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Waste Impacts to Safety and Health By K.Subramaniam, MCIEH, PJK, MSc(Envt), BSc(Hons)(Envt & Occ.Health), Dip RSH.

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Presentation on theme: "Waste Impacts to Safety and Health By K.Subramaniam, MCIEH, PJK, MSc(Envt), BSc(Hons)(Envt & Occ.Health), Dip RSH."— Presentation transcript:

1 Waste Impacts to Safety and Health By K.Subramaniam, MCIEH, PJK, MSc(Envt), BSc(Hons)(Envt & Occ.Health), Dip RSH.

2 Presentation Outline Introduction Introduction

3 Industrial Waste Land Reclamation

4 Introduction The Health Protection Agency (UK) (2009) has reviewed research undertaken to examine the suggested links between emissions from municipal waste incinerators and effects on health. The Health Protection Agency (UK) (2009) has reviewed research undertaken to examine the suggested links between emissions from municipal waste incinerators and effects on health. While it is not possible to rule out adverse health effects from modern, well regulated municipal waste incinerators with complete certainty, any potential damage to the health of those living close-by is likely to be very small, if detectable. While it is not possible to rule out adverse health effects from modern, well regulated municipal waste incinerators with complete certainty, any potential damage to the health of those living close-by is likely to be very small, if detectable. This view is based on detailed assessments of the effects of air pollutants on health and on the fact that modern and well managed municipal waste incinerators make only a very small contribution to local concentrations of air pollutants. This view is based on detailed assessments of the effects of air pollutants on health and on the fact that modern and well managed municipal waste incinerators make only a very small contribution to local concentrations of air pollutants.

5 Life Cycle Assessment for Waste

6 Introduction The Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment has reviewed recent data and has concluded that there is no need to change its previous advice, namely that any potential risk of cancer due to residency near to municipal waste incinerators is exceedingly low and probably not measurable by the most modern techniques (HPA, 2009). The Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment has reviewed recent data and has concluded that there is no need to change its previous advice, namely that any potential risk of cancer due to residency near to municipal waste incinerators is exceedingly low and probably not measurable by the most modern techniques (HPA, 2009).

7 Introduction Since any possible health effects are likely to be very small, if detectable, studies of public health around modern, well managed municipal waste incinerators are not recommended. Since any possible health effects are likely to be very small, if detectable, studies of public health around modern, well managed municipal waste incinerators are not recommended. The Agency's role is to provide expert advice on public health matters to Government, stakeholders and the public. The regulation of municipal waste incinerators is the responsibility of the Environment Agency (HPA, 2009). The Agency's role is to provide expert advice on public health matters to Government, stakeholders and the public. The regulation of municipal waste incinerators is the responsibility of the Environment Agency (HPA, 2009).

8 Reclaiming in Perth, Australia 1964 The entire East Coast Park in Singapore was built on reclaimed land with a man- made beach. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, is the process to create new land from sea or riverbeds. Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, is the process to create new land from sea or riverbeds. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or landfill The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or landfill1 Habitation2 Agriculture 3 Beach restoration 4 Landfill 5 Environmental impact 5.1 Environmental legislation 5.2 Land amounts added

9 The process by which seriously disturbed land surfaces are The process by which seriously disturbed land surfaces are stabilized against the hazards of wind and water erosion. stabilized against the hazards of wind and water erosion. Surface mining for coal is responsible for almost one-half Surface mining for coal is responsible for almost one-half of the total land area disturbed in the United States. of the total land area disturbed in the United States. The drastic disturbance of the overburden severely The drastic disturbance of the overburden severely changes the chemical and physical properties of the changes the chemical and physical properties of the resulting spoils. resulting spoils. These altered properties often create a hostile These altered properties often create a hostile environment for seed germination and subsequent plant environment for seed germination and subsequent plant growth. growth. Unless vegetative cover is established almost immediately, Unless vegetative cover is established almost immediately, the denuded areas are subject to both wind and water the denuded areas are subject to both wind and water erosion that pollute surrounding streams with sediment. erosion that pollute surrounding streams with sediment. Geotechnical Properties of Reclaimed Mined Lands

