Presentation on theme: "ACTIVE LEARNING PROCESS Prepared By : BHATT HARSHIT 13BEECM026 SOLANKI KAUSHAL 13BEECM033 Guided By : Prof. J M Panchal Branch: Electronics & Communication."— Presentation transcript:
ACTIVE LEARNING PROCESS Prepared By : BHATT HARSHIT 13BEECM026 SOLANKI KAUSHAL 13BEECM033 Guided By : Prof. J M Panchal Branch: Electronics & Communication
BOILER Boiler is an apparatus to produce steam. Thermal energy released by combustion of fuel issued to make steam at the desired temperature and pressure. The steam produced is used for: 1). For generating power in steam engines or steam turbines. 2). Heating the residential and industrial buildings. 3). Performing certain processes in the sugar mills, chemical and textile industries.
Selection of boiler: The working pressure & quality of steam. Steam generation. Floor area available. Accessibility for repair & inspection. Comparative initial cost. Erection facilities. The probable load factor. The fuel & water available. Operating & maintenance cost.
BOILER PROPERTIES a). Safety: The boiler should be safe under the operating conditions. b). Accessibility: the various part of boiler should be accessible for repair & maintenance. c). Capacity: Should be capable of supplying Steam according to the requirements. d). Efficiency: Should be able to absorb a maximum amount of heat produced due to burning of fuel in the furnace. e). It should be simple in construction. f). Its initial cost and maintenance cost is low. g). It should be capable of quick starting and loading.
CLASSIFICATION OF BOILERS The boiler may be classified as : 1.Horizontal, vertical or inclined 2.Fire tube & water tube 3.Externally fired & internally fired 4.Forced circulation & internally fired 5.High pressure & low pressure 6.Forced circulation & natural circulation 7.Stationary & portable 8.Single tube & multi tube boilers
1. Horizontal, vertical or inclined If the axis of boiler is horizontal, the boiler is called horizontal. If the axis is vertical then it is called vertical. If the axis is inclined then it is called inclined. Advantage of horizontal boiler: a. it should be repaired easily. b. occupies less floor area. Disadvantage: a. it occupies more space.
2. Fire tube & water tube boiler In the fire tube boiler the hot gases are inside the tubes & the water surrounds in the tube. ex. Cochran, locomotive etc. In the water tube boiler the water is inside the tube & the hot gases are surround them. ex. Stirling
3. Externally & internally fired The boiler is known as externally fired if the fire is outside the shell. ex. Babcock & wilcox In case of internally fired boilers, the furnace is located inside the boiler shell. ex: cochran, lancashire etc.
4. Forced circulation & natural circulation In forced circulation type of boilers the circulation of water is done by forced pumps. ex. Velox, lamont In natural circulation type of boiler the circulation of water in boiler takes place due to natural convention. ex. Lancashire, babcock
5. High pressure & low pressure boilers The boilers which produce steam at pressure of 80 bar and above are called high pressure boiler. ex. Velox The boiler which produce steam at pressure below 80 bar are called low pressure boiler. ex. cochran
6. Stationary & portable Stationary boilers are used for power plant-steam, for central station utility power plants, for plant process steam etc. Portable boilers are include locomotive type & other small units for temporary use at sites.
7. Single tube multi-tube boilers The fire tube boilers are classified as single tube & multi tube boilers, depending upon the fire tube is one more than one. Ex: cornish boiler
Boiler mainly classified as: a. fire tube b. water tube
Comparison between Fire-tube & water-tube boilers S no. ParticularsFire tube boilersWater tube boilers 1.Mode of firingInternally firedExternally fired 2. Rate of steam production lowerHigher 3.constructionDifficultSimple 4.transportationDifficultSimple 5.Treatment of waterNot so necessaryMore necessary 6. Operating pressure Limited to 16 bar Under high pressure as 100 bar 7.Floor areaMore floor areaLess floor area 8.Shell diameterLarge for same powerSmall same power 9.explosionLessMore 10.Risk of burstinglesserMore risk
TYPES OF FIRE TUBE BOILERS There are mainly five types of fire tube boilers : 1). Simple vertical boiler 2). Cochran boiler 3.) Cornish boiler 4). Lancashire boiler 5). Locomotive boilers
1). SIMPLE VERTICAL BOILER It consist of a cylindrical shell, the greater portion of which is full of water & remaining is the steam space. At the bottom of the fire box is grate on which fuel is burnt and the ash from it falls in the ash pit. A simple vertical boiler is self- contained & can be easily transported.
2). COCHRAN BOILER It is one of the best types of vertical multi-tubular boiler, and has a number of horizontal fir tubes. Cochran boiler consist of a cylindrical shell with a dome shaped top where the space is provided for steam.
3). CORNISH BOILER consists of a cylindrical shell with flat ends through which passes a smaller flue tube containing the furnace. The products of combustion pass from the fire grate forward over the brickwork bridge to the end of the furnace tube.
4). LANCASHIRE BOILER This boiler is reliable, has simplicity of design, ease of operation & less operating & maintenance costs. It is commonly used in sugar- mills & textile industries where along with the power system & steam for the process work is also needed.
About Locomotive boilers : Locomotive boiler is a horizontal fire tube type mobile boiler. The main requirement of this boiler is that it should produce steam at a very high rate. Therefore, this boiler requires a large amount of heating surface and large grate area to burn coal at a rapid rate. In order to provide the large heating surface area, a large number of fire tubes are setup and heat transfer rate is increased by creating strong draught by means of steam jet. ADVANTAGE : a. Large rate of steam generation per square meter of heating surface. To some extent this is due to the vibration caused by the motion. b. It is very compact. c. The pressure of the steam is limited to about 20 bar.
WATER TUBE BOILERS ARE CLASSIFIED AS : 1). Horizontal Straight tube boiler There are two types of Horizontal straight tube boiler: a. Longitudinal drum b. Cross drum there are three types of cross drum boiler : 1. two drum 2. four drum 3. three drum 2). Bent tube boiler There are one type of bent tube boiler : a. Low head three drum
BOILER PERFORMANCE 1). Evaporative capacity : It can be expressed in terms of : a. kg of steam/hr b. kg of hour/hr/m2 of heating surface c. kg of steam/kg of fuel fired 2). Factor of Evaporation It is defined as the ratio of the heat received by 1kg of water at the working conditions to that received by 1 kg of water evaporated from and at 100 degree.