4IntroductionThe Health Protection Agency (UK) (2009) has reviewed research undertaken to examine the suggested links between emissions from municipal waste incinerators and effects on health.While it is not possible to rule out adverse health effects from modern, well regulated municipal waste incinerators with complete certainty, any potential damage to the health of those living close-by is likely to be very small, if detectable.This view is based on detailed assessments of the effects of air pollutants on health and on the fact that modern and well managed municipal waste incinerators make only a very small contribution to local concentrations of air pollutants.
6IntroductionThe Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment has reviewed recent data and has concluded that there is no need to change its previous advice, namely that any potential risk of cancer due to residency near to municipal waste incinerators is exceedingly low and probably not measurable by the most modern techniques (HPA, 2009).
7IntroductionSince any possible health effects are likely to be very small, if detectable, studies of public health around modern, well managed municipal waste incinerators are not recommended.The Agency's role is to provide expert advice on public health matters to Government, stakeholders and the public. The regulation of municipal waste incinerators is the responsibility of the Environment Agency (HPA, 2009).
8The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or landfill Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, is the process to create new land from sea or riverbeds.The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or landfillReclaiming in Perth, Australia 19641 Habitation2 Agriculture3 Beach restoration4 Landfill5 Environmental impact5.1 Environmental legislation5.2 Land amounts addedThe entire East Coast Park in Singapore was built on reclaimed land with a man-made beach.
9Geotechnical Properties of Reclaimed Mined Lands The process by which seriously disturbed land surfaces arestabilized against the hazards of wind and water erosion.Surface mining for coal is responsible for almost one-halfof the total land area disturbed in the United States.The drastic disturbance of the overburden severelychanges the chemical and physical properties of theresulting spoils.These altered properties often create a hostileenvironment for seed germination and subsequent plantgrowth.Unless vegetative cover is established almost immediately,the denuded areas are subject to both wind and watererosion that pollute surrounding streams with sediment.
10In the US, the Federal Strip Mine Law requires that topsoil be removed and reapplied on the spoil surface during regardingand reclamation. This aided material reclamation of surface minespoil areas throughout the United States.Even when topsoil is reapplied, the surface may contain coarse-textured materials and rock fragments, making it difficult to establishvegetative cover.Many of the eastern mine spoils are derived from sandstone & shalesand have a low water-holding capacity.These spoils tend to form crusts and thus create a water-impermeable layer. Practically all of these top soils have low fertilityand thus require extensive fertilization for reclamationand seedling establishment (Krebs, 2009).
11Geotechnical Properties of Reclaimed Mined Lands Settlement of underlying mine spoils can affect buildings constructed on mine spoil fills. The spoil depth under Building A (left) is relatively uniform, whereas Building B (right) is built over an area where spoil depth varies. Building B is more likely to be damaged due to differential settlement because of variations in the depth of the underlying spoils, and because it covers a larger lateral area.
12Recommendations for Geotechnical Reclaimation of Mined Lands All recently reclaimed land in surface mined areas should be considered as potentially unstable ground, subject to settlement – even where normal engineering precautions for good stabilization have been taken in the placement of the fill – unless an engineer can certify that site conditions are such that potential settlement is likely to be of little consequence.The amount of settlement that can be expected to occur is a function of a number of factors, including depth of fill and degree of compaction upon placement. A major factor that cannot be controlled during fill construction is the subsequent water content of the fill. Changes in the water content of the fill can induce settlement, even when the best engineering practices have been utilized during construction. Thus, owners of homes constructed on mined lands should endeavor to keep excessive water out of the fill that supports the structure.Homes constructed on filled lands should be placed so as to minimize potential settlement and distortion (Krebs, 2009).
13Recommendations for Geotechnical Reclamation of Mined Lands Unless it can be established that settlement will definitely be a problem or the homeowner is willing to risk the effects of settlement that occur, homes constructed on filled lands should be designed to accommodate settlement without suffering severe damages.When adjustable foundations are used, these should provide anchorage against uplift and accommodate both horizontal and vertical movements of the supporting piers; provision should be made for periodic checks of the structure’s bearing and for adjustment of the structure’s individual support points when necessary.Appropriate engineering, based upon an understanding of the geotechnical properties of deep fills, can lead to the successful utilization of reclaimed mined lands for building construction and development. Anyone considering construction on fill materials or in areas over mineable coal reserves should consult a professional engineer with a geotechnical background (Krebs, 2009).
14Case study: Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land The central Appalachian region of eastern Kentucky, West Virginia,and southwestern Virginia is gifted with abundant and commerciallyvaluable natural resources – especially timber and coal.A huge amount of virgin timber was cut and marketed during the late19th and early 20th centuries.Toward the end of this virgin timber harvest, coal mining became theregion’s economic mainstay.After the virgin timber cut, the Appalachian forest grew again as asustainable, renewable, and economic resource.The annual value of the timber and wood-products industry is $7.7billion in Virginia, $23 billion for the central Appalachian coalfieldstates (table 1), and $46 billion for states comprising the Appalachianregion as it extends northward to Pennsylvania and Ohio.Today, coal and timber – natural resources produced in centralAppalachia – make significant contributions to the regional economy(Burger, 2009).
