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Psychological Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Psychological Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychological Disorders
Dr. Stephen Landman

2 Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence
Mental Retardation; Learning Disorders Communication Disorders Autistic Spectrum Disorders Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Feeding and Eating Disorders of Infancy or Early Childhood Tic Disorders Other Disorders of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence: Selective Mutism | Separation Anxiety Disorder | Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood | Stereotypic Movement Disorder

3 Mental Retardation Mild Mental Retardation: IQ level to approximately 70 Moderate Mental Retardation: IQ level to 50-55  Severe Mental Retardation: IQ level to 35-40  Profound Mental Retardation: IQ level below 20 or 25

4 Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)
Severe impairment pervades broad areas of social and psychological development in children Asperger's Disorder | Autistic Disorder | Childhood Disintegrative Disorder | Rett's Disorder

5 Autistic Disorder Autistic disorder (also called autism) is a neurological and developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life. A child with autism appears to live in his/her own world, showing little interest in others, and a lack of social awareness. The focus of an autistic child is a consistent routine and includes an interest in repeating odd and peculiar behaviors. Autistic children often have problems in communication, avoid eye contact, and show limited attachment to others. The evidence is NOT that it is caused by vaccinations.

6 Asperger's Disorder (AD)
Asperger's (or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted, stereotyped interests and activities. AS is distinguished from the other ASDs in having no general delay in language or cognitive development. Although not mentioned in standard diagnostic criteria, motor clumsiness and atypical use of language are frequently reported.

7 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Children appear to develop normally for the first two years of life, but then lose skills in areas such as language, play, and bowel control and manifest impaired social interaction and communication associated with "restrictive, repetitive, stereotyped" behaviors.

8 Rett's Disorder Children with Rett’s Disorder appear to develop normally at first, but their head growth slows, they lose social "engagement" and hand skills, and they develop stereotyped movements of the hands and poorly coordinated gait or trunk movements. There is also psychomotor retardation and impairment of language development.

9 Attention-Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Conduct Disorder Oppositional Defiant Disorder

10 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity

11 Conduct Disorder Aggression to People & Animals
Destruction of Property Deceitfulness or theft  Serious violations of rules 

12 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
This diagnosis involves a pattern of defiant, angry, antagonistic, hostile, irritable, or vindictive behavior. These children may blame others for their problems.

13 Delirium, Dementia, and Amnestic and Other Cognitive Disorders

14 Delirium Although classified as a mental disorder because it involves fluctuating level of consciousness and pervasive impairment in mental, behavioral, and emotional functioning, this brain state, which is usually of acute onset and temporary duration, is probably always caused by physical disease, head trauma, or drug effect.

15 Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception.

16 Dementia Due to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision problems and poor muscle coordination progress quickly to dementia, coma and death. Most patients die within a year. The three main categories of CJD are sporadic CJD, which occurs for no known reason hereditary CJD, which runs in families acquired CJD, which occurs from contact with infected tissue, usually during a medical procedure Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or "mad cow disease." It is possible that people can get a variant of CJD from eating beef from an infected animal.

17 Vascular Dementia Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer disease (AD). The condition is not a single disease; it is a group of syndromes relating to different vascular mechanisms. Vascular dementia is preventable; therefore, early detection and an accurate diagnosis are important. A common type is multi-infarct dementia

18 Substance-Related Disorders
Alcohol Amphetamines Caffeine Cannabis Cocaine Hallucinogens Inhalants Nicotine Opiods Phencyclidine Sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics Polysubstance

19 Schizophrenia Catatonic Disorganized Paranoid Undifferentiated

20 Schizophrenia: Symptoms
Positive Symptoms Delusions (Persecution, Grandeur, Control, Reference, Nihilistic, Religious, Somatic, Erotomania, Thought Insertion, Thought Broadcasting); Hallucinations Negative Symptoms Flat Affect, Inability to Initiate Activities, Brief Speech, Lack of Pleasure Cognitive Symptoms Problems with Memory, Organizing, Prioritizing, Judgment, Reasoning, Lack of Insight

21 Other Psychotic Disorders
Schizophreniform Disorder Schizoaffective Disorder Delusional Disorder Brief Psychotic Disorder Shared Psychotic Disorder

22 Intersections of Mental Illness and the Law
Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity John Hinckley, Jr.; Andrea Yates Competence to Stand Trial Involuntary Hospitalization (Civil Commitment) Starts with Mental Inquest Warrant Kentucky Law Juvenile Court – Disposition of Delinquents Civil Court Proceedings (Divorce & Custody)

23 Symptoms of Depression
Depressed Mood (Beyond Sadness) Loss of Interest and Pleasure in Usually Enjoyed Activities Tearfulness Suicidal Ideation (Thoughts, Impulses, Actions) Weight Changes; Eating Changes Sleep Changes Psychomotor Retardation or Agitation Loss of Libido Fatigue Feelings of Guilt, Worthlessness, Pessimism Difficulty Concentrating; “Brain Fog”

24 Mood Disorders Dysthymic Disorder Major Depression Pseudodementia
Bipolar Disorder Difference between hypomania and mania Postpartum Depression Seasonal Affective Disorder

25 Psychosomatic Disorder A disorder in which there is a real physical illness that is largely caused by psychological factors such as stress and anxiety. Somatoform Disorders Disorders in which there is an apparent physical illness for which there is no organic basis Somatization Disorder A somatoform disorder characterized by recurrent vague somatic complaints without a physical cause.

26 Somatoform Disorders These mental disorders share the appearance of a general medical condition as suggested by one or more physical symptoms. Body Dysmorphic Disorder Conversion Disorder Hypochondriasis Pain Disorder

27 Anxiety Disorders Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder
Anxiety Disorder Due to General Medical Condition Generalized Anxiety Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia Panic Disorder without Agoraphobia Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Specific Phobia Social Phobia Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder

28 Factitious Disorder Patient's with this mental disorder are so eager to assume the role of a sick person that they intentionally feign or produce symptoms Malingering Munchausen’s Syndrome Munchausen’s by Proxy

29 Dissociative Disorders
Patients with these mental disorders suffer disruption of memory, consciousness, identity, and general perception of themselves and their surroundings. Dissociative Amnesia Dissociative Fugue Depersonalization Disorder Dissociative Identity Disorder

30 Sexual Disorders Sexual Desire Disorders: Hypoactive ; Aversion
Sexual Arousal Disorders: Female Sexual Arousal Disorder ; Male Erectile Disorder Orgasmic Disorders: Female ; Male ; Premature Ejaculation Sexual Pain Disorders: Dyspareunia ; Vaginismus Sexual Dysfunction Due to a General Medical Condition: Female Dyspareunia ; Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder ; Male Erectile Disorder ; Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder ; Male Dyspareunia ; Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction Paraphilias: Exhibitionism ; Fetishism ; Frotteurism ; Pedophilia ; Masochism ; Sadism ; Transvestic Fetishism ; Voyeurism Gender Identity Disorder

31 Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa

32 Personality Disorders
Paranoid Schizoid Schizotypal Antisocial Borderline Histrionic Narcissistic Avoidant Dependent Obsessive-Compulsive

33 Sleep Disorders Insomnia Hypersomnia Narcolepsy Sleep Apnea
Nightmare Disorder Sleep Terror Disorder Sleepwalking Disorder

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