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CHAPTER I Problem and its Settings
Introduction There are three major threats in the global environment that Chlorofluorocarbons can contribute: a. the Greenhouse Effect, b. reduction of the ozone layer and c. air pollution. The depletion of the ozone layer was first detected in 1984 when the ozone layer formed in Antarctic was larger than United States and taller than Mt. Everest. This would cause frequent drought, heat waves, polluted water, polluted water supplies and tropical diseases.
CFCs are an organic compound that contains chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. These CFCs are commercialize to be used as aerosol propellants, cleansing agents for electrical and electronics components and foaming agents in shipping plastic manufacturing.
CFCs are highly volatile compounds contributing to air pollution. CFCs are unusual because they do not breakdown when vaporize in the atmosphere. Instead, they slowly rise in to the atmosphere taking up to six to eight years to reach the stratosphere and they reside up to 100 years there.
Without the practical way to use CFCs manufacturers have stuffed warehouses with vast quantities of inert but environmentally hazardous gases. So unreactive are CFCs that they have resisted all but the harshest chemical treatments-hence their long time survival in the earths atmosphere.
Because of the threat of this certain substance in the Earths atmosphere the researchers have been encourage in support to lessen the environmental harm that this substance may bring. That is why researchers are determined to initiate study about this.
Sodium oxalate, a sodium salt of oxalic acid and an innocuous compound found in the Camias fruit has been detected to have chemical properties that can destroy CFCs. Hopefully this can be a cutting edge work. When it succeeds in an industrial scale, this process might prod the manufacturers to switch more quickly to less hazardous refrigerants.
Statements of the Objectives
This study will be conducted to test the potential of Sodium Oxalate obtain from Camias fruits to breakdown ozone-depleting chemicals, CFCs. Specifically, it attempts to: Determine whether Sodium Oxalate from Camias fruits can breakdown CFCs into benign and useful components. Determine what chemical compounds can be produced in the breaking down of CFCs by Sodium Oxalate. Determine the chemical properties of Sodium oxalate that makes it potential in breaking down CFCs. Determine the significant differences between commercial sodium Oxalate and organic Sodium Oxalate in terms of their potency to breakdown CFCs.
Statement of the Problem
The primary purpose of this study is to test the potential of Sodium Oxalate obtain from the Camias fruit to breakdown ozone depleting-chemicals. Specifically, it tries to answer the following question: Can Sodium Oxalate from Camias fruit breakdown CFCs into benign, useful compounds? What chemicals are produced after the process of breaking down CFCs by Sodium Oxalate? Why can sodium oxalate breakdown CFCs? Is there any significant difference between commercial Sodium Oxalate and organic Sodium Oxalate in terms of their potency to breakdown CFCs?
Based on the foregoing research problems, the researchers formulated the following null hypotheses (H 0 ): Sodium Oxalate from Camias fruits cannot breakdown into benign and useful components. There are no produced chemicals compounds in breaking down CFCs. Sodium Oxalate has no chemical properties that make it potential in breaking down CFCs.
Significance of the Study
Sodium Oxalate is sodium salt of oxalic acid that is widely used in metal cleansing preparation and wood bleaching. This chemical compound was detected to contain properties that can easily break down CFCs. There are only few studies conducted on the specific effects of using Sodium Oxalate to break down CFCs since there are scanty records on the study, this research will provide baseline information to conduct and develop further studies. Another importance of this study lies in the possibility that breaking down of CFCs by Sodium Oxalate can generate chemical compounds that are less corrosive and are environmental-friendly. On basic information, it can offer to be a great contribution to the quality of life in the coming years.
Scope Scope and Delimitation
The study focuses only on the potential of Sodium Oxalate from Camias fruits to break down CFCs. The researchers also included the possible chemical compounds that the process of breaking down can produce. Findings of this study are confined only to this experiment, and other intervening and extraneous variables which may be of relevance to the study has been limited only to the indicator variable stipulated in this study.
Experimental Set-up Sodium Oxalate from Camias Fruit Experimental Set-up Commercialized Sodium Oxalate Chloroflourocarbons Thermal Process Chemical Compound Products [Carbon dioxide, sodium Oxide, Sodium Fluoride(used in toothpaste) and sodium Chloride (table salt)]
Review of Related Literature
Chlorofluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. These are highly effective refrigerants that were developed in response to the pressing need to eliminate toxic and flammable substances, such as sulfur dioxide and ammonia, in refrigeration units and air conditioners.
The most common commercials CFCs, marketed under the trade named FREON, are Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC- 11) and Dichlorofluoromethane (CFC-12). They are nonflammable, noncorrosive, nontoxic, and odorless, and their vapor pressures and heats of vaporization made them very suitable for refrigeration application.
