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Hawthorne Experiments by Elton Mayo

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1 Hawthorne Experiments by Elton Mayo

2 Who is Elton Mayo? George Elton Mayo Psychologist and sociologist
Active Australian Psychology reader Moved to the United States to participate in the Philadelphia post opportunity.

3 Mayo’s Journey Adelaide University University of Wueensland
Pensylvannia University Harvard Business School Retirement British government advisor

4 Thanks to Mayo… Hhuman Relations Movement
Authored The social problems of an Industrial Civilization ( 1933) WWII contributed to the Training Within Industry program for training supervisors

5 Illumination Studies – 1924-1927
Funded by General Electric Conducted by The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences with engineers from MIT Measured Light Intensity vs. Worker Output Result – Each change (including decreases) resulted in higher output and reported greater employee satisfaction Conclusions: Light intensity has no conclusive effect on output Productivity has a psychological component – Researchers interaction with the workers influenced higher performance Concept of “Hawthorne Effect” was created

6 Relay Assembly Test Experiments 1927-1929
Western Electric wanted more information Harvard researchers brought in to analyze the results – Elton Mayo & Fritz Roethlisberger Group of 6 Women – (5) Assemblers and (1) Layout Operator One Observer – Explained every incremental change and recorded results Manipulated factors of production to measure effect on output: Pay Incentives Length of Work Day & Work Week Use of Rest Periods Company Sponsored Meals Management Visits / Special Attention Result – Most changes resulted in higher output and reported greater employee satisfaction Conclusions: Experiments yielded positive effects even with negative influences – workers’ output will increase as a response to attention Strong social bonds were created within the test group. Workers are influenced by need for recognition, security and sense of belonging

7 Relay Assembly Room #2 - 1928-1929
Measured output changes with pay incentive changes Special observation room Relay Assemblers changed from Departmental Incentive to Small group – 1st Session Adjusted back to Large Group Incentive – 2nd Session Results Small Group Incentive resulted in new Highest sustained level of production – 112% over standard output base Output dropped to 96.2% of base with return to large group incentive Conclusion: Pay incentives were a relevant factor in output increases but not the only factor.

8 Mica Splitting Test Group - 1928-1931
Measured output changes with changes in work conditions only: Special Observation Room Length of Work Day Use of Rest Periods Workers stayed on established Piece-rate compensation Result - Productivity increased by 15% over standard output base Conclusions: Productivity is affected by non-pay considerations Social dynamics are a basis of worker performance

9 Plant Interview Program – 1925-1932
– Objective Questions Work Conditions Work Relationships Yes/No Answers – Conversational / Non-directive Attentive Sympathetic Listening Concern for personal needs Increased in time from minutes Result – Remarkable positive employee perceptions: Working Condition Improved (no real changes) Better Wages (no real changes) Conclusions: New Supervisory Style improved worker morale Complaints reflected personal and/or social barriers that needed attention in order to raise productivity

10 Bank Wiring Observation Group – 1931-1932
14 Male Workers Few Special Conditions Segregated work area No Management Visits Supervision would remain the same Observer would record data only – no interaction with workers New incentive pay rate was established for the small group Any increases in output would be included in departmental pay incentives Result – No appreciable changes in output Conclusions: Well established performance norms existed in the group Informal Social Organization dictated little deviation from established production standards – Systemic Soldiering Informal Social Organizations protect workers from managers who Raise production standards Cut pay rates Challenge workplace norms

11 Sources of Information
Wren, Daniel A., and Arthur G. Bedeian. The Evolution of Management Thought. 6th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Print. "History of Management." ManagementGuru supports management studies and is maintained by Dr.Makamson. Web. 16 Nov <http://www.mgmtguru.com/mgt301/301_Lecture1Page10.htm>. "Baker Library Chronicles Human Relations Movement." Harvard Business School. Web. 16 Nov <http://www.hbs.edu/news/releases/092407_hawthorne.html>. "ProvenModels hawthorne effect - Elton Mayo." ProvenModels - Management Models | Management Theory | Business Models | Michael Porter | Henry Mintzberg | Management Model | Business School. Web. 15 Nov <http://www.provenmodels.com/6/hawthorne-effect/elton-mayo>.


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