10 In the US, the Federal Strip Mine Law requires that topsoil be In the US, the Federal Strip Mine Law requires that topsoil be removed and reapplied on the spoil surface during regarding removed and reapplied on the spoil surface during regarding and reclamation. This aided material reclamation of surface mine and reclamation. This aided material reclamation of surface mine spoil areas throughout the United States. spoil areas throughout the United States. Even when topsoil is reapplied, the surface may contain coarse- Even when topsoil is reapplied, the surface may contain coarse- textured materials and rock fragments, making it difficult to establish textured materials and rock fragments, making it difficult to establish vegetative cover. vegetative cover. Many of the eastern mine spoils are derived from sandstone & shales Many of the eastern mine spoils are derived from sandstone & shales and have a low water-holding capacity. and have a low water-holding capacity. These spoils tend to form crusts and thus create a water- These spoils tend to form crusts and thus create a water- impermeable layer. Practically all of these top soils have low fertility impermeable layer. Practically all of these top soils have low fertility and thus require extensive fertilization for reclamation and thus require extensive fertilization for reclamation and seedling establishment (Krebs, 2009). and seedling establishment (Krebs, 2009).

11 Settlement of underlying mine spoils can affect buildings constructed on mine spoil fills. The spoil depth under Building A (left) is relatively uniform, whereas Building B (right) is built over an area where spoil depth varies. Building B is more likely to be damaged due to differential settlement because of variations in the depth of the underlying spoils, and because it covers a larger lateral area. Geotechnical Properties of Reclaimed Mined Lands

12 i.All recently reclaimed land in surface mined areas should be considered as potentially unstable ground, subject to settlement – even where normal engineering precautions for good stabilization have been taken in the placement of the fill – unless an engineer can certify that site conditions are such that potential settlement is likely to be of little consequence. ii.The amount of settlement that can be expected to occur is a function of a number of factors, including depth of fill and degree of compaction upon placement. A major factor that cannot be controlled during fill construction is the subsequent water content of the fill. Changes in the water content of the fill can induce settlement, even when the best engineering practices have been utilized during construction. Thus, owners of homes constructed on mined lands should endeavor to keep excessive water out of the fill that supports the structure. iii.Homes constructed on filled lands should be placed so as to minimize potential settlement and distortion (Krebs, 2009). Recommendations for Geotechnical Reclaimation of Mined Lands

13 iv.Unless it can be established that settlement will definitely be a problem or the homeowner is willing to risk the effects of settlement that occur, homes constructed on filled lands should be designed to accommodate settlement without suffering severe damages. v.When adjustable foundations are used, these should provide anchorage against uplift and accommodate both horizontal and vertical movements of the supporting piers; provision should be made for periodic checks of the structures bearing and for adjustment of the structures individual support points when necessary. vi.Appropriate engineering, based upon an understanding of the geotechnical properties of deep fills, can lead to the successful utilization of reclaimed mined lands for building construction and development. Anyone considering construction on fill materials or in areas over mineable coal reserves should consult a professional engineer with a geotechnical background (Krebs, 2009). Recommendations for Geotechnical Reclamation of Mined Lands

