2Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) Examining the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) from an ethical perspective.1) How “universal” / representative is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)?2) How is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) justified?
3Human Rights Early Human Rights: Ancient Hindu law: Manu Smriti Confucianismthe Qu'ranThe Bible: i.e. the Ten CommandmentsTraditional African concept: UbuntuEnlightenment Period:European philosopher and natural law influenced :Bill of Rights (England)The Bill of Rights (U.S.)The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France)Modern Human Rights / Post-World War II era:Universal Declaration of Human Rights
4The (post-)World War II era The Four Freedoms: freedom of speech (and expression)(adopted by the Allies) freedom of assemblyfreedom from fearfreedom from wantUnited Nation charter:Preamble: "reaffirmed faith in fundamental human rights, and dignity and worth of the human person"Article 56: "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language or religion".Definition of Rights proposed by Cuban diplomats Guy Pérez Cisneros and Ernesto Dihigo.
5Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) - Adapted from UNGA Resolution 217A (III) December 10, 1948- 56 of 58 member nations present; today 192 member nations- Preamble (7 paragraphs) + 30 articlesAuthors: John Peters Humphrey (Canada)Rene Cassin (France)P. C. Chang (China)Charles Malik (Lebanon)Eleanor Roosevelt (United States) (Chairman)The Commission of Human Rights: Australia, Belgium, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Chile, China, Cuba, Egypt, France, India, Iran, Lebanon, Panama, Philippines, United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, Uruguay and Yugoslavia.
610 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris Favor: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland, , Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Thailand, Sweden, Syria, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela.
7Reactions on UDHR 1) Praised "one of the highest expressions of the human conscience of our time“ (Pope John Paul II)2) Critizied:Cultural and religious aspects of Islamic countries“[…] "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition", which could not be implemented by Muslims without trespassing the Islamic law.” (Iranian UN representative)Education: "...education shall be compulsory." Hence, violates the right to follow own interests
8Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) EthicsMoral relativismSociety & cultureValues & IdeologiesMoral beliefsReligionSelf-interest theoryThe selfished humanUtilitarianismHappiness
9Happiness :]A global projection of Subjective Well-being
10Justified?Based on the fundamental moral and values.