3 Presentation Outline Water Pollution Problems Water Quality Issues Water Quality MonitoringData Processing and UtilizationWater Quality ModelingPolicy Decision from Monitoring ActivitiesProgram ImplementationsConclusion
4 Water Pollution Problems Water is a key environmental issue.There concept of sustainable development is in managingthe environment effectively and treating the environment asa common global good (example water).This is a basic discussion of a globally key environmentalissue: WATER.Water Demand:60 % increase from 9,543 Mld in 1995 to 15,285 Mld in2010113 % increase from to 20,338 in 2020.Several parts of Malaysia experience severe watershortages due to drought in 1998.New source works for addition supplies to meet futureneeds. For e.g. water from Pahang Rivers.
11 3. Water Quality Monitoring The demand for monitoring data is expectedto grow significantly,On 1st January 1995, a national corporatisedprivate body operates the monitoringactivities based on a concession agreementbetween DOE and ASMA.• In-situ measurements of more than 6 parameters– Turbidity, dissolved oxygen, salinity, temperature,pH and electrical conductivity.• Laboratory analyses of as many as 24 otherchemical and Biological parameters.(Source: DOE, 2011)
12 3. Water Quality Monitoring (Source: DOE, 2011)
13 3. Water Quality Monitoring 10 Automatic water quality monitoring stationson major rivers• To detect changes in river water quality on acontinuous basis.• Water Quality levels violating the ambientstandard for specific parameters will betransmitted real-time to DOE.• Immediate inspection will be conducted atsuspected sites.• Currently installed at sensitive locationsincluding upstream of water abstraction points.(Source: DOE, 2011)
14 3. Water Quality Monitoring 10 Automatic water quality monitoring stationson major rivers• To detect changes in river water quality on acontinuous basis.• Water Quality levels violating the ambientstandard for specific parameters will betransmitted real-time to DOE.• Immediate inspection will be conducted atsuspected sites.• Currently installed at sensitive locationsincluding upstream of water abstraction points.(Source: DOE, 2011)
15 3. Water Quality Monitoring : River Basins Automatic Water Quality Monitoring Stations(Source: DOE, 2011)
16 3. Water Quality Monitoring : River Basins (Source: DOE, 2011)
17 3. Water Quality Monitoring : River Basins (Source: DOE, 2011)
18 4. Data Processing and Utilization Some 5,256 samples were takenannually thereby generating over157,600 water quality data eachyear.Data been processed andcalculated for Water Quality Index.(Source: DOE, 2011)
19 4. Data Processing and Utilization (Source: DOE, 2011)
20 4. Data Processing and Utilization (Source: DOE, 2011)(Source: DOE, 2011)
21 4. Data Processing and Utilization (Source: DOE, 2011)
22 4. Data Processing and Utilization (Source: DOE, 2011)
23 4. Data Processing and Utilization (Source: DOE, 2011)
24 5. Water Quality Modeling Modeling been widely utilised in EnvironmentalImpact Assessment (EIA) for prescribedactivities, but on small scale.• Under the legislation, all prescribed activities arerequired to submit to DOE EIA report for approvalprior to project implementation.Normally some modeling works are incorporated.• Now, DOE has programs to model the river waterquality on river basin scale starting with few rivers– including Langat River, Segget River, TebrauRiver and Rajang River.
25 6. Policy Decision from Monitoring Activities River classifications for major rivers have been completed.• Now 24 rivers.• Under the Eight Malaysian Plan ( )and the Third Outline Perspectives Plan( ), emphasis given to improve riverwater quality and integrated river basinmanagement.• Some rivers have been set to attain Class II.
26 7. Program Implementations • Program for the pollution preventionimprovement of river water quality has beenplanned and implemented as of 2001.• 26 rivers identified.• In 2001, the program started with 6 riversnamely:Langat River, Skudai River, Segget River,Tebrau River, Melaka River and Miri River.
