) to 1.9 kGauss (single cell) Can be achieved, and recently 2.09 kGauss achieved at Cornell.

Limit on fields Field emission – clean assembly Magnetic field breakdown (ultimate limit) - good welds, reduce surface fields Thermal conductivity – high RRR material Local heating due to defects Fields of 20 to 25 MV/m at Q of over 10 10 is routine

Choice of material and preparation High “RRR” material (300 and above) Large grain material is an old – new approach Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) (HF – HNO 3 – H 2 PO 4, say 1:1:2) Electropolishing (HF – H 2 SO 4 ) UHV baking (~800C) Low temperature (~120C). High pressure rinsing Clean room assembly

Multipacting Multipacting is a resonant, low field conduction in vacuum due to secondary emission Easily avoided in elliptical cavities with clean surfaces May show up in couplers! Multipacting in Stanford SCA cavity, 1973 PAC

Higher Order Modes (HOM) Energy lost by charge q to cavity modes: Longitudinal and Transverse Energy is transferred from beam to cavity modes The power can be very high and must be dumped safely Transverse modes can cause beam breakup Solution: Strong damping of all HOM, Remove power from all HOM to loads Isolated from liquid helium environment.

Electromechanical issues Lorentz detuning Pondermotive instabilities Pressure and acoustic noise Solutions include – broadening resonance curve – feedback control – good mechanical design of cavity and cryostat

Miscellaneous hardware Fundamental mode couplers Pick-up couplers Higher-Order Mode couplers Cryostats (including magnetic shields, thermal shields) Helium refrigerators (1 watt at 2 K is ~900 watt from plug) RF power amplifiers (very large for non energy recovered elements

Some Examples Low velocity High acceleration gradient Particle deflection High current / Storage rings High current / Energy Recovery Linac RF electron gun

Low  Resonators Quarter Wave Resonator Radio Frequency Quadrupole Elliptical Split Loop ResonatorSpoke cavityMulti-spoke Critical applications: Heavy ion accelerators, e.g. RIA High power protons, e.g. SNS, Project-X

High acceleration gradient Critical applications: Linear colliders e.g. ILC X-ray FELs e.g. DESY XFEL

Deflecting Cavities Critical applications: Crab crossing (luminosity) e.g. KEK-B, LHC Short X-ray pulses from light sources

Energy Recovery Linac: A transform to a boosted frame Energy needed for acceleration is “borrowed” then returned to cavity. Little power for field. Energy taken from cavity Energy returned to cavity JLab ERL Demo

High current ERL cavities Multi-ampere current possible in ERL Critical applications: High average power FELs (e.g. Jlab) High brightness light sources (e.g. Cornell) High luminosity e-P colliders (e.g. eRHIC)

High current SRF photo-injector Low emittance at high average current is required for FEL. The high fields (over 20 MV/m) and large acceleration (2 MV) provide good emittance. High current (0.5 ampere) is possible thanks to 1 MW power delivered to the beam. Starting point for ERL’s beam.

Summary SRF cavities serve in a large variety of purposes with many shapes. The future of particle accelerators is in SRF acceleration elements – light sources, colliders, linacs, ERLs and more. While there is a lot of confidence in the technology, there is still a lot of science to be done.

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