3 Electronic Warfare (EW) Element of Command & Control Warfare (C2W)Command and Control Warfare (C2W) includes integrated use of:Operational Security (OPSEC)Military DeceptionPsychological Operations (PSYOPS)Physical DestructionElectronic Warfare (EW)
4 Importance of EW Increased reliance on radar and OTH targeting Increased use of Communications and Tactical Data Systems (TDS)Increased capabilities of missile & weapons systemRequires high-speed detection and trackingActive/Passive homing long-range missile give little warning
5 Electronic Support (ES) *ESM Electronic Attack (EA) *ECM Three Components of EWElectronic Support (ES) *ESMElectronic Attack (EA) *ECMElectronic Protection (EP) *ECCMESM – Electronic Support MeasuresECM – Electronic Counter MeasuresECCM – Electronic Counter-counter Measures
6 Electronic Support (ES) Passive surveillance of the EM spectrum to detect the enemy’s position, strength, and intention, and warning of targets-Detection -Tracking-Recognition -Targeting-Warning -Destruction-Avoidance
7 Passive EW (ES) ELINT – Electronic Intelligence Foreign non-communications elecromagnetic informationCOMINT – Communications IntelligenceForeign communications transmissions intercepted by other than the intended recipientsAdvantages and Limitations
8 ES Receiver Design Requirements Wide spectrum surveillanceWide dynamic rangeUnwanted signal rejectionAngle-of-Arrival measurementSignal Analysis capabilityReal-Time DisplayRecording SystemAN/SLQ-32 versions 1-5version 1: not used anymoreversion 2: older ships (ie. DD)version 3: upgraded version 2 with jamming capabilityversion 4: upgraded even more, newer ships (ie. DDG, CVN)version 5: FFG only, some jamming capibility
9 Electronic Attack (EA) Preventing or reducing the enemy’s use of the EM spectrum (capabilities) and promoting uncertainty“Black boxes” that jam or deceive the enemyRadar or communications “jamming”
10 Electronic Attack (EA) Use of active and passive energy to “attack “PersonnelFacilitiesEquipmentFour Classes of EAJammingModifiersRadar-absorbing materials (RAM)Physical Destruction
11 Non-Destructive EADenial: overload opposition’s receiver to deny its use by the enemyJammingNoiseSpotBarrageSweepChaffFlares
12 Noise Jamming Definition: Noise jamming is the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic energy with the purpose of impairing the use of electronic devices, equipment, or systems being used by the enemy.
13 Effective JammingPWRcvd Signal Amp.Ineffective JammingPRTtime
15 Non-Destructive EA (cont.) Deception: Create false image or change image’s characteristics on a radar display. Misleads or “spoofs”Repeaters: delay received radar signal and retransmitting at a slightly later timeTransponders: Create false signal by playing back a stored replica of the radar signalChaff - disguiseRadar DecoysBlip EnhancersRadar Cross-Section (RCS) Modification
32 Electronic Protection (EP) Definition:EP is the division of electronic warfare involving actions taken to protect personnel, facilities and equipment from any effects of friendly or enemy employment of electronic warfare that degrade, neutralize or destroy friendly combat capability.
33 Electronic Protection (EP) Protection of friendly combat capability against undesirable effect of friendly or enemy employed EWTypesPassive EWActive EW
34 Electronic Protection (EP) Three ways to defend from enemy EWModify radarMake it more complexMake it harder to jamModify the MediumChaffTorchModify the platform
35 EP: Radar Design Power Frequency PRF PW Pulse Shape Antenna Design Scan PatternBasic: The better you know your enemy’s capability the better you cancounter it’s affect.Radar Design:Power - Fundamental parameter, the battle becomes one of power.- Affects Burnthrough distanceFrequency Change - If your radar is frequency agile it is harder to jam.PRF Changing the PRF in a random fashion is an effective counter todeception. EA depends on the predictability of radar.Pulse length - Increase the pulse length requires more power. Can usepulse compression to compensate for range resolution andminimum range.Antenna Design - Reduce the amount and size of side lobes makes it moredifficult to jam from various axis.Scan Pattern - influence amount of energy directed towards the radar target.
36 EP FactorsBurnthrough: Increase signal strength to overpower jammer noise (ECCM)Emission Control (EMCON)AlphaBravoCharlieDeltaOperator Recognition TrainingBurnthrough - More power in the air at the contact!EMCON - Alpha through Delta,Alpha silent and A1Bravo and B1CharlieDelta essentials only – Normal steaming configurationOperator Training - recognize jamming and counter it!
37 EP Factors (Cont.)Frequency AgilitySliderStepperRandomFREQTIME
38 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities SLQ-32 “Sidekick”On all combatantsRadar warning, detection and jammingUses internal library to auto detect/categorizeInfrared FlaresChaffGo over slide.
39 U.S. Shipboard EW Capabilities SSQ-108 “Outboard” -On some DDG, CG, LHA, LHDAny ship with SSESReal-time OTH passive detection, localization, and targetingSLQ-39 Chaff BuoyOn Arleigh Burke classRubber DuckLooks like a life boat containerSSES – Shipboard Signals Exploitation SpaceIS, CT, maybe EW’s and a Crypto Officer.
40 U.S. Airborne EW Capabilities ALQ EW system on EA-6B ProwlerALQ EA jamming system on F-14 & F/A 18ALQ ES system on SH-60 SeahawkALQ EA jamming system on F/A-18ALR ES detection system on S-3 VikingALR ES detection system on P-3C OrionALR ES detection system on E-2 HawkeyeChaff On SH-60 SeahawkGo over slide.
41 ALQ-99 Detection, Identification, tracking Communication, Data Link, and radar jammingDeception: mimics radar signalsEA-6B Prowler
42 ALQ-162 Radar Jamming F/A-18 Hornet Automatic radar jamming against surface-to-air and airborne intercept missiles that use continuous wave (CW) radars
43 ALQ-142 Electronic Support System SH- 60 Seahawk Real time Identification and bearing of surveillance radars
44 Jamming Effectiveness Match the victim radar’s RFBe continuousHave sufficient power
45 Range Gate Pull Off (RGPO) Pulls off the velocity gate until it is not tracking the aircraft.