Used perspective to create optical illusions of realism. Humans looked more natural than in previous eras. Michelangelo: sculptor, created David, painted the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican DaVinci : scientist, painter, sketch artist, painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Drew the external and internal features of the human body and an early version of the tank.
Renaissance: “rebirth of learning”. Started in 14 th Century in Florence, Italy. Continued into Northern Europe. Ancient Greek and Latin texts are revived Vernacular: Native Language starts to be used in writings and translations. Renaissance Man: creative, know many subjects Renaissance Woman: must be rich charming and inspire art. Humanism: idea that humans can be perfected and even celebrated. Secular: Focus on worldly things rather than spiritual
Petrarch: Father of Humanism, emphasis on creative potential of human beings, Italian poet Dante: Poet, wrote The Divine Comedy, Father of the Italian Language, use of vernacular Erasmus: Priest, Helped to translate the Bible, wrote The Praise of Folly that poked fun at hypocrisy. Thought that Christianity was in the heart not rules
Machiavelli: wrote The Prince as a handbook for leaders in Italy. Believed that most people are selfish, fickle and corrupt. Leaders must be shrewd and ruthless in order to effectively rule. The end justifies the means.
Heavily influenced by the printing press developed by Gutenberg with moveable type. The Bible was written in the vernacular German (common language). Leads to rise in literacy. Indulgences: payment for sins Martin Luther (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546). German priest. Couldn’t find many of the Catholic Church’s teachings in the Bible. Wrote the 95 Theses (1517). Hated the sale of indulgences. Father of the Protestant Reformation. Broke away from the Catholic Church after the Diet of Worms. Faith is most important belief in Christianity. Simony: selling of church offices John Calvin: Started his teachings in Geneva. Calvinism spread throughout Northern Europe, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Started the idea of predestination that salvation is predetermined by God.
The Renaissance helped to usher in an era of curiosity and need for raw materials. 3 G’s: GOD, GOLD and GLORY Christians, especially Catholics wanted to convert nonbelievers (God). Europeans wanted to “cut to the chase” by seeking new trade routes to the east. They wanted to make more money by leaving out the middle men between Europe and Asia (Gold). Explorers wanted to gain notoriety for themselves and their country (Glory)
Conquistadores: Spanish Explorers Hernando Cortez: conquered the Aztecs in modern day Mexico Christopher Columbus: Italian, set sail west to find a shorter trade route, lands in Hispaniola in the Caribbean. Magellan: Spanish explorer whose expedition circumnavigated the globe Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): line drawn by the Pope to solve problems between the Spanish and Portuguese regarding the settlement of Latin America Zheng He: Chinese Admiral led seven voyages
Vasco Da Gama: began exploring the east African coast. Reached the port of Calicut (SW India). Found spices, silk, and gems. Provided a direct sea route to India. Prince Henry the Navigator: Started a school of navigation. Improved the astrolabe (navigation tool). Other Innovations: carvel, sextant, and magnetic compass, better clocks
Dutch East India Company: Explored in modern day Indonesia. Established a joint- stock company where shareholders purchased stock to invest in the company De Champlain (1608): French explorer sailed up the St. Lawrence in modern Canada. French explorers wanted to establish colonies for fur trade. Colonies were disorganized
Copernicus (early 1500’s): first proposed the heliocentric theory, did no publish his work because he didn’t want to go against the church. Galileo (1609): used a telescope and observation to prove Copernicus’s theories. Went against the Catholic Church but later recanted. Later, proven true. Kepler (1601): proved Copernicus’s ideas through mathematical calculations. Newton (1687): used the Scientific Method to develop the Laws of Gravity and Motion.
Thomas Hobbes (1651): wrote Leviathan. Explained the idea of the social contract—that people handed over their rights in exchange for law and order. Believed in absolute monarchy and had a negative view of man. John Locke: English philosopher. Believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Favored the idea of self-government. Believed in natural rights: life liberty and property. Rousseau: French philosophe committed to individual freedoms. Advocated for a direct democracy and a social contract based on the consent of the governed. Wrote The Social Contract.