14 Case study: Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land The central Appalachian region of eastern Kentucky, West Virginia, The central Appalachian region of eastern Kentucky, West Virginia, and southwestern Virginia is gifted with abundant and commercially and southwestern Virginia is gifted with abundant and commercially valuable natural resources – especially timber and coal. valuable natural resources – especially timber and coal. A huge amount of virgin timber was cut and marketed during the late A huge amount of virgin timber was cut and marketed during the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries. 19 th and early 20 th centuries. Toward the end of this virgin timber harvest, coal mining became the Toward the end of this virgin timber harvest, coal mining became the regions economic mainstay. regions economic mainstay. After the virgin timber cut, the Appalachian forest grew again as a After the virgin timber cut, the Appalachian forest grew again as a sustainable, renewable, and economic resource. sustainable, renewable, and economic resource. The annual value of the timber and wood-products industry is $7.7 The annual value of the timber and wood-products industry is $7.7 billion in Virginia, $23 billion for the central Appalachian coalfield billion in Virginia, $23 billion for the central Appalachian coalfield states (table 1), and $46 billion for states comprising the Appalachian states (table 1), and $46 billion for states comprising the Appalachian region as it extends northward to Pennsylvania and Ohio. region as it extends northward to Pennsylvania and Ohio. Today, coal and timber – natural resources produced in central Today, coal and timber – natural resources produced in central Appalachia – make significant contributions to the regional economy Appalachia – make significant contributions to the regional economy (Burger, 2009). (Burger, 2009).

15

16 Industrial Waste

17 Industrial Output in Malaysia ((Statistics Dept, 2007)

18 The most important forms of industrial pollution are suspended particulate discharges that cause air pollution, BOD discharges that cause water pollution and toxic waste discharges that affects all elements. The most important forms of industrial pollution are suspended particulate discharges that cause air pollution, BOD discharges that cause water pollution and toxic waste discharges that affects all elements. Industry's main pollutants are discharged into water and take the form of toxic and hazardous waste. Industry's main pollutants are discharged into water and take the form of toxic and hazardous waste. Approximately 95 % of the total volume of industrial wastewater discharge originates from three categories of manufacturing facilities: Approximately 95 % of the total volume of industrial wastewater discharge originates from three categories of manufacturing facilities: (i) food and beverage processing (ii) industrial chemicals and chemical products, and; (iii) textile plants and dye mills.

19 In a breakdown of wastewater effluents by types of industry, it was found that small to medium (SMI) electronics and electroplating plant discharges contained heavy metal contaminants that were disposed in sewage drains without treatment. In a breakdown of wastewater effluents by types of industry, it was found that small to medium (SMI) electronics and electroplating plant discharges contained heavy metal contaminants that were disposed in sewage drains without treatment. Food and beverage processors have waste high in Food and beverage processors have waste high in i.chemical oxygen demand (COD), ii.biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), iii.oil and grease, and; iv.suspended solids. In the rubber products processing industry, which accounts for almost a quarter of all industry in Malaysia, wastewater contains several contaminants including hydrogen sulphide. In the rubber products processing industry, which accounts for almost a quarter of all industry in Malaysia, wastewater contains several contaminants including hydrogen sulphide.

20 Sahadeb De and Arup K. Mitra (2004) A part of Raniganj coalfield, eastern India, covering an area of about A part of Raniganj coalfield, eastern India, covering an area of about 156 km 2 (60 mi 2 ), was studied to identify the impact of mining on 156 km 2 (60 mi 2 ), was studied to identify the impact of mining on geo environment, in terms of heavy-metal mobilization. geo environment, in terms of heavy-metal mobilization. 28 soil samples were taken from 4 major landuse classes: 28 soil samples were taken from 4 major landuse classes: mining area, land with or without scrub, agricultural field, and social mining area, land with or without scrub, agricultural field, and social forestry area, and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, organic forestry area, and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As). carbon, and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As). Intermediate groundwater flow system of the area was inferred Intermediate groundwater flow system of the area was inferred through trend surfaces to the water-table elevation data from 55 through trend surfaces to the water-table elevation data from 55 observation wells for premonsoon, monsoon, and postmonsoon periods. observation wells for premonsoon, monsoon, and postmonsoon periods. Quantitative analyses of 17 groundwater samples (7 from mining Quantitative analyses of 17 groundwater samples (7 from mining areas and 10 from nonmining areas) were carried out with special areas and 10 from nonmining areas) were carried out with special reference to heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and reference to heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As) during these three periods. As) during these three periods. Twigs of selected planted species used in reclamation of one of the Twigs of selected planted species used in reclamation of one of the mine spoils in the area were also analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, mine spoils in the area were also analyzed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As). Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, and As). Case study on Waste Impacts