27 The program is intended to improve the Rajah 1. Malaysia : Lembangan Sungai yang Terlibat Di bawah Program Pencegahan Pencemaran Sungai dan Peningkatan Kualiti Air, Rancangan Malaysia ke Lapan Figure 1. Malaysia : River Basins Selected under the River Pollution Prevention and Water Quality Improvement Program, Eighth Malaysian PlanThe program is intended to improve theriver water quality to regain its cleanstatus and to restore the natural beautyand the beneficial uses of the water.The effort aims to ensure the sustainabilityof the water uses in the basin.
29 Non-ocean water is a very limited resource. Only 3% of Earth's water is available for human consumption but large portions are either inaccessible or due to pollution, unfit for human useNon-ocean 3% (ground water, glaciers, inland seas, ice caps, other)Oceans 97%
30 Explore the web-linking water pipe where you will get an excellent overview and information related to Earth’s water.Explore the dripping pipe at USGS.You should then proceed to explore patterns of water use, again by referring to a “dripping web-pipe”, at:
32 Water Resources Management 3 Aspects of Water Resources Management: Role of Water Management Authority in Malaysia (Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia). Water Resources Management3 Aspects of Water Resources Management:Water in Environment EnhancementWater in Agriculture and Food ProductionProtection from Water as a Destructive Force(DID, 2007)
35 Environmental Impact and Water Conservation Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)EIA is a formal process used to predict and assess the environmental consequences of a development project.The purpose is:to support the goals of environmental protection & sustainable development,to integrate environmental protection and economic decisions at the earliest stages of planning,to mitigate adverse impacts resulting from the proposed activity; and,to provide for involvement of the public, Government and Government agencies in the review of the proposed activities.
36 Environmental Impact and Water Conservation Water Audit study is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of water consumption to identify means of reuse and recycling of water.It not only promotes water conservation and delivers cost savings, but also helps companies safeguard public health & property, improve external relations & reduce legal liability.This has been recognized as necessary and is in the process of assessments.
37 Irrigation and Drainage Irrigation and drainage development and management however, will continue to be with DID, as it is a critical input for agriculture development. With the same theme, irrigation and agriculture drainage development too will have to be approached as a business with new and innovative technologies.
38 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) Malaysia has to operate on a performance-based system. Our modernization efforts will continue and the benchmarking programs will be refined. We have established key performance indicators (KPIs) for open channel system efficiency to be increased to 60% and our water productivity to be above 0.5 kilogram per metre cube of water. Efforts are already underway to study the feasibility of converting some of the open channels to pipelines.
39 Agriculture DrainageAgriculture drainage is a very important aspect of our agriculture especially when we reveived an average of 3000 millimetres of rain annually. There are many successes at agricultural land reclamation and drainage projects such as the 240,000 hectare Western Johor Agriculture Drainage Project, Kalaka-Saribas in Sarawak and the coastal plains of Peninsular Malaysia. But these systems need to be refined if the objectives of the New Agriculture are to be achieved. Particularly challenging is agriculture in the peat and acid sulphate soils. In addition, we now have to solve the frequently conflicting drainage needs of agriculture with that for the ever expanding urban growth centres located within the agriculture area.