Sources of CFCs
Aerosol Propellants CFCs such as trichloromethane (CCI 3 F) and dichlorofluoromethane (CCI 2 F 2 ) are normally packed with materials like paint, insecticide or cosmetic preparation in pressurized containers. Upon depressurisation by opening the valve, the propellant vaporizes and expels the material inside the can in the form of aerosol spray.
Cleaning Solvents CFCs such as trichlorofluoroethane (CCI 2 FCCIF 2 ) can dissolve grease and are widely used as solvents in cleaning electric components and metals.
Refrigerants Froen is a series of CFCs. Freons absorb heat of vaporization and evaporation resulting in the cooling of the sorrundings. They are widely used as refrigerants in refrigerators and air conditioning units, freezers. In making from plastic, a volatile CFC, trichlorofluoromethane (CCI 3 F) is incorporated in the plastic. The heat evolved during the polymerization reaction vaporizes the CFC which then forms tiny bubbles in the plastic.
Freon Freon is a general term used to identify, any group of partially or completely halogenated simple hydrocarbons containing fluorine, chlorine or bromine, which are used as refrigerants.
Uses of Freon
CFCs are used in variety of industrial, commercial, and household applications. They have been used in a wide variety of manufacturing steps and products including as a solvent in the electronics industry, foaming or blowing agent, aerosol propellant, fire extinguisher agent, dry cleaning solvent, degreasing agents, a key component in making rigid foam insulation for houses and household appliances, and foam packaging insulation material (known by the trade name of STYROFOAM. Use of CFCs has declined as concern over their interaction with the environment has grown.
CFCs are implicated in three major threats to the global environment: the reduction of the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect and the contribution to air pollution.
CFCs have been shown to contribute to the depletion of the protective ozone layer in the atmosphere. The ozone hole formed in Antarctica was larger than the United States and taller than Mt. Everest in the year Ozone levels are depleted most dramatically in the Antarctic, but are being reduced around the world. As the chlorofluorocarbons break down, they release chlorine atoms which are capable of destroying tens of thousands of ozone molecules before being washed out of the atmosphere. Depletion of the ozone layer permits greater amounts of ultraviolet radiation to reach the Earth. The increase in ultraviolet radiation affects human health by increasing the likelihood of developing skin cancer and cataracts and may depress the human immune system. Increased ultraviolet radiation reduces crop yields, depletes marine fisheries, damage construction materials, and increases smog. Between 1969 and 1986, the average global concentration of ozone in the stratosphere had fallen about 2%.
In addition, CFCs contribute to the greenhouse effect, warming the atmosphere by trapping heat which is then radiated back into the atmosphere. They are more than 10,000 times more effective at trapping this radiated heat than carbon dioxide. Because of this, it accounts for approximately 15 percent of the chemicals responsible for the greenhouse effect, which threatens to increase global temperatures and cause sea level to rise. This would cause more frequent drought, heat waves, polluted water supplies and tropical diseases in northern latitudes.
Chlorofluorocarbons are highly volatile compounds, contributing to air pollutions. CFCs are unusual because they do not break down when vaporized into the atmosphere. Instead, they rise slowly through the atmosphere, taking six to eight years to reach the stratosphere ( the highest layer of the Earths atmosphere).here CFCs can reside for more than 100 years. If global CFC production was stopped today, we would still experience the effects for over one hundred years.
Effects to the Human Health
Inhalation of high concentration affects the nervous and respiratory system. Initial symptoms include a reduced ability to concentrate, dizziness, headache, and bronchial constriction, which may lead to sudden death. Intentionally inhaling CFCs from aerosol cans gas resulted in the death of several teenagers.
Known and suspected of ozone depletion include increased skin cancer, eye disorders (such as cataract and retinal damage), suppression of human immune system, harm to aquatic system and biological organisms, exacerbation of smog in some urban areas, and degradation of some plastics and paints. Conditions aggravated by exposure to ultra-violet radiation include nutritional deficiencies, infectious diseases and autoimmune disorders.
Sodium Oxalate Sodium Oxalate is sodium salt of Oxalic Acid with the molecular formula Na 2 C 2 O 4. It appears as a white crystalline powder which can act as a reducing agent, and it may be used as a primary standard for standardizing potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) solution. It is also called as oxalic acid disodium salt, ethanedionic acid disodium salt. These diesters are subsequently hydrolyzed to oxalic acid. Approximately 120M kg is produced annually.