21 Sahadeb De and Arup K. Mitra (2004) Impacts of mining have been measured in terms of erosion and Impacts of mining have been measured in terms of erosion and heavy-metal mobilization from mine spoils to the surrounding heavy-metal mobilization from mine spoils to the surrounding geoenvironment. geoenvironment. Leaching on mine spoils followed by surface runoff contaminated the Leaching on mine spoils followed by surface runoff contaminated the soil with heavy metals, whereas leaching followed by percolation soil with heavy metals, whereas leaching followed by percolation contaminated the groundwater with heavy metals. contaminated the groundwater with heavy metals. Effects were inferred in terms of changing ecosystem. Native plant Effects were inferred in terms of changing ecosystem. Native plant species like Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, etc. are being species like Shorea robusta, Terminalia tomentosa, etc. are being replaced by smaller species like Buteamonosperma, which appears to replaced by smaller species like Buteamonosperma, which appears to be more tolerant in this changed ecosystem. be more tolerant in this changed ecosystem. Spoils from a Gold mine Orlando, Johannesburg. February 2007

22 Human Waste (Biosolids)

23 Human waste affects the environment in three ways Human waste affects the environment in three ways i.it pollutes the air when solid waste is burned openly; ii.it contaminates drinking water when inadequately treated sewage and leachates seep into the drainage system, and; iii.it results in insect-borne diseases when sanitation is poor. Water pollution is the most serious environmental consequence of inadequate treatment of human waste. Water pollution is the most serious environmental consequence of inadequate treatment of human waste. Sewage discharge seeps into the drainage system and ultimately affects the quality of river water. Sewage discharge seeps into the drainage system and ultimately affects the quality of river water.

24 In the coastal areas, lack of proper sewage disposal systems results in the waste being discharged directly into the rivers and seas. In the coastal areas, lack of proper sewage disposal systems results in the waste being discharged directly into the rivers and seas. It is no wonder that the coastal waters of West Malaysia are highly polluted. It is no wonder that the coastal waters of West Malaysia are highly polluted. The pollution load measured in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from domestic sewage was 366 tons per day. This is 80% of the national daily output. The pollution load measured in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from domestic sewage was 366 tons per day. This is 80% of the national daily output. Domestic sewage from human sources = 76% of total organic load discharged into inland rivers, indicating a serious threat in terms of water pollution in Malaysia. Domestic sewage from human sources = 76% of total organic load discharged into inland rivers, indicating a serious threat in terms of water pollution in Malaysia.

25 Mining Waste

26 Mining in Malaysia is synonymous with tin mining. Mining in Malaysia is synonymous with tin mining. Mining deals with minerals such as tin, gold, copper, iron, kaolin and silica sand and has the reputation of devastating the landscape, polluting and silting the rivers. Mining deals with minerals such as tin, gold, copper, iron, kaolin and silica sand and has the reputation of devastating the landscape, polluting and silting the rivers. Mining for alluvial tin, which occurred on an extensive scale in the late 19th and early 20th century in the tin- rich states of Perak and Selangor, resulted in widespread degradation of the environment leaving behind its legacy of retention ponds, mine spoils and sand piles. Mining for alluvial tin, which occurred on an extensive scale in the late 19th and early 20th century in the tin- rich states of Perak and Selangor, resulted in widespread degradation of the environment leaving behind its legacy of retention ponds, mine spoils and sand piles. Re-mining to extract residual minerals makes the land barren and renders it useless for agriculture and human occupation unless treated. Re-mining to extract residual minerals makes the land barren and renders it useless for agriculture and human occupation unless treated.

27 Two of the main causes of waterway siltation are Two of the main causes of waterway siltation are i.soil erosion aggravated by the lost of vegetative cover due to land clearance for mining, and ii.the deposition of solid materials contained in mine effluents. Mines effluent containing toxic chemicals and low pH value can also have an adverse effect on rivers. Mines effluent containing toxic chemicals and low pH value can also have an adverse effect on rivers. River siltation has made some areas prone to flooding especially during the rainy season. River siltation has made some areas prone to flooding especially during the rainy season.

