Presentation on theme: "E.2 Perception of Stimuli. Four Sensory receptors: 1. Mechanoreceptors Stimulated by some type of pressure 2. Chemoreceptors respond to chemical substances."— Presentation transcript:
E.2 Perception of Stimuli
Four Sensory receptors: 1. Mechanoreceptors Stimulated by some type of pressure 2. Chemoreceptors respond to chemical substances 3. Thermoreceptors respond to a change in temperature 4. Photoreceptors respond to light energy
Know the eye?
Rods and Cones
E.3 Innate and Learned Behavior
Innate –vs- Learned Develops independently of the environment Controlled by genes Inherited from parents Increases chance of survival and reproduction Develops dependently of the environment Not controlled by genes Develops by response to an environmental stimulus May or may not increase chance of survival and rep.
TAXIS: a direct response to a stimulus Response to chemicals in the environment Response to light Response to gravity Response to water current Response to touch Flatworm that has two eyespots with photoreceptors and chemoreceptors Single-celled protist with eyespot and is positively phototaxic chemotaxis phototaxis Gravitaxis Rheotaxis thigmotaxis Planaria Euglena
KINESIS: a movement in response to a non-directional stimulus When an organism changes speed in response to stimulus but does not move towards it When an organism turns slowly or rapidly in response to the stimulus but doesn’t move towards it Orthokinesis Klinokinesis
Examples of Learning increasing survival Imprinting Birdsong Hoarding food … Like Monica
DON’T FORGET! Go back over the kinesis experiment (pg 475) and Pavlov’s experiments!!!!
fMRI X-rays? NO! Radio waves and a strong magnetic field Allows scientists to see current blood flow in the brain Take movies while subject does different tasks Determines when regions of the brain become active and how long they remain active
So why? (5 reasons) 1.Plan for surgery 2.Treatment for stroke 3.Placement of radiation therapy for a brain tumor 4.Effects of degenerative brain disease 5.Diagnosing how a diseased or injured brain is working
Sympathetic or Parasympathetic? Important in emergency Neurotransmitter is acetylcholine Response is to relax Excitatory Important in returning to normal Inhibitory Response is ‘fight or flight’ Neurotrans. noradrenaline P P P P S S S S
Testing for Brain Death Movement of extremities Eye movement Corneal reflex Pupil reflex Gag reflex respiration
E.6 Further studies of Behavior
Social Organizations (bees) Queen –Lays eggs –Makes pheromones to calm colony and cause other females to be sterile Worker –Feeds larvae –Produces wax and honey –Searches for nectar and pollen –Protects hive Drone –Mates with Queen
Foraging Behavioural ecologists base predictions of animal foraging based on cost-benefit analysis of the behavior Animals tend to change their behaviour in order to keep the high ratio of the energy taken in compared to the energy they expend
Mate Selection Leads to exaggerated traits Ex) peacocks Rhythmic Variations in activity Reproductive rhythm Ex) coral release gametes in synchronized mass spawning ritual Too much food for predators
Daily rhythms behaviours usually have a strong endogenous component, but exogenic cues are important in keeping the internal biological clock synchronized with the environment. Nice robes! Sweet crowns!