3 Johnston Construction Company Multi-trade Engineered Construction since 1976Regionally focused, full service design-build environmental general contractorIntegrated design-build partner with experience from raw to finished water & influent to effluentTreatment plant construction accounts for 80% of our work with other related construction accounting for the balance
4 Johnston Construction Company: Differentiating Capabilities Fully Integrated Design-Build (small projects)Team Approach to Design-Build (majority of projects)Professional Certifications including PE & DBIAFull Self Perform Capabilities (excavation, concrete, mechanical)Vast Design-Build Experience (since 1980s)
5 An Academic Perspective: Performance Evaluation of Design-Build vs An Academic Perspective: Performance Evaluation of Design-Build vs. Design-Bid-Build for Water and Wastewater FacilitiesResearch Study DirectorsSusan Bogus Halter, PhD, PE (Univ. of New Mexico)Keith Molenaar, PhD, DBIA (Univ. of Colorado)Jennifer Shane, PhD (Iowa State Univ.)Research Study ObjectivesDevelop a statistically-significant data set of municipal water and wastewater infrastructure projectsQuantify the relative cost, schedule, and quality differencesProvide an overall evaluation of design-build and design-bid-build delivery methodsFunded by the Water Design-Build Council
6 Key Study Findings: Performance Evaluation of Design-Build vs Key Study Findings: Performance Evaluation of Design-Build vs. Design-Bid-Build for Water and Wastewater FacilitiesThe median schedule growth after contract award for design-build projects is half as large as the schedule growth for design-bid-build projects;Design-build projects finish on or below contract price twice as often as design-bid-build projects;The average intensity (value of work completed per month) of design-build projects is more than double that of design-bid-build projects;Contracts using guaranteed maximum prices (GMPs) are more likely to have no schedule or cost growth as compared to projects with lump-sum contracts; andThere is no significant difference in constructed quality between design-build and design-bid-build projects.
8 Lesson Learned: Design-Build Cost Advantages Design-Build RFPs provide project costs from multiple teams prior to the owner investing in the projectMinimal expense is incurred in developing the RFPsSole source responsibility minimizes owner’s riskBenefit from not having to adhere to Spearin Doctrine (owner warrants plans and specs) which does not apply to design-build
9 Lesson Learned: Design-Build Cost Advantages (con’t) Change orders result from changes in scope (not design omissions)Standard bidding documents are not requiredThe common practice is for the design to comply with standard specification and detailsThe owner should plainly state the specific features wanted in the RFP
10 Lesson Learned: The Fast Track Requires Team Commitment
11 Team Challenges of Fast Tracked Projects Preliminary design, equipment selection and pricing are performed concurrently during the RFP and proposal stage.The owner should provide direction on the acceptability of the major equipment selection when the proposal is accepted.The design is finalized around specific equipment manufactures rather than specifications.Equipment may be procured and shop drawings may be reviewed while the final design is being completed.
12 Lesson Learned: Use Cost Information to Guide the Design
13 Use Cost Information to Guide the Design General Contractors have the unique perspective of working with many engineers and seeing different approaches to similar projects – they frequently think outside the boxConstructability issues can be identified and corrected early - before costs are incurredGeneral Contractors may offer the most economical construction means and methods during the preliminary design phase.Complete estimates can be done along with conceptual designs
14 Lessons Learned: Key Tenets of a Successful RFP
15 Lesson Learned: Key Tenets of a Successful RFP Clearly define the project objectiveIdentify regulatory deadlineUpgrade plant while maintaining operationIncrease capacityBe upfront about the level of owner control requiredSubmittal review & approval authorityCompliance with standard specifications and detailsIdentify plant specific items that must be included in the projectUse descriptive form (prescriptive only as needed)Clearly define the evaluation criteria
16 RFP Format: General – Descriptive A general RFP has a descriptive styleGives Design-Build team maximum flexibility and owner least controlOwner will realize the greatest cost and time savingsOwner should be comfortable with the lack of control or problems will arise during the projectRecommendation: The design-builder should include a detailed scope of work with clarifications in the proposalNot recommended if the owner has strong preferences for equipment, materials and finishesHighly recommend an allowance/contingency format to allow the owner to add upgrades or additional scopeExamplesPreference for maximum thickness slabsPreference for FRP panels instead of gypsum boardThe addition of wash down stations for maintenance personnelAdditional spare parts and extended warranties
17 RFP Format: Specification - Prescriptive A Specification-based RFP has a prescriptive styleGives Design-Build team limited flexibility and owner greatest controlOwner limits cost and time saving opportunitiesOwner retains maximum controlDesign creativity is limited as a result of specified equipment and finishesMay expose owner to liability for performance and delivery issues
18 Lesson Learned: Design-Build Offers Flexibility in Proposal Evaluation Low Bid – price onlyOnce prequalified, assume qualifications are equivalentFrequently followed on smaller projects where a qualification proposal is not warrantedThe RFQ process is typically by invitation only based on the owner’s past experience with Design-BuildersExperience & PriceA point system can be developed for evaluating proposalsExperience and price proposals submitted in separate envelopesQualifications are rated before opening and evaluating price proposal to avoid influencing the qualification evaluation.Example: Clearly Defined Evaluation Criteria (next slide)
20 Lesson Learned: A Successful Project Requires Design-Build Process
21 Design-Build Processes Importance of specific design-build process is often overlookedTraditional processes must be reinvented to handle typical characteristics of design-buildDesign-build is often fast pacedDesign-build often includes concurrent design & constructionDesign-build teams operate from many locationsSuccess requires a well organized, documented processTeam experience with design-build is critical
22 Submittals Require Effective Distribution & Clearly Defined Direction
23 Remote offices are included as if they were on-site Submittals Require Effective Distribution & Clearly Defined DirectionThe process must evolve as technology moves forward to encourage usage and participationEncourages collaboration from all team members from various design disciplines, maintenance groups and operations personnelRemote offices are included as if they were on-siteCommunication is faster, easier and more efficientThe project will stay organized from procurement through startup and training when comments are organized and the comment history is maintained
24 Lesson Learned: Successful Design-Build Teams are Aligned
25 A Design-Build Philosophy Guides the Team to Make Decisions that Advance the Project JCC leads project throughout the entire process to ensure there are zero accidents and project is on time and below costJCC will deliver value to the owner while containing costs and maximizing profitsJCC accepts the additional risks that come with design-build but is attracted to the opportunities to utilize our strengths in personnel, processes, and knowledge base to achieve exceptional client satisfactionJCC will proactively address issues that threaten the safety of the project participants, conformity with project schedule, and economic return of the teamJCC will manage employees, subcontractors, vendors, suppliers, design professionals, quality control professionals, owner representatives, regulatory agencies and all other extended team members that influence the project success
27 Design-Build Team Basics The best teams are built to offer the best value to ownersTrust and cooperation will determine the success of the projectThe reputation of team members is an important selection criteriaIntegrityQualitySafetyThe Design-Build Contractor and Engineer will protect their quality reputation
28 Design-Build Team Success Factors Can the team demonstrate a history of success on past projects?How have they handled difficult situations on past projects?Have the Construction PM & Design PM worked cooperatively in the past?Will the Construction PM and Design PM work well together?
29 Lesson Learned: Efficiency and Speed in Execution
30 6th Street Water Treatment Plant Completion of the project within regulatory deadlines required a fast-tracked construction schedule with close coordination between team members
31 6th Street Water Treatment Plant A fast-tracked project was required to accommodate treatment of a new raw water sourceBlack & Veach Construction, Inc. worked with United Water to permit and procure the selected equipment while selecting a design-build contractorThe design-build approach saved time over preparing 100% drawings and specifications before contractor selection
32 Quantico Mainside Treatment Plant Upgrade A previous upgrade that had not addressed all treatment requirements and left the plant unable to meet permitted discharge limits. The design-build approach was selected under a special fast-tracked contract method to identify key issues and correct them quickly and economically.
33 Quantico Mainside Treatment Plant Upgrade The RFP presented a brief engineering report highlighting areas which needed improvementThe successful team was to provide the most value for the available fundsThe project includes design, permitting, construction and commissioning of improvements, such as:Procurement was accelerated - shop drawings were requested within one week of contract execution based on contingent orders and verbal commitments.Owner Control – various equipment scope changes increased the time required to procure some equipment. These issues were incorporated into the procurement plan quickly; however, funding issues put strain on the schedule.
37 Amber Meadows Pump Station The design-build approach yielded creative solutions to seemingly impossible issues facing the upgrade of an existing station with confined space issues, adjacent property boundary constraints and bypass requirements.
38 Amber Meadows Pump Station (Before) Station located inside 20ft sewer easementNo right-away flexibilityAdjacent roadway & apartment complex
39 Amber Meadows Pump Station (After) Utilize suction lift pumps in lieu of submersiblesUtilize existing wetwellMinimize bypass pumpingEliminate confined space issues
40 Little Patuxent WRF – Dreyer’s Ice Cream The additional of a major ice cream manufacturer in the service area required the fast-tracked upgrade of the treatment process to handle high organic loading. CMAR was chosen to incentivize the team to provide a successful fast-tracked construction project in a collaborative setting during the design and construction of the project.
41 Little Patuxent WRF – Dreyer’s Ice Cream Collaboration using an Alternate Delivery Method, CMAR, allowed the project to progress through design, permitting and construction with maximum input from all personnel An open book approach was taken to cost estimating with owner and owners representative participating directly in the building of the estimate. An off-ramp was available if a price could not be negotiated successfully.
43 BIMC Sanitary & Storm Pump Station The single source responsibility of design-build and a clear and concise proposal allowed the maintenance contractor to upgrade aging infrastructure quickly.
44 BIMC Sanitary & Storm Pump Station A small scope should not deter an owner from pursuing design- buildMaintenance projects can be completed quickly – without major permittingDesign, specification, and drawing preparation are minimizedA few projects were priced, not all were funded, and the owner/maintenance contractor did not pay anything in design fees
45 Deer Path Woods Pump Station Small pump station project performed for a repeat client. The use of design-build reduced the overall project cost by taking advantage of single source responsibility and eliminating duplication found in a traditional design and construction project.
46 Deer Path Woods Pump Station Small projects are well suited to design-buildDesign costs can be minimized when a team has a history of working togetherCost savings are achieved when drawings are prepared by the installing contractor
48 Northrop Grumman AIMS Pretreatment Plant JCC and Siemens teamed to turnkey the pretreatment plant for a new printed circuit board manufacturing process. Selection of team members provided the ability to fast track a specialized facility.
49 Northrop Grumman AIMS Pretreatment Plant The team provided the owner with a high quality turnkey solutionSiemens is a leader in pretreatment technology for the printed circuit board segment and provided a system from their standard catalogue of products. This provided a high confidence level in the ability of the system to perform and allowed us to quickly progress the designJCC is a quality, regional design-build contractor with the ability to provide sole source responsibility and self perform all trades
50 Frederick Solids Handling Upgrade JCC and Buchart-Horn teamed to upgrade the digesters to accommodate ENR loading and restore usage after complete failure of the covers occurred. The team had prior knowledge of the digesters and plant operations and they had done a design-build project to improve digester mixing on one of digesters previously.
51 Frederick Solids Handling Upgrade The design-build team each brought significant expertise to the project to benefit the owner
52 WSSC Energy Conservation Measures Building a team of specialists, JCC and BG&E, partnered to provide an energy performance project which upgraded failed equipment without using the capital or operating budget.
53 WSSC Energy Conservation Measures The Constellation Energy Division of BGE has the expertise to perform innovative energy performance projects which self fundJCC provided the expertise to price many Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) based on conceptual estimates for evaluation by the ownerThe procurement method had not been applied to waste water treatment in the past - teamwork overcame those barriers
54 Sidebar: Design-Build Opportunities in Energy Performance Contracting
55 Energy Performance Contracting Provides Design-Build Opportunities “Energy represents the largest controllable cost of providing water or wastewater services to the public. Most facilities were designed and built when energy costs were not a major concern. With large pumps, drives, motors, and other equipment operating 24 hours a day, water and wastewater utilities can be among the largest individual energy users in a community.” (Ensuring a Sustainable Future: An Energy Management Guidebook for Wastewater and Water Utilities)
56 Opportunities: Find the Low Hanging Fruit – Energy Usage is an Easy Target Accounts for 3% of the TOTAL electric load in the US (CEE, 2007)Eighty percent of water treatment plant energy consumption goes to pumping – raw water, high service, backwash, and distribution system boosters (EPRI 2002)Drinking water and wastewater treatment consume up to 35 percent of a utility’s operating budget (Jacobs, Kerestes, and Riddle 2003/WRF)Energy costs for water and wastewater can be 1/3 of a municipality's total energy bill (Ensuring a Sustainable Future: An Energy Management Guidebook for Wastewater and Water Utilities)Electricity is the 2nd largest operating cost at WWTPs, ~25 to 40% of the total operating budget (PGE, 2003)Loads expected to increase by 20% in next 15 years due to increased populations and more stringent regulations (Ensuring a Sustainable Future: An Energy Management Guidebook for Wastewater and Water Utilities)Electricity accounts for ~80% of all water processing and distribution costs at WTPs (EPRI, 2002)
58 Takeaway: Opportunities for Action Changes in regulations, aging infrastructure and new technology provide potential opportunitiesEnergy efficiency investments often have outstanding rates of return and can reduce costs at a facility by 5%, 10%, 25%, or more (Ensuring a Sustainable Future: An Energy Management Guidebook for Wastewater and Water Utilities)Upgrades will SELF FUND though FUTURE ENERGY SAVINGSAdditional projects may be incorporated using the excess cost savingsSuggest Incorporating ECMs into the strategic planECMs often go hand-in-hand with increased efficiencyECMs often include increased capacityECMs often include increased ability to meet effluent limitationsECMs often reduce O&M requirementsECMs result in reduced energy costs
59 Questions? Trey Johnston, PE, DBIA, President & CEO and Mike Geissler, PE, DBIA, Design-Build Manager