28 Water pollution not only affects the aquatic ecosystem but also riverine settlements relying on the river water for agriculture and domestic purposes. Water pollution not only affects the aquatic ecosystem but also riverine settlements relying on the river water for agriculture and domestic purposes. Failure of Failure of i.reservoirs, ii.waste dumps, iii.tailing lagoons and iv.open pit sidewalls are additional side effects of mining. However, landslips, particularly of open-cast alluvial mines, pose the main hazard to life and property. However, landslips, particularly of open-cast alluvial mines, pose the main hazard to life and property.

29 Although current legislation governing mining practices has provisions for: Although current legislation governing mining practices has provisions for: i.the control of water use, ii.water discharge and iii.river diversions, iv.there are no adequate guidelines, standards and regulation for any requirements for environmental rehabilitation and conservation.

30 Mining Land Reclamation

31

32 Hazardous Wastes

33 Hazardous wastes, a by-product of industrialization, consist of a vast array of items: Hazardous wastes, a by-product of industrialization, consist of a vast array of items: i.heavy metals and ii.materials that are reactive, iii.toxic, iv.inflammable, v.radioactive, vi.Infectious, and; vii.corrosive. Heavy metals monitored in Malaysia: Heavy metals monitored in Malaysia: – arsenic, copper, lead, mercury, zinc and cadmium. The DOE reports the most serious The DOE reports the most serious offenders in terms of hazardous offenders in terms of hazardous waste generation in the total load. waste generation in the total load.

34 Based on this criterion, the metal finishing sub-sector in the Based on this criterion, the metal finishing sub-sector in the – machinery, engineering and electronics subsectors are the major offenders. Improper handling of hazardous waste can result in air, water as well as soil pollution. Improper handling of hazardous waste can result in air, water as well as soil pollution. Existing databases suggest that the nine major industrial polluters are Existing databases suggest that the nine major industrial polluters are i.metal finishing, ii.electrical and electronics, iii.textiles, iv.food processing, v.chemicals, vi.palm oil, vii.rubber, viii.wood-based, and; ix.iron and steel manufacturing units.

35 Most of these are concentrated in Selangor, Penang, Johor, Perak and Kuala Lumpur. Most of these are concentrated in Selangor, Penang, Johor, Perak and Kuala Lumpur. Although SMIs account for 60 % of the total firms in Malaysia and often use 'dirty' technologies, sophisticated industries generate larger amounts of hazardous and toxic waste per unit of output. Although SMIs account for 60 % of the total firms in Malaysia and often use 'dirty' technologies, sophisticated industries generate larger amounts of hazardous and toxic waste per unit of output. The electronics industry, dominated by Japanese and US multinationals, uses hazardous chemicals intensively. The electronics industry, dominated by Japanese and US multinationals, uses hazardous chemicals intensively. Information on toxic and hazardous waste is sketchy especially about how much of it there is and what kind. Information on toxic and hazardous waste is sketchy especially about how much of it there is and what kind.

36 Some experts project that the total industrial waste will rise relative to water and air pollution industry. Some experts project that the total industrial waste will rise relative to water and air pollution industry. The estimated generation rate of this type of waste in 1992 was 1.08 million cubic meters per year. The estimated generation rate of this type of waste in 1992 was 1.08 million cubic meters per year. In 1994, the DOE reported that 420,000 metric tons of scheduled wastes were generated by industries. In 1994, the DOE reported that 420,000 metric tons of scheduled wastes were generated by industries. Acids, heavy metals, dross, slag, clinker and mineral sludge were over 70 % of the quantity, followed by asbestos, heavy metal sludge, oil and hydrocarbons, the balance of 30%. Acids, heavy metals, dross, slag, clinker and mineral sludge were over 70 % of the quantity, followed by asbestos, heavy metal sludge, oil and hydrocarbons, the balance of 30%.

