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Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures

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Presentation on theme: "Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Electronic Warfare and Counter-Measures
What is Electronic Warfare?

2

3 Electronic Warfare (EW)
Element of Command & Control Warfare (C2W) Command and Control Warfare (C2W) includes integrated use of: Operational Security (OPSEC) Military Deception Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) Physical Destruction Electronic Warfare (EW)

4 Importance of EW Increased reliance on radar and OTH targeting
Increased use of Communications and Tactical Data Systems (TDS) Increased capabilities of missile & weapons system Requires high-speed detection and tracking Active/Passive homing long-range missile give little warning

5 Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM
Three Components of EW Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM Electronic Protection (EP) *ECCM ESM – Electronic Support Measures ECM – Electronic Counter Measures ECCM – Electronic Counter-counter Measures

6 Electronic Support (ES)
Passive surveillance of the EM spectrum to detect the enemy’s position, strength, and intention, and warning of targets -Detection -Tracking -Recognition -Targeting -Warning -Destruction -Avoidance

7 Passive EW (ES) ELINT – Electronic Intelligence
Foreign non-communications elecromagnetic information COMINT – Communications Intelligence Foreign communications transmissions intercepted by other than the intended recipients Advantages and Limitations

8 ES Receiver Design Requirements
Wide spectrum surveillance Wide dynamic range Unwanted signal rejection Angle-of-Arrival measurement Signal Analysis capability Real-Time Display Recording System AN/SLQ-32 versions 1-5 version 1: not used anymore version 2: older ships (ie. DD) version 3: upgraded version 2 with jamming capability version 4: upgraded even more, newer ships (ie. DDG, CVN) version 5: FFG only, some jamming capibility

9 Electronic Attack (EA)
Preventing or reducing the enemy’s use of the EM spectrum (capabilities) and promoting uncertainty “Black boxes” that jam or deceive the enemy Radar or communications “jamming”

10 Electronic Attack (EA)
Use of active and passive energy to “attack “ Personnel Facilities Equipment Four Classes of EA Jamming Modifiers Radar-absorbing materials (RAM) Physical Destruction

11 Non-Destructive EA Denial: overload opposition’s receiver to deny its use by the enemy Jamming Noise Spot Barrage Sweep Chaff Flares

12 Noise Jamming Definition:
Noise jamming is the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy with the purpose of impairing the use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems being used by the enemy.

13 Effective Jamming PW Rcvd Signal Amp. Ineffective Jamming PRT time

14 Jamming TGT Freq True Noise Ideal Jammer Actual Spot Jammer

15 Non-Destructive EA (cont.)
Deception: Create false image or change image’s characteristics on a radar display. Misleads or “spoofs” Repeaters: delay received radar signal and retransmitting at a slightly later time Transponders: Create false signal by playing back a stored replica of the radar signal Chaff - disguise Radar Decoys Blip Enhancers Radar Cross-Section (RCS) Modification

16 Decoys

17 Velocity Gate Pull Off (VGPO)
Pulls off the velocity gate until it is not tracking the aircraft. Target Return Velocity Gate Gate Pull-Off

18 Confusion/Deception

19 Chaff Corridor Flares (active)

20 Chaff False Targets

21 Multiple False Targets
Real Target

22 Strobes

23 Cover Pulse Jamming “Reactive Jamming” X

24 EA-6B Prowler!!!!!!!!!

25 Passive Detection Radar IFF TACAN Jamming

26 Destructive EA Anti-Radiation Missiles SLAM HARM Sidewinder
Directed Energy

27 SLAM ER Stand-off Land Attack Missile-Expanded Response
https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/airlanch/slamer/slamer.htm

28 SLAM

29 HARM High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile Colors on ordnance?
Yellow: high-explosive Brown: low-explosive or booster Blue: training round or inert

30 HARM Results Portable Serbian Radar

31 AIM-9 Sidewinder

32 Electronic Protection (EP)
Definition: EP is the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize or destroy friendly combat capability.

33 Electronic Protection (EP)
Protection of friendly combat capability against undesirable effect of friendly or enemy employed EW Types Passive EW Active EW

34 Electronic Protection (EP)
Three ways to defend from enemy EW Modify radar Make it more complex Make it harder to jam Modify the Medium Chaff Torch Modify the platform

35 EP: Radar Design Power Frequency PRF PW Pulse Shape Antenna Design
Scan Pattern Basic: The better you know your enemy’s capability the better you can counter it’s affect. Radar Design: Power - Fundamental parameter, the battle becomes one of power. - Affects Burnthrough distance Frequency Change - If your radar is frequency agile it is harder to jam. PRF Changing the PRF in a random fashion is an effective counter to deception. EA depends on the predictability of radar. Pulse length - Increase the pulse length requires more power. Can use pulse compression to compensate for range resolution and minimum range. Antenna Design - Reduce the amount and size of side lobes makes it more difficult to jam from various axis. Scan Pattern - influence amount of energy directed towards the radar target.

36 EP Factors Burnthrough: Increase signal strength to overpower jammer noise (ECCM) Emission Control (EMCON) Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Operator Recognition Training Burnthrough - More power in the air at the contact! EMCON - Alpha through Delta, Alpha silent and A1 Bravo and B1 Charlie Delta essentials only – Normal steaming configuration Operator Training - recognize jamming and counter it!

37 EP Factors (Cont.) Frequency Agility Slider Stepper Random FREQ TIME

38 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities
SLQ-32 “Sidekick” On all combatants Radar warning, detection and jamming Uses internal library to auto detect/categorize Infrared Flares Chaff Go over slide.

39 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities
SSQ-108 “Outboard” - On some DDG, CG, LHA, LHD Any ship with SSES Real-time OTH passive detection, localization, and targeting SLQ-39 Chaff Buoy On Arleigh Burke class Rubber Duck Looks like a life boat container SSES – Shipboard Signals Exploitation Space IS, CT, maybe EW’s and a Crypto Officer.

40 U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities
ALQ EW system on EA-6B Prowler ALQ EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18 ALQ ES system on SH-60 Seahawk ALQ EA jamming system on F/A-18 ALR ES detection system on S-3 Viking ALR ES detection system on P-3C Orion ALR ES detection system on E-2 Hawkeye Chaff On SH-60 Seahawk Go over slide.

41 ALQ-99 Detection, Identification, tracking
Communication, Data Link, and radar jamming Deception: mimics radar signals EA-6B Prowler

42 ALQ-162 Radar Jamming F/A-18 Hornet
Automatic radar jamming against surface-to-air and airborne intercept missiles that use continuous wave (CW) radars

43 ALQ-142 Electronic Support System SH- 60 Seahawk
Real time Identification and bearing of surveillance radars

44 Jamming Effectiveness
Match the victim radar’s RF Be continuous Have sufficient power

45 Range Gate Pull Off (RGPO)
Pulls off the velocity gate until it is not tracking the aircraft.

46 Range Gates

47 INVERSE GAIN Error Signal Target Echoes Conical Scan New Error Signal
Apparent Target Jamming INVERSE GAIN

48 Methods to Defeat Direct Threat Jamming
Frequency Techniques RF Change RF Diversity RF Agility Diplexing Variable PRF

49 Questions?


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