14Pollutants (Anthropogenic) Particulate matterSulphur dioxideNitrogen oxidesMethaneHydrogen sulphideHeavy metalsCFC, Halons, etc.
15Sources of airborne pollution are many: home cooking, power generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning …
16Each year we add more than 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the air mainly by: a). Burning fossil fuels b). Cutting down and burning trees Each year we add 350 to 500 million tons of methane to the air mainly by: i. Raising livestock ii. Coal mining and drilling for oil and natural gas iii. Rice cultivation iv. Disposing of garbage in landfills v. Burning forests and fields
17Size &Sources of Particles (PM) Natural ProcessesCombustionParticlesGas-ParticleConversionSea salt, Mineral dust0.1 nm nm nm nm mm mm mm....AtomsMoleculesCoarse, PM 10CloudsFine, PM 2.5Ultrafine„Nanoparticles“
23iii. Regional> 100 km, 1000kmTroposphereWeeks to monthNational / Regional
24iv. ContinentalContinentsStratosphereMonths to yearRegional / International
25v. Global Whole globe Whole atmosphere Years / decades International (UN, WMO, WHO)
26A Variety of Scales Need to Be Considered Air Quality AnalysisSatelliteProductsGlobalAssimilationRegionalPredictionPublicImpactRequires Close Integration of Observations and Models
27Effects of Air Pollution Human health and welfareBiosphere (fauna & flora)Material & StructuresAtmosphereSoilWater bodies
28Human health and welfare AcuteChronicRespiratoryIngestionSurface
29EFFECTS OF AEROSOL ON HEALTH ULTRAFINE PARTICLES SMALLER THAN LUMIN DIAMETER HAVE HIGHER POTENTIAL TO PENETRATE INTO THE LUNG AND CAUSE INFLAMATION.SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN THE SIZE RANGE BELOW 10µM CAN INCREASE THE NUMBER OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES.HEALTH IMPACTS OF AEROSOL CONSIST OF BOTH SHORT TERM ACUTE SYMPTOMS LIKE ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS etc.LONG TERM CHRONIC IRRITATION AND INFLAMATION OF RESPIRATORY TRACK, DEVELOPMENT OF LUNG CANCER.
37EFFECT OF AEROSOL ON CLIMATE CHANGING OF AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE CAN CHANGE THE FREQUENCY OF CLOUD OCCURRENCE, AND RAINFALL AMOUNTS.WITHOUT AEROSOLS IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO START THE FORMATION OF CLOUD DROPLETS.
38IMPACTS OF AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE AEROSOLS TEND TO CAUSE COOLING OF THE EARTH’S SURFACE IMMEDIATELY BELOW THEM.MOST AEROSOLS REFLECT SUNLIGHT BACK INTO SPACE, REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF SOLAR RADIATION THAT REACHES THE SURFACE.THE AEROSOL COOLING MAY PARTIALLY OFFSET EXPECTED GLOBAL WARMING THAT IS ATTRIBUTED TO INCREASES IN THE AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM HUMAN ACTIVITY.
39Pollutants that cause Global Warming CO2BCCH4N2OOCdustO3SO4NOxNMVOCSO2
40Elements of Air Pollution DefinitionSourceScalesEffectsGeneral knowledge
44In 1989, the Department of Environment (DOE) formulated Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMG) for air pollutants, defining the concentration limits of selected air pollutants which might adversely affect the health and welfare of the general public.Based on the MG, DOE later developed its first air quality index system, known as the Malaysian Air Quality Index (MAQI) in 1993.
45An index system has an important role in conveying to both decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous.Application of the index system, particularly in industrialised countries, has demonstrated its useful role in providing a sound basis for both the effective management of air quality, as well as the effective protection of public health.In line with the need for regional harmonisation and for easy comparison with countries in the region, the Department revised its index system in 1996, and the Pollutant Index (API) was adopted.The API system of Malaysia closely follows the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) system of the United States.
46Industrial Emission and Open Burning How does air pollution occur?Air pollution occurs when air impurities in the form of gaseous or particles are emitted into the atmosphere.It is important to recognize that air pollution is not a single entity but an alphabet soup of foregoing materials mixed with the normal constituents of air.Air pollutant comes from a variety of natural and man-made sources.
47Industrial Emission and Open Burning Man made sources include emission from industrial activities, emissions from motor vehicles and burning of fossil fuels and biomass.Environmental issues relating to industrial emissions and open burning activities will be discussed in detail.
53PLAN OF ACTIONSHORT TERM PLANNINGLONG TERM PLANNING
54CONCLUSION INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, FINANCIAL AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES AREESSENTIAL ELEMENTS THAT NEED TO BEADDRESSED SERIOUSLY IN ORDER TOTACKLE THE PROBLEM OF AIR POLLUTIONIN THE LONG RUN.HOWEVER, THIS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVEDTHROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE ANDEFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIONPLAN.