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Advertising. Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or.

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Presentation on theme: "Advertising. Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advertising

2 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media. Bovee/Arens, 1992

3 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.

4 Two kinds of selling Personal Personal Plenty of time to deliver the message Plenty of time to deliver the message Done face to face Done face to face Message can be adjusted to fit how it’s getting across Message can be adjusted to fit how it’s getting across Easy to find customers Easy to find customers Expensive in both time and money Labor-intensive Time consuming

5 Non-Personal Limited in time and/or space Limited in time and/or space Don’t know who the customer is Don’t know who the customer is Don’t know how the customer is reacting Don’t know how the customer is reacting Can’t change the message in mid-stream Can’t change the message in mid-stream Message doesn’t have to be created on the spot Extensive research Far cheaper than personal selling

6 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.

7 The Senses Smell Smell Touch Touch Taste Taste Sound Sound Sight Sight

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10 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.

11 Affirmative disclosure "Sometimes the consumer is provided not with information he wants but only with the information the seller wants him to have. Sellers, for instance, are not inclined to advertise negative aspects of their products even though those aspects may be of primary concern to the consumer, particularly if they involve considerations of health or safety... " "Sometimes the consumer is provided not with information he wants but only with the information the seller wants him to have. Sellers, for instance, are not inclined to advertise negative aspects of their products even though those aspects may be of primary concern to the consumer, particularly if they involve considerations of health or safety... " Lewis A. Engman, FTC Chair

12 Puffery The legitimate exaggeration of advertising claims to overcome natural consumer skepticism The legitimate exaggeration of advertising claims to overcome natural consumer skepticism

13 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.

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16 The bundle of values Functional value Functional value Social value Social value Psychological value Psychological value Economic value Economic value Whatever else the consumer thinks is important Whatever else the consumer thinks is important

17 Three ways to differentiate products Perceptible Perceptible Actual differences Actual differences Easily seen Easily seen Imperceptible Imperceptible Actual differences Actual differences Can’t be seen Can’t be seen Induced Induced No actual differences No actual differences Parity products Parity products

18 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media.

19 Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media

20 Has been around for a long time Has been around for a long time We still don’t know what the Lascoux paintings were for We still don’t know what the Lascoux paintings were for

21 For the first few thousand years advertising promoted locations, services and “want ads”.

22 Ad written on a Roman tomb Weather permitting, 30 pairs of gladiators, furnished by A. Clodius Flaccus, together with substitutes in case any get killed too quickly, will fight May 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd at the Circus Maximus. The fights will be followed by a big wild beast hunt. The famous gladiator Paris will fight. Hurrah for Paris! Hurrah for the generous Flaccus, who is running for Duumvirate. Weather permitting, 30 pairs of gladiators, furnished by A. Clodius Flaccus, together with substitutes in case any get killed too quickly, will fight May 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd at the Circus Maximus. The fights will be followed by a big wild beast hunt. The famous gladiator Paris will fight. Hurrah for Paris! Hurrah for the generous Flaccus, who is running for Duumvirate.

23 Under the ad was written: Marcus wrote this sign by the light of the moon. If you hire Marcus, he’ll work day and night to do a good job. Daniel Mannix, Those About to Die

24 Location

25 Handbills and fliers to promote events or to recruit for the military

26 Handbill recruiting sailors for Handbill recruiting sailors for USS Constitution 1798

27 Ad about runaway slave

28 Since most products such as shoes and clothing were one-of and made to order you only needed to advertise where to order

29 Service

30 Industrial Revolution Early 19 th Century Early 19 th Century Mass production of products Mass production of products Led to three stages of marketing: Led to three stages of marketing:

31 Production-oriented Demand far outstripped supply Demand far outstripped supply Could just advertise the existence of the product and where to get it Could just advertise the existence of the product and where to get it Whatever was made was sold Whatever was made was sold Example: People wanted cars, so car companies made whatever they wanted and the cars were sold before they were built Example: People wanted cars, so car companies made whatever they wanted and the cars were sold before they were built

32 Sales-oriented Supply exceeded demand Supply exceeded demand Companies tried to convince consumers to buy their products rather than their competitors’ Companies tried to convince consumers to buy their products rather than their competitors’ Companies still made whatever they wanted, counting on their ability to peddle their products Companies still made whatever they wanted, counting on their ability to peddle their products Example: supply of cars went up, so the companies made whatever they wanted and convinced people they wanted that Example: supply of cars went up, so the companies made whatever they wanted and convinced people they wanted that