37 In the states of Penang, Perak and Johor, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, where industries are concentrated, heavy metal concentrations exceeded the standards set (Std.A and B in EQ (IER), 2009). In the states of Penang, Perak and Johor, on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, where industries are concentrated, heavy metal concentrations exceeded the standards set (Std.A and B in EQ (IER), 2009). Due to a lack of scheduled waste treatment facilities in Malaysia, industries have to store, pre-treat or export their wastes, and storage capacity is exhausted. Due to a lack of scheduled waste treatment facilities in Malaysia, industries have to store, pre-treat or export their wastes, and storage capacity is exhausted. Current hazardous waste management practices in Malaysia threaten public health. Current hazardous waste management practices in Malaysia threaten public health. Exposure to hazardous waste has had public health consequences in Bukit Merah, Perak, with leukaemia and infant death cases. Exposure to hazardous waste has had public health consequences in Bukit Merah, Perak, with leukaemia and infant death cases.

38 Health and Safety issues related to waste

39 2009/ /2011p 2010/2011p Incidence Rate per 100,000 Incidence All industry rate per 100,000 Comparison between W&R and all industry rates Fatal injuries x 16.8 Major injuries x 4.1 Over 3-day injuries x 4.5 All injuries x 4.4 * These statistics are based on waste and recycling activities (waste collection, treatment and disposal and wholesale waste and scrap). The majority of incidents do not account for Local Authority incidents that may be incorrectly coded (e.g. as public administration) or remediation activities and other waste management services such as street cleaning.

40 Main causes of injury based on the total number of reported accidents during the period 2001/2002 to 2010/2011 Kind of work Examples Percentage (%) Handling MSDs: handling large and awkward objects (33 %). MSDs: handling large and awkward objects (33 %). Sharps: punctures, hypodermic needles, sorting of sharp objects (9%) Sharps: punctures, hypodermic needles, sorting of sharp objects (9%)41 Slips and trips Vehicle access, egress, street environments, picking platforms, fixed plant maintenance (e.g.at MeRFs or waste transfer stations) 26 Hit by fixed or moving object During waste collections or at recycling facilities 16 Falls Sheeting and unsheeting of vehicles, undertaking maintenance work at height 6 Workplace transport hit by moving vehicleMost of the major and fatal accidents are in this category Working with vehicle (collection/sorting) in vicinity of members of the public or operatives. Working with vehicle (collection/sorting) in vicinity of members of the public or operatives. Inadequate vehicle and pedestrian segregation at fixed sites Inadequate vehicle and pedestrian segregation at fixed sites 4 Machinery Access to moving parts during cleaning, maintenance and repair of machinery; failure to isolate 3 Other e.g. electricity, fire, explosion, exposed to harmful substance 5

41 Health and Safety issues related to waste Improper handling of solid waste and indiscriminate disposal in open spaces, road margins, tank beds, and etcetera, give rise to numerous potential risks to the environment and to human health. Improper handling of solid waste and indiscriminate disposal in open spaces, road margins, tank beds, and etcetera, give rise to numerous potential risks to the environment and to human health. Other effects are from transportation, open burning, and odours (Dr.Kalpana Shankar, 2010). Other effects are from transportation, open burning, and odours (Dr.Kalpana Shankar, 2010).

42 Collecting waste and recyclables Collection activities account for the majority (75 to 80%) of accidents within the industry. Particular safety and health areas that should be considered are:- Collection activities account for the majority (75 to 80%) of accidents within the industry. Particular safety and health areas that should be considered are:- Musculoskeletal injuries from handling receptacles of waste and recyclables. Musculoskeletal injuries from handling receptacles of waste and recyclables. Slips and trips. Slips and trips. Transport movements, particularly reversing and the risks of 'struck by injury' to both workers and members of the public. Transport movements, particularly reversing and the risks of 'struck by injury' to both workers and members of the public. Personal protective equipment e.g. high-visibility clothing and cut-resistant clothing. Personal protective equipment e.g. high-visibility clothing and cut-resistant clothing. Personal hygiene and on-board hand washing facilities. Personal hygiene and on-board hand washing facilities. Hoist/ receptacle compatibility. Hoist/ receptacle compatibility.