Uses of Sodium Oxalate Sodium oxalate is used in metal cleaning preparations, electroplating baths, metal extraction and separation, blueprint coatings, manufacture of special cements, also in textile application, plant nutrition and disease control and in the leather and tanning industries.
Oxalic Acid Oxalic acid is the chemical compound with the formula H 2 C 2 O 4. This dicarboxylic acid is better described with the formula HO 2 CCO 2 H. It is a relatively strong organic acid, being about 10,000 times stronger than acetic acid. The dianion, known as oxalate, is also a reducing agent as well as a ligand in coordination chemistry. Many metal ions form insoluble precipitates with oxalate, a prominent example being calcium oxalate, which is the primary constituent of the most common kind of kidney stone. Oxalic acid and oxalates are abundantly present in many plants. It was first isolated from wood-sorrel (Oxalis).plantswood-sorrel
Its presence makes it dangerous to eat unripe carambola or monstera fruits. It is also suggested to consume members of the spinach family in moderation as they are high in oxylates. Oxalic acid is also an important reagent in lanthanide chemistry. Hydrated lanthanide oxalates form readily in strongly acid solution in a densely crystalline easily filtered form, largely free of contamination by non-lanthanide elements. Lanthanide oxalates figure importantly in commercial processing of lanthanides, and are used to recover lanthanides from solution after separation. Upon ignition, lanthanide oxalates convert to the oxides, which are the most common form in which the lanthanides are marketed. Vaporized oxalic acid, or a 6% solution of oxalic acid in sugar syrup, is used by some beekeepers as a miticide against the parasitic Varroa mite. carambolamonsterabeekeepersmiticide Varroa mite
Uses Perhaps its best known use is that as a wood bleaching agent. Exterior wood tend to turn a dark gray after being exposed and oxalic acid solution are used to lighten and brighten dingy gray wood. In the refinishing of wood furniture, oxalic acid can be used after stripping to lighten and soft darker stained areas before refinishing. It could also be used as precipitating agent in rare-earth mineral processing; bleaching agent in the textile activities, wood pulp bleaching; rust remover for metal treatment; grinding agent, such as marble polishing; reducing agent for photography and ink removal; and purifying agent in pharmaceutical industry. It is also used in commercial rust removers to remove rust stains from tubs and sinks; in cleaning and sterilizing home brewing equipment; in removing food and rust stain from kitchen countertops, plumbing fixtures and fabric; in waste water treatment, removing calcium in water, and in rock collection, cleaning mineral specimen.
CAMIAS Averrhoa bilimbi
Fruit: Very acid kamias are employed to clean the blade of a kris (dagger), and they serve as mordants in the preparation of an orange dye for silk fabrics. Kamias juice, because of its oxalic acid content, is useful for bleaching stains from the hands and rust from white cloth, and also tarnish from brass.kamias
Medicinal Uses: In the Philippines, the leaves are applied as a paste or poultice on itches, swellings of mumps and rheumatism, and on skin eruptions. Elsewhere, they are applied on bites of poisonous creatures. Malayans take the leaves fresh or fermented as a treatment for venereal disease. A leaf infusion is a remedy for coughs and is taken after childbirth as a tonic. A leaf decoction is taken to relieve rectal inflammation. A flower infusion is said to be effective against coughs and thrush.
Traditional Uses Folkloric Uses Effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaf extract on blood glucose and lipids in streptozotocin-diabetic rats: Study showed that AB extract has hypoglycemic, hypotriglyceridemic, anti-lipid peroxidative and anti-atherogenic properties in STZ-diabetic rats. Antioxidant And Antimicrobial Activities Of Averrhoa carambola L. Fruits: The scavenging of NO by the extract was dependent on concentration and stage of ripening. Extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E coli, Salmonella typhi, staph aureus and bacillus cereus.
Materials and Equipment : Place a 1 kg. of Averrhoa bilimbi extract and 1 kg. of commercialized chlorofluorocarbons in a closed container and place it in the oven with up to o C to mineralize the CFCs. Use a surgical glove in preparing the chemicals.
The Research Design The experiment will be done in two set-ups: the experimental set-up and the control set-up. Experimental Set-up The 1 kg. Sodium Oxalate from the Averrhoa carambola fruit will be mixed with the 1 kg. commercialized chlorofluorocarbons and will undergo in the Thermal Process and will be observed in three (3) days. Control Set-up The 1 kg. commercialized Sodium Oxalate will be mixed with the 1 kg. commercialized chlorofluorocarbons and will undergo in the Thermal Process and will be observed in three (3) days.
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PRESENTED TO YOU BY: REINA MAY G. TABANGCORA III- PLATINUM