33 Marketing-oriented Supply of products far exceeded demand Supply of products far exceeded demand More choices than any promotion could overcome More choices than any promotion could overcome Resistance to “hard-sell” Resistance to “hard-sell” Companies tried to discover what products consumers wanted before making them, then advertise they had it Companies tried to discover what products consumers wanted before making them, then advertise they had it Non-American companies (e.g., VW) found out what people wanted, then built cars that had it (e.g., a gas gauge) Non-American companies (e.g., VW) found out what people wanted, then built cars that had it (e.g., a gas gauge)

34 Let’s take a example The American auto industry

35 Production-oriented

36 Sales-oriented

37 Marketing-oriented

38 Early sales-oriented ads were basically “caveat emptor” (let the buyer beware) Early sales-oriented ads were basically “caveat emptor” (let the buyer beware) Producers said whatever they wanted and thought they could get away with Producers said whatever they wanted and thought they could get away with For example, the “Health Jolting Chair” For example, the “Health Jolting Chair”

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40 Led to consumer and competitor anger Led to consumer and competitor anger 1938 – Federal Trade Commission given power to regulate deceptive and unfair advertising 1938 – Federal Trade Commission given power to regulate deceptive and unfair advertising Advertising could no longer lie, so new approaches were tried Advertising could no longer lie, so new approaches were tried

41 40s and 50s Era of the hard-sell Era of the hard-sell Rosser Reeves “irritation school of advertising” Rosser Reeves “irritation school of advertising” Relied on brain-numbing repetition and treating the consumer as an idiot Relied on brain-numbing repetition and treating the consumer as an idiot The USP – Unique Selling Proposition The USP – Unique Selling Proposition It was jack-hammered into consumers’ skulls It was jack-hammered into consumers’ skulls

42 A Reeves ad

43 60s The positioning era The positioning era Shift to the soft-sell Shift to the soft-sell Compare your product to your competitors’ Compare your product to your competitors’ Treat consumers as intelligent Treat consumers as intelligent Appeal to emotion more than intellect Appeal to emotion more than intellect

44 General comments on ads Advertising is limited in time and/or space Advertising is limited in time and/or space Breaks the rules of grammar and syntax Breaks the rules of grammar and syntax Ads contain two elements Ads contain two elements Copy Copy illustrations illustrations

45 Two basic ways of presenting a sales message Intellectually Intellectually Usually about the product’s function Usually about the product’s function Usually copy heavy and line drawings Usually copy heavy and line drawings Emotionally Emotionally Usually not about the product’s function Usually not about the product’s function Usually copy is light with high connotative content Usually copy is light with high connotative content Uses photographs or video Uses photographs or video

46 Advertising aims at consumers’ subconscious minds much more than their conscious minds Advertising aims at consumers’ subconscious minds much more than their conscious minds It’s all about getting the consumer to react on a basic, instinctive level, and not think at all It’s all about getting the consumer to react on a basic, instinctive level, and not think at all It’s about “act now” on your basic desires – think only of yourself It’s about “act now” on your basic desires – think only of yourself It’s usually selfish and anti-social It’s usually selfish and anti-social

47 Psychological Appeals Self-preservation Self-preservation Sex Sex Greed Greed Self-esteem Self-esteem Personal enjoyment Personal enjoyment Constructiveness Destructiveness Curiosity Imitation Altruism

48 Self-preservation “Listen to me, I’ll keep you alive” “Listen to me, I’ll keep you alive” Because humans are so social, we extend the appeal to others, like family, friends, and social group Because humans are so social, we extend the appeal to others, like family, friends, and social group

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51 Sex Appeal “Listen to me, I’ll get you laid” “Listen to me, I’ll get you laid” Gender linked because of different goals: Gender linked because of different goals: For men it’s sex with ease and no complications For men it’s sex with ease and no complications In other words, attract more women that want to have sex with you In other words, attract more women that want to have sex with you For women it’s attract more men from which to choose For women it’s attract more men from which to choose Select the best among the possible choices, and the greater the selection, the better the choice Select the best among the possible choices, and the greater the selection, the better the choice