43 Health issues Health issues Statistical data on health issues within the waste and recycling industry is currently unreliable, and research into this area continues. The main health concerns include: Statistical data on health issues within the waste and recycling industry is currently unreliable, and research into this area continues. The main health concerns include: Manual handling Manual handling Hygiene Hygiene Exposure to bioaerosols Exposure to bioaerosols Noise in kerbside glass collections, MeRFs etc Noise in kerbside glass collections, MeRFs etc Exposure to harmful substances e.g. mercury or lead during WEEE recycling Exposure to harmful substances e.g. mercury or lead during WEEE recycling

44 Health and Safety issues related to waste Direct health risks concern workers without using proper PPE (e.g.gloves & uniforms), and; a high percentage of waste workers and individuals who live near or on disposal sites are infected with gastrointestinal parasites, worms, and related organisms. Direct health risks concern workers without using proper PPE (e.g.gloves & uniforms), and; a high percentage of waste workers and individuals who live near or on disposal sites are infected with gastrointestinal parasites, worms, and related organisms. For the public, the main risks to health are indirect and related to poor water, land, air quality, and; infrequent collection of waste provides a breeding ground for flies and rats. For the public, the main risks to health are indirect and related to poor water, land, air quality, and; infrequent collection of waste provides a breeding ground for flies and rats.

45 Thank you…

46 References Burger, J.A. (2009). Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land. Forestry and Soil Science, Virginia Tech; Carl Zipper, Extension Specialist, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech. (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/460/ / html). Burger, J.A. (2009). Powell River Project - Restoring the Value of Forests on Reclaimed Mined Land. Forestry and Soil Science, Virginia Tech; Carl Zipper, Extension Specialist, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech. (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/460/ / html). Dr.Kalpana Shankar. (2010). A PROPOSAL FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – Environmental Protection that Benefits the Poor. Hand-In-Hand, Tamil Nadu, India. Dr.Kalpana Shankar. (2010). A PROPOSAL FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT – Environmental Protection that Benefits the Poor. Hand-In-Hand, Tamil Nadu, India. Health Protection Agency (HPA). (2009). The Impact on Health of Emissions to Air from Municipal Waste Incinerators. (www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/ ) Health Protection Agency (HPA). (2009). The Impact on Health of Emissions to Air from Municipal Waste Incinerators. (www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/ )www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/ DOE. (2010). Environment Quality Act, 1974 (A) DOE. (2010). Environment Quality Act, 1974 (A) DOE. (2010). Environment Quality (Industrial Effluence) Regulations, DOE. (2010). Environment Quality (Industrial Effluence) Regulations, DOE. (2006). EQ Annual Report DOE. (2006). EQ Annual Report Krebs, R.D. (2009). Powell River Project - Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined Lands. (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/460/ / html). Krebs, R.D. (2009). Powell River Project - Foundations for Housing on Reclaimed Mined Lands. (http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/460/ / html). Sahadeb De and Arup K. Mitra (2004). Mobilization of heavy metals from mine spoils in a part of Raniganj coalfield, India: Causes and effects. Environmental Geosciences; June 2004; v. 11; no. 2; p ; DOI: /eg © 2004 American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). Sahadeb De and Arup K. Mitra (2004). Mobilization of heavy metals from mine spoils in a part of Raniganj coalfield, India: Causes and effects. Environmental Geosciences; June 2004; v. 11; no. 2; p ; DOI: /eg © 2004 American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). HSE (UK).(2012). Health and safety statistics in waste management and recycling. HSE (UK).(2012). Health and safety statistics in waste management and recycling.(http://www.hse.gov.uk/waste/statistics.htm)

47 Please ask if you have… any burning issues… or Pls use my Or Please do not hesitate to see me for consultations as per my Time Table…


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