Pollutants (Anthropogenic) Particulate matter Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen oxides Methane Hydrogen sulphide Heavy metals CFC, Halons, etc.
Sources of airborne pollution are many: home cooking, power generation, industry, traffic, biomass burning …
Each year we add more than 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the air mainly by: a). Burning fossil fuels b). Cutting down and burning trees Each year we add 350 to 500 million tons of methane to the air mainly by: i. Raising livestock ii. Coal mining and drilling for oil and natural gas iii. Rice cultivation iv. Disposing of garbage in landfills v. Burning forests and fields
0.1 nm 1 nm 10 nm 100 nm 1 m 10 m 100 m Combustion Particles Atoms Molecules Coarse, PM 10............ Clouds Natural Processes Gas-Particle Conversion Sea salt, Mineral dust Fine, PM 2.5 Ultrafine Nanoparticles Size &Sources of Particles (PM)
AEROSOL SOURCE STRENGTH (Estimate)SOURCES SOURCES STRENGH ( billion tons/year) OCEANIC 1 to 2 SOLID DUST 2 GAS TO – PARTICLE CONVERSION 1.3 VOLCANOS0.020 BIOSPHERE & BIOMASS BURNING 0.45
SCALES OF AIR POLLUTION Defined by these four parameters i. Horizon ii. Vertical Height iii. Time iv. Organization
Scales (five) i. Local ii. Urban iii. Regional iv. Continental v. Global
i. Local Streets Height of buildings Hours Local council
ii. Urban < 100 km Boundary layer Days State level
iii. Regional > 100 km, 1000km Troposphere Weeks to month National / Regional
iv. Continental Continents Stratosphere Months to year Regional / International
v. Global Whole globe Whole atmosphere Years / decades International (UN, WMO, WHO)
A Variety of Scales Need to Be Considered Air Quality Analysis Satellite Products Global Assimilation Regional Prediction Public Impact Requires Close Integration of Observations and Models
Effects of Air Pollution i. Human health and welfare ii. Biosphere (fauna & flora) iii. Material & Structures iv. Atmosphere v. Soil vi. Water bodies
Human health and welfare i. Acute ii. Chronic iii. Respiratory iv. Ingestion v. Surface
EFFECTS OF AEROSOL ON HEALTH i.ULTRAFINE PARTICLES SMALLER THAN LUMIN DIAMETER HAVE HIGHER POTENTIAL TO PENETRATE INTO THE LUNG AND CAUSE INFLAMATION. ii.SUSPENDED PARTICLES IN THE SIZE RANGE BELOW 10µM CAN INCREASE THE NUMBER OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES. iii.HEALTH IMPACTS OF AEROSOL CONSIST OF BOTH SHORT TERM ACUTE SYMPTOMS LIKE ASTHMA, BRONCHITIS etc. iv.LONG TERM CHRONIC IRRITATION AND INFLAMATION OF RESPIRATORY TRACK, DEVELOPMENT OF LUNG CANCER.
EFFECT OF AEROSOL ON CLIMATE CHANGING OF AEROSOLS IN THE ATMOSPHERE CAN CHANGE THE FREQUENCY OF CLOUD OCCURRENCE, AND RAINFALL AMOUNTS. WITHOUT AEROSOLS IT IS VERY DIFFICULT TO START THE FORMATION OF CLOUD DROPLETS.
IMPACTS OF AEROSOLS ON CLIMATE AEROSOLS TEND TO CAUSE COOLING OF THE EARTHS SURFACE IMMEDIATELY BELOW THEM. MOST AEROSOLS REFLECT SUNLIGHT BACK INTO SPACE, REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF SOLAR RADIATION THAT REACHES THE SURFACE. THE AEROSOL COOLING MAY PARTIALLY OFFSET EXPECTED GLOBAL WARMING THAT IS ATTRIBUTED TO INCREASES IN THE AMOUNT OF CARBON DIOXIDE FROM HUMAN ACTIVITY.
Pollutants that cause Global Warming CO 2 CH 4 N2ON2O O3O3 NO x NMVOC SO 4 SO 2 BC OC dust
Elements of Air Pollution a) Definition b) Source c) Scales d) Effects e) General knowledge
API Status Indicator http://www.doe.gov.my/
Ambient Air Data And Monitoring
In 1989, the Department of Environment (DOE) formulated Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines (RMG) for air pollutants, defining the concentration limits of selected air pollutants which might adversely affect the health and welfare of the general public. Based on the MG, DOE later developed its first air quality index system, known as the Malaysian Air Quality Index (MAQI) in 1993.
An index system has an important role in conveying to both decision-makers and the general public the status of ambient air quality, ranging from good to hazardous. Application of the index system, particularly in industrialised countries, has demonstrated its useful role in providing a sound basis for both the effective management of air quality, as well as the effective protection of public health. In line with the need for regional harmonisation and for easy comparison with countries in the region, the Department revised its index system in 1996, and the Pollutant Index (API) was adopted. The API system of Malaysia closely follows the Pollutant Standard Index (PSI) system of the United States.
Industrial Emission and Open Burning How does air pollution occur? Air pollution occurs when air impurities in the form of gaseous or particles are emitted into the atmosphere. It is important to recognize that air pollution is not a single entity but an alphabet soup of foregoing materials mixed with the normal constituents of air. Air pollutant comes from a variety of natural and man-made sources.
Man made sources include emission from industrial activities, emissions from motor vehicles and burning of fossil fuels and biomass. Environmental issues relating to industrial emissions and open burning activities will be discussed in detail. Industrial Emission and Open Burning
Air Toxics Climate Change Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Acid Rain Water Quality Eutrophication Human Health (Risk) Visibility and Ecosystem Impacts of Air Pollution
INTEGRATED L.I.F.T APPROACH i. LEGISLATION ii. INSTITUTIONAL iii. FINANCIAL iv. TECHNOLOGY
PLAN OF ACTION SHORT TERM PLANNING SHORT TERM PLANNING LONG TERM PLANNING LONG TERM PLANNING
CONCLUSION INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, FINANCIAL INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGY, FINANCIAL AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES ARE AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES ARE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS THAT NEED TO BE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS THAT NEED TO BE ADDRESSED SERIOUSLY IN ORDER TO ADDRESSED SERIOUSLY IN ORDER TO TACKLE THE PROBLEM OF AIR POLLUTION TACKLE THE PROBLEM OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LONG RUN. IN THE LONG RUN. HOWEVER, THIS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED HOWEVER, THIS CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE AND THROUGH A COMPREHENSIVE AND EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION PLAN. PLAN.