17Industrial Output in Malaysia ((Statistics Dept, 2007)
18(i) food and beverage processing The most important forms of industrial pollution are suspended particulate discharges that cause air pollution, BOD discharges that cause water pollution and toxic waste discharges that affects all elements.Industry's main pollutants are discharged into water and take the form of toxic and hazardous waste.Approximately 95 % of the total volume of industrial wastewater discharge originates from three categories of manufacturing facilities:(i) food and beverage processing(ii) industrial chemicals and chemical products, and;(iii) textile plants and dye mills.
19Food and beverage processors have waste high in In a breakdown of wastewater effluents by types of industry, it was found that small to medium (SMI) electronics and electroplating plant discharges contained heavy metal contaminants that were disposed in sewage drains without treatment.Food and beverage processors have waste high inchemical oxygen demand (COD),biochemical oxygen demand (BOD),oil and grease, and;suspended solids.In the rubber products processing industry, which accounts for almost a quarter of all industry in Malaysia, wastewater contains several contaminants including hydrogen sulphide.
20Case study on Waste Impacts A part of Raniganj coalfield, eastern India, covering an area of about156 km2 (60 mi2), was studied to identify the impact of mining ongeo environment, in terms of heavy-metal mobilization. 28 soil samples were taken from 4 major landuse classes:mining area, land with or without scrub, agricultural field, and socialforestry area, and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, organiccarbon, and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As).Intermediate groundwater flow system of the area was inferredthrough trend surfaces to the water-table elevation data from 55observation wells for premonsoon, monsoon, and postmonsoon periods.Quantitative analyses of 17 groundwater samples (7 from miningareas and 10 from nonmining areas) were carried out with specialreference to heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, andAs) during these three periods.Twigs of selected planted species used in reclamation of one of themine spoils in the area were also analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn,Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As).Sahadeb De and Arup K. Mitra (2004)
21Impacts of mining have been measured in terms of erosion and heavy-metal mobilization from mine spoils to the surroundinggeoenvironment.Leaching on mine spoils followed by surface runoff contaminated thesoil with heavy metals, whereas leaching followed by percolationcontaminated the groundwater with heavy metals.Effects were inferred in terms of changing ecosystem. Native plantspecies like Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, etc. are beingreplaced by smaller species like Buteamonosperma, which appears tobe more tolerant in this changed ecosystem.Sahadeb De and Arup K. Mitra (2004)Spoils from a Gold mine Orlando, Johannesburg. February 2007
23Human waste affects the environment in three ways it pollutes the air when solid waste is burned openly;it contaminates drinking water when inadequately treated sewage and leachates seep into the drainage system, and;it results in insect-borne diseases when sanitation is poor.Water pollution is the most serious environmental consequence of inadequate treatment of human waste.Sewage discharge seeps into the drainage system and ultimately affects the quality of river water.
24In the coastal areas, lack of proper sewage disposal systems results in the waste being discharged directly into the rivers and seas.It is no wonder that the coastal waters of West Malaysia are highly polluted.The pollution load measured in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from domestic sewage was 366 tons per day. This is 80% of the national daily output.Domestic sewage from human sources = 76% of total organic load discharged into inland rivers, indicating a serious threat in terms of water pollution in Malaysia.
26Mining in Malaysia is synonymous with tin mining. Mining deals with minerals such as tin, gold, copper, iron, kaolin and silica sand and has the reputation of devastating the landscape, polluting and silting the rivers.Mining for alluvial tin, which occurred on an extensive scale in the late 19th and early 20th century in the tin-rich states of Perak and Selangor, resulted in widespread degradation of the environment leaving behind its legacy of retention ponds, mine spoils and sand piles.Re-mining to extract residual minerals makes the land barren and renders it useless for agriculture and human occupation unless treated.
27Two of the main causes of waterway siltation are soil erosion aggravated by the lost of vegetative cover due to land clearance for mining, andthe deposition of solid materials contained in mine effluents.Mines effluent containing toxic chemicals and low pH value can also have an adverse effect on rivers.River siltation has made some areas prone to flooding especially during the rainy season.
28Water pollution not only affects the aquatic ecosystem but also riverine settlements relying on the river water for agriculture and domestic purposes.Failure ofreservoirs,waste dumps,tailing lagoons andopen pit sidewalls are additional side effects of mining.However, landslips, particularly of open-cast alluvial mines, pose the main hazard to life and property.
29Although current legislation governing mining practices has provisions for: the control of water use,water discharge andriver diversions,there are no adequate guidelines, standards and regulation for any requirements for environmental rehabilitation and conservation.