52 Sex Appeal Male and female animals have different sexual strategies based on the cost of sex Male and female animals have different sexual strategies based on the cost of sex Males are promiscuous because the cost is very low Males are promiscuous because the cost is very low A little time, a little energy, then move on A little time, a little energy, then move on Criteria are simple – she has to be there, breathing, and impregnable Criteria are simple – she has to be there, breathing, and impregnable Females are picky because the cost is so high Females are picky because the cost is so high Lots of time, lots of energy Lots of time, lots of energy Must select the best possible male, not the nearest Must select the best possible male, not the nearest Criteria can be complex Criteria can be complex

53 Non-humans are concerned with genetics Non-humans are concerned with genetics Males want, on an instinctive level, to have as many offspring as possible to ensure genetic success Males want, on an instinctive level, to have as many offspring as possible to ensure genetic success Females, because of the cost of reproduction, on an instinctive level want the best genes in their male Females, because of the cost of reproduction, on an instinctive level want the best genes in their male Males compete with other males, usually physically, to demonstrate they’re the best choice Males compete with other males, usually physically, to demonstrate they’re the best choice Females select the winner because he’s shown he’s better than the other males Females select the winner because he’s shown he’s better than the other males

54 For most animals, it is the female that deals with raising offspring (a major part of the cost of sex) For most animals, it is the female that deals with raising offspring (a major part of the cost of sex) The male has no place in rearing offspring (she’ll even drive him away) The male has no place in rearing offspring (she’ll even drive him away) The major exception is birds The major exception is birds Even there, the female will often select one male as the father, and another male to help her raise the chicks Even there, the female will often select one male as the father, and another male to help her raise the chicks

55 Sex appeal in humans Humans have the most complex social life on Earth Humans have the most complex social life on Earth Instinctive criteria for men are the same as for any other male animal – she’s there Instinctive criteria for men are the same as for any other male animal – she’s there Criteria for women is far more complex: Criteria for women is far more complex: Not just genetically, but socially: Not just genetically, but socially: Be a good father – help with raising children Be a good father – help with raising children be a good provider – have money, social connections, etc. be a good provider – have money, social connections, etc.

56 Sex appeal for men Buy the product, get the woman Buy the product, get the woman Think of all those Axe commercials Think of all those Axe commercials

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59 Sex appeal for women For most female animals, genetic quality is the most important For women, it’s a good provider For women, it’s a good provider The ad shows he has money, cares about her as an individual, and will stick around The ad shows he has money, cares about her as an individual, and will stick around It’s called “romance” It’s called “romance”

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62 The use of sex appeal in advertising may appear sexist. That’s because it is – on a social level. But sex in advertising aims at instinct, and society is conscious, not subconscious.

63 Advertising often appeals to one gender at the social expense of the other.

64 Greed “Listen to me, I’ll make you rich” “Listen to me, I’ll make you rich” Human social life requires having resources, usually represented by money Human social life requires having resources, usually represented by money Instinctively, “greed is good” Instinctively, “greed is good”

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67 Self-esteem Requires a social group Requires a social group Requires the individual to be able to make a comparison with other individuals in the group Requires the individual to be able to make a comparison with other individuals in the group Thus, requires a sense of self as a separate entity from others Thus, requires a sense of self as a separate entity from others

68 Self-esteem Again, there’s an instinctive gender link Again, there’s an instinctive gender link For men, it’s competitive For men, it’s competitive Demonstrate he’s the best male around Demonstrate he’s the best male around Self-esteem comes from a sense of superiority Self-esteem comes from a sense of superiority For women, it’s cooperative For women, it’s cooperative Make and maintain as many connections as possible Make and maintain as many connections as possible Self-esteem comes from a sense of connection Self-esteem comes from a sense of connection

69 Self-esteem for men Demonstration of superiority Demonstration of superiority Buy the product, be the superior man Buy the product, be the superior man Often shows a “loser” beating a “winner” because the loser buys the product Often shows a “loser” beating a “winner” because the loser buys the product

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72 Self-esteem for women The product increases the number and quality of connections with others The product increases the number and quality of connections with others

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76 Personal Enjoyment “Listen to me, you’ll have more fun” “Listen to me, you’ll have more fun” Humans, because of their intelligence, are often easily bored by routine Humans, because of their intelligence, are often easily bored by routine The ad promotes getting out of the routine The ad promotes getting out of the routine In other words, have fun In other words, have fun

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79 Constructiveness “Listen to me, I’ll help you improve things” “Listen to me, I’ll help you improve things” A desire to build and improve on whatever you have A desire to build and improve on whatever you have

