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Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures What is Electronic Warfare?

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Presentation on theme: "Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures What is Electronic Warfare?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures What is Electronic Warfare?


3 Electronic Warfare (EW)  Element of Command & Control Warfare (C2W)  Command and Control Warfare (C2W) includes integrated use of:  Operational Security (OPSEC)  Military Deception  Psychological Operations (PSYOPS)  Physical Destruction  Electronic Warfare (EW)

4 Importance of EW Increased reliance on radar and OTH targeting Increased use of Communications and Tactical Data Systems (TDS) Increased capabilities of missile & weapons system –Requires high-speed detection and tracking Active/Passive homing long-range missile give little warning

5 Three Components of EW Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM Electronic Protection (EP) *ECCM

6 Electronic Support (ES) Passive surveillance of the EM spectrum to detect the enemy’s position, strength, and intention, and warning of targets -Detection -Tracking -Recognition -Targeting -Warning -Destruction -Avoidance

7 Passive EW (ES) ELINT – Electronic Intelligence –Foreign non-communications elecromagnetic information COMINT – Communications Intelligence –Foreign communications transmissions intercepted by other than the intended recipients Advantages and Limitations

8 ES Receiver Design Requirements Wide spectrum surveillance Wide dynamic range Unwanted signal rejection Angle-of-Arrival measurement Signal Analysis capability Real-Time Display Recording System

9 Electronic Attack (EA) Preventing or reducing the enemy’s use of the EM spectrum (capabilities) and promoting uncertainty “Black boxes” that jam or deceive the enemy Radar or communications “jamming”

10 Electronic Attack (EA) Use of active and passive energy to “attack “ –Personnel –Facilities –Equipment Four Classes of EA –Jamming –Modifiers –Radar-absorbing materials (RAM) –Physical Destruction

11 Non-Destructive EA Denial: overload opposition’s receiver to deny its use by the enemy Jamming Noise Spot Barrage Sweep Chaff Flares

12 Noise Jamming Definition: Noise jamming is the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy with the purpose of impairing the use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems being used by the enemy.

13 Rcvd Signal Amp. time Ineffective Jamming Effective Jamming PW PRT

14 Jamming TGT Freq True Noise Ideal Jammer Actual Spot Jammer

15 Non-Destructive EA (cont.) Deception: Create false image or change image’s characteristics on a radar display. Misleads or “spoofs” –Repeaters: delay received radar signal and retransmitting at a slightly later time –Transponders: Create false signal by playing back a stored replica of the radar signal –Chaff - disguise –Radar Decoys –Blip Enhancers –Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Modification

16 Decoys

17 Velocity Gate Pull Off (VGPO) Target Return Velocity Gate Gate Pull-Off

18 Confusion/Deception

19 Chaff Corridor Flares (active)

20 Chaff False Targets

21 Real Target Multiple False Targets

22 Strobes

23 Cover Pulse Jamming X “Reactive Jamming”

24 EA-6B Prowler!!!!!!!!!

25 Passive Detection 1.Radar 2.IFF 3.TACAN 4.Jamming

26 Destructive EA Anti-Radiation Missiles –SLAM –HARM –Sidewinder Directed Energy

27 SLAM ER Stand-off Land Attack Missile-Expanded Response


29 HARM High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile

30 HARM Results Portable Serbian Radar

31 AIM-9 Sidewinder

32 Electronic Protection (EP) Definition: EP is the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize or destroy friendly combat capability.

33 Electronic Protection (EP) Protection of friendly combat capability against undesirable effect of friendly or enemy employed EW Types –Passive EW –Active EW

34 Electronic Protection (EP) Three ways to defend from enemy EW –Modify radar Make it more complex Make it harder to jam –Modify the Medium Chaff Torch –Modify the platform

35 EP: Radar Design ±Power ±Frequency ±PRF ±PW ±Pulse Shape ±Antenna Design ±Scan Pattern

36 EP Factors ±Burnthrough: Increase signal strength to overpower jammer noise (ECCM) ±Emission Control (EMCON) ±Alpha ±Bravo ±Charlie ±Delta ±Operator Recognition Training

37 EP Factors (Cont.) Frequency Agility FREQ TIME Slider Stepper Random

38 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities SLQ-32 “Sidekick” – On all combatants – Radar warning, detection and jamming – Uses internal library to auto detect/categorize Infrared Flares – On all combatants Chaff – On all combatants

39 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities SSQ-108 “Outboard” - –On some DDG, CG, LHA, LHD –Any ship with SSES –Real-time OTH passive detection, localization, and targeting SLQ-39 Chaff Buoy –On Arleigh Burke class Rubber Duck –Looks like a life boat container

40 U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities ALQ-99 - EW system on EA-6B Prowler ALQ EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18 ALQ ES system on SH-60 Seahawk ALQ EA jamming system on F/A-18 ALR-47 - ES detection system on S-3 Viking ALR-68 - ES detection system on P-3C Orion ALR-73 - ES detection system on E-2 Hawkeye Chaff - On SH-60 Seahawk

41 ALQ-99 Detection, Identification, tracking Communication, Data Link, and radar jamming Deception: mimics radar signals EA-6B Prowler

42 ALQ-162 Radar Jamming F/A-18 Hornet Automatic radar jamming against surface- to-air and airborne intercept missiles that use continuous wave (CW) radars

43 ALQ-142 Electronic Support System SH- 60 Seahawk Real time Identification and bearing of surveillance radars

44 Jamming Effectiveness Match the victim radar’s RF Be continuous Have sufficient power

45 Range Gate Pull Off (RGPO)

46 Range Gates

47 Error Signal Target Echoes New Error Signal Jamming Conical Scan Target Apparent Target INVERSE GAIN

48 Methods to Defeat Direct Threat Jamming Frequency Techniques –RF Change –RF Diversity –RF Agility –Diplexing Variable PRF

49 Questions?

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