33Heavy metals monitored in Malaysia: The DOE reports the most serious Hazardous wastes, a by-product of industrialization, consist of a vast array of items:heavy metals andmaterials that are reactive,toxic,inflammable,radioactive,Infectious, and;corrosive.Heavy metals monitored in Malaysia:arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, zinc and cadmium.The DOE reports the most seriousoffenders in terms of hazardouswaste generation in the total load.
34Based on this criterion, the metal finishing sub-sector in the machinery, engineering and electronics subsectors are the major offenders.Improper handling of hazardous waste can result in air, water as well as soil pollution.Existing databases suggest that the nine major industrial polluters aremetal finishing,electrical and electronics,textiles,food processing,chemicals,palm oil,rubber,wood-based, and;iron and steel manufacturing units.
35Most of these are concentrated in Selangor, Penang, Johor, Perak and Kuala Lumpur. Although SMIs account for 60 % of the total firms in Malaysia and often use 'dirty' technologies, sophisticated industries generate larger amounts of hazardous and toxic waste per unit of output.The electronics industry, dominated by Japanese and US multinationals, uses hazardous chemicals intensively.Information on toxic and hazardous waste is sketchy especially about how much of it there is and what kind.
36Some experts project that the total industrial waste will rise relative to water and air pollution industry.The estimated generation rate of this type of waste in 1992 was 1.08 million cubic meters per year.In 1994, the DOE reported that 420,000 metric tons of scheduled wastes were generated by industries.Acids, heavy metals, dross, slag, clinker and mineral sludge were over 70 % of the quantity, followed by asbestos, heavy metal sludge, oil and hydrocarbons, the balance of 30%.
37In the states of Penang, Perak and Johor, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, where industries are concentrated, heavy metal concentrations exceeded the standards set (Std.A and B in EQ (IER), 2009).Due to a lack of scheduled waste treatment facilities in Malaysia, industries have to store, pre-treat or export their wastes, and storage capacity is exhausted.Current hazardous waste management practices in Malaysia threaten public health.Exposure to hazardous waste has had public health consequences in Bukit Merah, Perak, with leukaemia and infant death cases.
39Health and Safety issues related to waste 2009/2010 2010/2011pIncidenceRate per 100,000All industry rate per 100,000Comparison between W&R and all industry ratesFatal injuries32.3108.40.5x 16.8Major injuries51139048340599x 4.1Over 3-day injuries2089159519541637363x 4.5All injuries2603198824472050462x 4.4* These statistics are based on waste and recycling activities (waste collection, treatment and disposal and wholesale waste and scrap). The majority of incidents do not account for Local Authority incidents that may be incorrectly coded (e.g. as public administration) or remediation activities and other waste management services such as street cleaning.
40Main causes of injury based on the total number of reported accidents during the period 2001/2002 to 2010/2011Kind of workExamplesPercentage (%)HandlingMSDs: handling large and awkward objects (33 %).Sharps: punctures, hypodermic needles, sorting of sharp objects (9%)41Slips and tripsVehicle access, egress, street environments, picking platforms, fixed plant maintenance (e.g.at MeRFs or waste transfer stations)26Hit by fixed or moving objectDuring waste collections or at recycling facilities16FallsSheeting and unsheeting of vehicles, undertaking maintenance work at height6Workplace transport ‘hit by moving vehicle’Most of the major and fatal accidents are in this categoryWorking with vehicle (collection/sorting) in vicinity of members of the public or operatives.Inadequate vehicle and pedestrian segregation at fixed sites4MachineryAccess to moving parts during cleaning, maintenance and repair of machinery; failure to isolate3Othere.g. electricity, fire, explosion, exposed to harmful substance5
41Health and Safety issues related to waste Improper handling of solid waste and indiscriminate disposal in open spaces, road margins, tank beds, and etcetera, give rise to numerous potential risks to the environment and to human health.Other effects are from transportation, open burning, and odours (Dr.Kalpana Shankar, 2010).
42Collecting waste and recyclables Collection activities account for the majority (75 to 80%) of accidents within the industry. Particular safety and health areas that should be considered are:-Musculoskeletal injuries from handling receptacles of waste and recyclables.Slips and trips.Transport movements, particularly reversing and the risks of 'struck by injury' to both workers and members of the public.Personal protective equipment e.g. high-visibility clothing and cut-resistant clothing.Personal hygiene and on-board hand washing facilities.Hoist/ receptacle compatibility.
43Exposure to bioaerosols Noise in kerbside glass collections, MeRFs etc Health issuesStatistical data on health issues within the waste and recycling industry is currently unreliable, and research into this area continues. The main health concerns include:Manual handlingHygiene Exposure to bioaerosolsNoise in kerbside glass collections, MeRFs etcExposure to harmful substances e.g. mercury or lead during WEEE recycling
44Health and Safety issues related to waste Direct health risks concern workers without using proper PPE (e.g.gloves & uniforms), and; a high percentage of waste workers and individuals who live near or on disposal sites are infected with gastrointestinal parasites, worms, and related organisms.For the public, the main risks to health are indirect and related to poor water, land, air quality, and; infrequent collection of waste provides a breeding ground for flies and rats.