2Who is Elton Mayo? George Elton Mayo Psychologist and sociologist Active Australian Psychology readerMoved to the United States to participate in the Philadelphia post opportunity.
3Mayo’s Journey Adelaide University University of Wueensland Pensylvannia UniversityHarvard Business SchoolRetirementBritish government advisor
4Thanks to Mayo… Hhuman Relations Movement Authored The social problems of an Industrial Civilization ( 1933)WWII contributed to the Training Within Industry program for training supervisors
5Illumination Studies – 1924-1927 Funded by General ElectricConducted by The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences with engineers from MITMeasured Light Intensity vs. Worker OutputResult – Each change (including decreases) resulted in higher output and reported greater employee satisfactionConclusions:Light intensity has no conclusive effect on outputProductivity has a psychological component – Researchers interaction with the workers influenced higher performanceConcept of “Hawthorne Effect” was created
6Relay Assembly Test Experiments 1927-1929 Western Electric wanted more informationHarvard researchers brought in to analyze the results – Elton Mayo & Fritz RoethlisbergerGroup of 6 Women – (5) Assemblers and (1) Layout OperatorOne Observer – Explained every incremental change and recorded resultsManipulated factors of production to measure effect on output:Pay IncentivesLength of Work Day & Work WeekUse of Rest PeriodsCompany Sponsored MealsManagement Visits / Special AttentionResult – Most changes resulted in higher output and reported greater employee satisfactionConclusions:Experiments yielded positive effects even with negative influences – workers’ output will increase as a response to attentionStrong social bonds were created within the test group. Workers are influenced by need for recognition, security and sense of belonging
7Relay Assembly Room #2 - 1928-1929 Measured output changes with pay incentive changesSpecial observation roomRelay Assemblers changed from Departmental Incentive to Small group – 1st SessionAdjusted back to Large Group Incentive – 2nd SessionResultsSmall Group Incentive resulted in new Highest sustained level of production – 112% over standard output baseOutput dropped to 96.2% of base with return to large group incentiveConclusion: Pay incentives were a relevant factor in output increases but not the only factor.
8Mica Splitting Test Group - 1928-1931 Measured output changes with changes in work conditions only:Special Observation RoomLength of Work DayUse of Rest PeriodsWorkers stayed on established Piece-rate compensationResult - Productivity increased by 15% over standard output baseConclusions:Productivity is affected by non-pay considerationsSocial dynamics are a basis of worker performance
9Plant Interview Program – 1925-1932 – Objective QuestionsWork ConditionsWork RelationshipsYes/No Answers– Conversational / Non-directiveAttentive Sympathetic ListeningConcern for personal needsIncreased in time from minutesResult – Remarkable positive employee perceptions:Working Condition Improved (no real changes)Better Wages (no real changes)Conclusions:New Supervisory Style improved worker moraleComplaints reflected personal and/or social barriers that needed attention in order to raise productivity
10Bank Wiring Observation Group – 1931-1932 14 Male WorkersFew Special ConditionsSegregated work areaNo Management VisitsSupervision would remain the sameObserver would record data only – no interaction with workersNew incentive pay rate was established for the small groupAny increases in output would be included in departmental pay incentivesResult – No appreciable changes in outputConclusions:Well established performance norms existed in the groupInformal Social Organization dictated little deviation from established production standards – Systemic SoldieringInformal Social Organizations protect workers from managers whoRaise production standardsCut pay ratesChallenge workplace norms
11Sources of Information Wren, Daniel A., and Arthur G. Bedeian. The Evolution of Management Thought. 6th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Print."History of Management." ManagementGuru supports management studies and is maintained by Dr.Makamson. Web. 16 Nov <http://www.mgmtguru.com/mgt301/301_Lecture1Page10.htm>."Baker Library Chronicles Human Relations Movement." Harvard Business School. Web. 16 Nov <http://www.hbs.edu/news/releases/092407_hawthorne.html>."ProvenModels hawthorne effect - Elton Mayo." ProvenModels - Management Models | Management Theory | Business Models | Michael Porter | Henry Mintzberg | Management Model | Business School. Web. 15 Nov <http://www.provenmodels.com/6/hawthorne-effect/elton-mayo>.