40 STRATEGIC DRIVERS:The need to meet Customer/Clients demand and expectation for quality data and informationCompetition for waterDeclining quality for water resourcesIncreasing cost of infrastructure development and maintenanceCompeting demands for water(DID, 2007)
41 KEY SERVICES: Surface Water Resource Assesement Groundwater Resource AssessmentSustainable Water Resource AssessmentProvision of adequate irrigation water(DID, 2007)
42 WATER IN ENVIRONMENTAL ENHANCEMENT Surface Water Resource AssesementGroundwater Resource AssessmentSustainable Water Resource AssessmentProvision of adequate irrigation water(DID, 2007)
43 STRATEGIC DRIVERS: The need to improve quality of life of farmers Need to implement integrated coastal zone management to ensure sustainable exploitation of coastal resources and environmental preservationNeed to establish integrated database and information system for coastal zone to support integrated coastal zone management in all the statesClient demand for quality water resources.Increasing nutrient load from river to the sea.Need to implement restoration/ rehabilitation works of river environment.(DID, 2007)
44 STRATEGIC DRIVERS:Need to establish Integrated River Basin Management organizations/committees or similar at every state to plan, manage and enforce Integrated River Basin Management Plan (which will include catchment and urban stormwater management).Need to establish shared inter-agency databases and information systems on a river basin basis, to enable planning for water resources, flood mitigation, environmental enhancement requirements etc.Need to establish a river environment rich in aquatic life and habitats(DID, 2007)
45 KEY SERVICESInformation & knowledge collation and distribution, planning and designPreparation of guidelines and manualsAwareness programsImplementation of projects on:River conservancyRiver restoration and rehabilitationRiver recreation and landscapingProvision of technical advice on proposed developments in the coastal zonePreparation of guidelines on coastal zone management guideline(DID, 2007)
46 WATER IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION The need to meet the NAP 3 objectivesGlobalizationIncrease in income levelCompetition for resourcesKEY SERVICES:Infrastructures developmentIrrigation/ drainage management(DID, 2007)
47 PROTECTION OF PROPERTY AND LIFE FROM RIVER AND COASTAL FORCES STRATEGIC DRIVERS:Rising public demands for protection from flooding, coastal and riverbanks erosion and river mouth siltationIncreasing value of land and properties especially in urban areasNeed to manage impact of land use changesIncreasing development pressure and activities in coastal area such as land reclamation , upstream development and sand mining activity.Vast potential in tourism industry in coastal areaCommitment of government to the policy of environmentally sustainable development(DID, 2007)
48 PROTECTION OF PROPERTY AND LIFE FROM RIVER AND COASTAL FORCES STRATEGIC DRIVERS:Need for government to implement integrated coastal zone management and river erosion control and conservancy worksNeed to establish integrated database and information system for:-coastal zone to support integrated coastal zone management in all the statesriver erosion control for planning purposesNeed for controlling water quantity at source to lessen erosive forces.Need for government agencies to integrate for effective function of integrated river basin management(DID, 2007)
49 KEY SERVICES: Flood forecasting and warning Prevention Flood ProtectionTechnical AdviceIntegrated Shoreline ManagementProvision of coastal defense worksProvision of river mouth improvement worksProvision of technical advice(DID, 2007)
50 In this section you will build up your knowledge about water use. You'll discover answers to the following questions…
51 Key Questions * What is most of the freshwater used for? * Which states use the most water?* Which states irrigated the most?* Where did this water come from and how was it used?* How much water is used to produce power?
52 Key Questions * Do we produce any power using steam energy? * What about hydroelectric power?* Is water used for "fish farming?"* Do we grow fish?* Is saline water used for anything?* How important is ground water?
53 OHSAS 18001: Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series OHSAS is an Occupation Health and Safety Assessment Series certification for health and safety management systems, which enables an organization to control occupational health and safety risks and to improve performance. OHSAS uses the prevention concept, i.e. prevention instead of cure.This is integrated in the work protection law, and states the work safety and health protection should be treated in one complete system.Benefits of OHSAS 18001:Cost reduction through improvement in work safetyReduction in number of accidents and absenteeismIncrease in employee motivationIncreased flexibility and smoother transition to changes within the organization through more transparent processesLegal security
55 “What are some of the physical and chemical properties of water?" Afterwards, test yourself through a simple test on:“What are some of the physical and chemical properties of water?"
56 8. Conclusion • Monitoring program has proven to be useful although they can be expensive.• Such activity becomes more important in the riverrestoration and rehabilitation works to a desirednatural river conditions.• Need to keep abreast of the technology and know-how of river restoration and efficient monitoringprogram.• Techniques of river basin modeling can be a newarea of focus – so as to ensure the riverassimilative capacity are not exceeded.
57 ReferencesUSGS. (2004). What everyone is or should be talking about: Water(http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/sc3.html) and(http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/mearth.html)Department of Irrigation and Drainage Malaysia (DID). (2007). Water as Resource. DID, (http://www.water.gov.my/web/) ( ).DOE. (2011). Water Resources Management.