Many of these revolutions were led by Bolivar 1807: Portuguese Monarchy Taken 1808: Spanish Monarchy Taken 1819: Independence of Columbia 1821: Independence of Venezuela and Mexico 1822: Independence of Ecuador, Brazil, independent monarchy 1823: Monroe Doctrine 1824: Independence of Peru 1825: Independence of Bolivia (end of Spanish Domination of South America)
Led by Touissant L’Overture Only successful slave revolt for independence 1799: Napoleon and France attack 1802: Touissant is captured 1804: Haiti becomes independent. Second republic in the Western Hemisphere
English Bill of Rights (1689) outlines rights of English citizens (freedom of speech, freedom from royal taxation, right to fair trial). The English monarch will never have absolute authority. Religious protection for the Protestants Ends long standing struggle between monarch and Parliament with Parliament winning control
Why did the American Revolution happen? The Enlightenment influenced important leaders (Jefferson) The Seven Year’s War/French and Indian War racked up HUGE debt for England. Colonists were expected to help pay back debt (no taxation without representation) Colonists weren’t allowed to expand west of the Appalachians. Colonial Industry Mercantilism not working: raw materials’ prices lowering
The Directory: The Upper Middle class is in charge. War is raging in Europe. Napoleon is able to seize power and begin the French Empire Battle of Trafalgar (1805): Lord Nelson and the British win supremacy over the seas Napoleon attacks Russia in 1812 and gets stuck! Many casualties for France! Despite French “wins” at Borodino (1812) and Austerlitz (1805), Napoleon is eventually defeated at Waterloo in (1815). Napoleon is able to improve France in several positive ways: Schools improved, a uniform Napoleonic Code established, infrastructure was improved (roads, bridges, cities). Continental system was established—No English trade!
M is for Militarism: the buildup of militaries for a defensive alliance. The construction of the HMS Dreadnought (1906) led to the construction of new battleships by the major industrial powers of Europe. A is for Alliance. These were DEFENSIVE in nature (“I’ve got your back). Europe divided into two groups the Triple Alliance (later Central Powers)and the Triple Entente (later Allied Powers) I is for Imperialism: The nations of Europe see themselves as superior to the nations of Africa and Asia. N is for Nationalism: The feeling that your country is superior to all other countries.
The Schlieffen Plan isn’t followed as directed, so both sides dig in and begin trench warfare. Trenches were defended in “No Man’s land” by miles of barbed wire. Most battles were very lengthy and millions of lives were lost on all sides The Battle of Verdun (1916) The First and Second Battles of the Marne (1914, 1918) The Battle of the Somme (1916) Gallipoli (1915)
After an armistice was declared on November 11 th, 1918, the Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919. Germany was given full blame for the war and forced to pay reparations (war debt), greatly reduce the size of their military, lose Alsace and Lorraine and lose major lands in Africa and Poland—a direct cause of WW II. The Ottoman Empire and Austria-Hungary collapse and are divided up into several smaller countries. US did not support the Treaty because they felt it was too harsh. Africa and Asia didn’t like it because they didn’t get any of their territory back.
Nazi Philosophy : formed the Third Reich wanted traditional German lands, believed in the Aryan Nation (superior race: blonde hair, tall, blue eyes “Master Race”). Jews were inferior and “scapegoats”. Buildup of military. Eugenics : “good genes” practice of selective genetics to achieve the “Master Race”. How does Hitler come to power ? Runs for political office during the Weimar Republic as a member of the Nazi Party (right wing), very convincing public speaker. Weimer Republic was very weak and Hitler was able to move into leadership assumes chancellorship in 1933. Effectively used propaganda
Pearl Harbor : Japanese Invasion on 7 Dec 1941 Stalingrad (August 1942-February 1943) was the long battle that finally pushed Hitler back to the west. Huge numbers of casualties on both sides. D-Day: Operation Overlord The Allied needed to establish a second front. General Dwight Eisenhower launched an invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944. Guadalcanal: US Victory in the Pacific Theatre Philippines: last major battle before the US was able to bomb Japan El-Alamein: North Africa. German leader Rommell
FDR had funded the top-secret Manhattan Project to develop an atomic bomb Dr. Robert Oppenheimer successfully tested in the summer of 1945. August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops bomb on Hiroshima 140,000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki 70,000 dead; 60,000 injured Emperor Hirohito surrenders on Aug. 14, 1945. (V-J Day) Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
The Big Three Great Britain (Winston Churchill) The U.S. (FDR) The Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin) Germany divided between the three powers: US/UK join together, West Germany--democratically friendly government. USSR: East Germany Soviet friendly governments Yalta Conference : USA (Roosevelt/Truman), USSR (Stalin), and UK (Churchill) meet to discuss Europe after the war. Results divide Germany into zones (US/UK: West Germany USSR: East Germany and E. Berlin) Potsdam Conference: in suburban Berlin (July 1945)—Truman, Stalin, Churchill – Finalized plans on Germany. Germany would be demilitarized and would remain divided United Nations : international peacekeeping org. supported by the Allies. Gen. Assembly to resolve conflicts.