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82 Destructiveness “Listen to me, I’ll tell you how to destroy things” “Listen to me, I’ll tell you how to destroy things” We all have a desire to occasionally blow things up We all have a desire to occasionally blow things up Just watch “The Mythbusters” Just watch “The Mythbusters” There does seem to be a gender link – men seem to like it more than women There does seem to be a gender link – men seem to like it more than women

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85 Curiosity “Listen to me, I’ll answer your questions” “Listen to me, I’ll answer your questions” We all want answers to things – it’s a survival characteristic We all want answers to things – it’s a survival characteristic The problem is raising that curiosity – if the person doesn’t care about the answer, it’s a useless appeal The problem is raising that curiosity – if the person doesn’t care about the answer, it’s a useless appeal

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88 Imitation “Listen to me, I’ll make you just like someone else” “Listen to me, I’ll make you just like someone else” Requires the person to want to be like the model Requires the person to want to be like the model Almost always linked to one or the top five appeals Almost always linked to one or the top five appeals

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92 Altruism “Listen to me, you’ll give of yourself with no hope or expectation of return” “Listen to me, you’ll give of yourself with no hope or expectation of return” Doesn’t exist as an ideal Doesn’t exist as an ideal Reciprocal altruism does exist Reciprocal altruism does exist I’ll do for you now, you do for me later I’ll do for you now, you do for me later Linked to top five Linked to top five

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95 Tricks of the Trade Advertising often uses logical fallacies rather than giving logical reasons to buy the product advertised. Advertising often uses logical fallacies rather than giving logical reasons to buy the product advertised. You think the ad is saying one thing when it fact it’s saying something else, or saying nothing at all You think the ad is saying one thing when it fact it’s saying something else, or saying nothing at all

96 Black/White “You want it [whatever it is], you can only get it from us.” “You want it [whatever it is], you can only get it from us.” It leaves out any other options, e.g., “love it or leave it.” It leaves out any other options, e.g., “love it or leave it.”

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99 Buzz Words Words that seem to say something, but what? “Crisp” “Natural” “Organic”

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102 Weasel Words Words tossed into a sentence that changes the meaning while leaving an impression that’s different Words tossed into a sentence that changes the meaning while leaving an impression that’s different Examples: Examples:

103 “Our [canned] corn is as good as fresh cooked corn.” Libby’s Vegetables Note it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh corn, but as good as fresh cooked corn. Note it doesn’t say it’s as good as fresh corn, but as good as fresh cooked corn. Cooked corn has had vitamins and minerals boiled out in the cooking process. Cooked corn has had vitamins and minerals boiled out in the cooking process. And now you have to heat the corn again, which takes out even more nutrients. And now you have to heat the corn again, which takes out even more nutrients. The weasel is “cooked” The weasel is “cooked”

104 “Our dog food contains as much meat protein as 10 pounds of sirloin steak. Alpo dog food Targets people who love their dogs Targets people who love their dogs Doesn’t contain sirloin steak, only as much meat protein as sirloin steak Doesn’t contain sirloin steak, only as much meat protein as sirloin steak That could be any kind of meat – it’s sure not sirloin, and may not even come from a cow That could be any kind of meat – it’s sure not sirloin, and may not even come from a cow

105 Three out of four doctors recommend the major ingredient in Excedrin.

106 “Some studies seem to suggest that eating the major ingredient in our cereal may have an effect on certain kinds of cancer.” “Some studies seem to suggest that eating the major ingredient in our cereal may have an effect on certain kinds of cancer.”

107 “If...” The ultimate weasel word

108 Begging the Question The question contains a statement that has not been and is never proven, basically saying that something is simply because it is. The question contains a statement that has not been and is never proven, basically saying that something is simply because it is. Example: Example: “Henry Miller’s filthy books should be banned.” “Henry Miller’s filthy books should be banned.” Contains the unsupported premise that the books are filthy. Contains the unsupported premise that the books are filthy.

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111 Dangling Comparative There appears to be a comparison, but compared to what? There appears to be a comparison, but compared to what? It relies on the consumer filling in the blank It relies on the consumer filling in the blank

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114 Complaints about advertising It perpetuates stereotypes It perpetuates stereotypes Absolutely true Absolutely true It has to It has to Makes people buy things they don’t need Makes people buy things they don’t need Not true Not true Advertising can’t make anybody do anything Advertising can’t make anybody do anything


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