The Iron Curtain : created as a result of USSR’s desire for buffer countries in Eastern Europe, split Europe into East (Communist) and West (Democratic). “Iron Curtain” speech, Churchill Truman Doctrine : support countries against Communism. Containment : keep Communism at bay. Marshall Plan : economic plan to help rebuild Western Europe North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): defensive alliance against Communism Warsaw Pact : defensive alliance friendly to the USSR
Gandhi begins leading nonviolent protests against British control. How? Salt March (to protest sea salt tax), hunger strikes, boycotts, and civil disobedience. Why? WW I left India with the impression that the British were oppressive. Armristar Massacre gave the British bad press. As a result…India was granted limited self rule (1947) Kwame Nkrumah: leader who helped Ghana gain independence from Britain
Mao Zedong: leader of the Communist movement in China Why did China “Go Red”? Weak government, foreign control over trade, nationalism, quest for modernization, end of WWI leads to Japanese control over territories. What was different about Chinese Communism? It empowered the peasants The Fourth of May: demonstration by workers, showed that China wanted to be a strong and modern country By 1930: Chinese Civil War: Nationalists (Jiang) were middle class (bankers) who feared Communist peasants. The Long March (1934-1935): 6,000 mile march by the Communists to keep ahead of the Nationalists
Israel becomes a country in 1948 by UN mandate (Arabs didn’t like this) 1948-1949 War : Five Arab countries attack, take Jerusalem, Israelis win it back, mass Palestinian exodus to refugee camps—causes a lot of problems later. Israel wins 1956 War : US/UK/France support Israelis, USSR supports Arabs. Suez Canal is claimed by Egypt. Lasts two weeks. Israel wins but doesn’t take Egypt 1967 War ( Six Days War): Palestinian guerillas bother Israelis, Israel attacks Arab countries and gain Jerusalem and other lands. Israel wins. 1973 (Yom Kippur) War : Egypt, Syrians and Iraqis attack Israel. Israel is caught off guard but Egyptians and Israelis sign ceasefire, minor Israeli victory. 1982 War : Palestinians attack Israel. PLO (Yasser Arafat) from Lebanon. Israel retaliates and Palestinians pull back. Camp David Accords : Egypt, Israel, and US meet to discuss peace with President Carter in 1979, Egypt vows not to attack Israel and they give up Suez Canal. Egyptians not happy. Sadat killed.
1954: Hydrogen Bomb Developed, more powerful than the A-Bomb 1959 : Castro becomes Cuban leader (Communist) and pushes the US out of the country trade embargo goes into effect. Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961): failed US uprising/invasion led JFK of Cuba. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962 ): thirteen day standoff where the USSR points missiles at the US from Cuba. Khruschev (Soviet leader) withdraws after negotiations. ICBM : Intercontinental Ballistic Missile: military buildup between US/USSR SALT : Strategic Arms Limitations Treaty: backing down of nuclear buildup of the US/USSR
Shining Path: Communist Party in Peru, used guerilla warfare in the 1980s Red Brigade: Marxist-Leninist group in Italy Hamas: Palestinian nationalist wing, often called a terrorist organization by the US Al-Qaeda: corporate terrorist organization believed to be responsible for the 9/11 attacks
World Trade Organization: established in 1995, made up of 153 countries, provides a mechanism for handing disputes, negotiations, monitoring trade policies, and promote cooperation OPEC: established in 1960, made up of 12 oil-rich countries, main goal is to establish oil prices and coordinate oil production policies United Nations : international peacekeeping org. supported by the Allies. Gen. Assembly to resolve conflicts. Multinational corporations: corporations (like McDonald’s, Apple, and Coca-Cola) that have global business
Rwanda: 1994 Hutus v. Tutsis mass genocide Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1992-1995. War of Nationalism between the Serbs, Bosnians, and Croats