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Ch. 10: South Asia Rowntree, et. al. Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10: South Asia Rowntree, et. al. Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Ch. 10: South Asia Rowntree, et. al. Modified by J. Naumann, UMSL

3 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 2 Chapter 12: South Asia (Fig. 12.1)

4 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 3 Learning Objectives Understand the unique climatological challenges of this region, which include monsoons and cyclones, and accompanying flooding Learn about the challenges and strategies of feeding a large and growing population Become familiar with the physical, demographic, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of South Asia Understand the following concepts and models: - Monsoon -Green Revolution -Caste system -Hinduism - Mughal Empire -Orographic rainfall -Subcontinent -Indian diaspora

5 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 4 KEY CONCEPTS APPLICABLE TO THE REALM CENTRIPETAL - CENTRIFUGAL FORCES FORWARD CAPITAL –ISLAMABAD IRREDENTISM – boundaries that divide groups –PATHANS (OR PASHTUNS) OF PAKISTAN RELATED TO PEOPLES OF CENTRAL AFGHANISTAN FEDERAL SYSTEM –ADOPTED BY INDIA IN 1947 –PROVIDES REGIONS AND PEOPLES WITH SOME AUTONOMY AND IDENTITY

6 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 5 Introduction The Himalayan Mountains are in South Asia Called the Indian subcontinent India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives South Asia is the world’s second most populous region The population is growing, raising concerns about food production keeping pace South Asia was a British colony for several centuries Since achieving in 1947, India and Pakistan have been embroiled in conflict; both countries have nuclear weapons This region is one of the world’s poorest

7 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 6 Continental Drift Creation of the Realm

8 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 7 Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim The Film Star and the Poacher King Outlaw and poacher Koose Veerappan kidnapped film star Rajkumar in a case that illustrates culture and politics in South Asia

9 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 8 Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim Environmental Issues in South Asia 1984 explosion at Bhopal fertilizer plant killed 2,500 people – inadequate supervision of foreign investors –Natural Hazards in Bangladesh Ganges and Brahmaputra river deltas flood in wet summer monsoons; dense settlement there causes many deaths –Forests and Deforestation Ganges Valley and coastal plains of India deforested for agriculture Deforestation’s causes: agricultural, urban, and industrial expansion Problems: fuel wood shortage leads to use of manure which then cannot be used as fertilizer

10 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 9 Environmental Issues in South Asia (cont.) South Asia’s Monsoon Climates Monsoon: the distinct seasonal change of wind direction; in South Asia –Summer monsoon brings rain and flooding to Bangladesh –Winter monsoon is dry Orographic rainfall: precipitation from the uplifting and cooling of moist winds; it occurs in the Western Ghats and Himalayas –Rain-shadow effect: the area of low rainfall found on the leeward (or downwind side) of a mountain range Drier conditions in Pakistan

11 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 10 MONSOONS “To know India and her people, one has to know the monsoon.” To the people of India the monsoons are a source of life. From an Arabic word meaning seasonal reversal of winds General onshore movement in summer General offshore flow in winter Very distinctive seasonal precipitation regime – Two monsoons – wet one & dry one

12 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 11 Monsoon Principles Wind is a horizontal movement of air from a high pressure area to a low pressure area. Land surfaces heat up and cool off more quickly and to a greater degree than water bodies. During the warmer months, a low pressure tends to develop over land and a high pressure over the adjacent water bodies. (wet monsoon) During the cooler months, a high pressure tends to develop over land and a low pressure over the adjacent land areas. (dry monsoon) This results in the shifting of the prevailing winds -- MONSOONS

13 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 12

14 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 13 Dry monsoon Wet monsoon Seasonal shift in the prevailing wind direction Seasons NOT defined by temperature patterns, but by precipitation patterns

15 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 14 ESSENTIAL FOR RICE PRODUCTION. HOWEVER… MONSOON RAINS MAY BRING DISASTEROUS FLOODS TO BANGLADESH

16 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 15 Low Elevations Purple shades are highlands Orange is for “uplands” – dissected plateaus All the other colors are for types of plains – easily flooded areas

17 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 16 Massive Delta Region Brahmaputra Delta Thousands of tributaries and distributaries that can flood (only the larger ones are shown on the map.) Ganges Delta

18 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 17 Rice is Dependant on the Monsoons

19 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 18 POTENTIALLY NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF MONSOONS RESULTS OF CATASTROPHIC RAINFALL Widespread flooding Property damage Destruction to agricultural lands Damage to transportation infrastructure Homelessness Disease Malnutrition Serious injury Death

20 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 19 Climates of South Asia (Fig. 12.6)

21 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 20 Environmental Geography: Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim (cont.) The Four Subregions of South Asia –Mountains of the North Collision of Indian Subcontinent with Asian landmass –Himalayas, Karakoram Range, Arakan Yoma Mountains –Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Lowlands created by three major river systems –Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers –Peninsular India Deccan Plateau covers most of India, is bordered by Eastern and Western Ghats (mountains) –The Southern Islands Sri Lanka (1 island) and Maldives (1,200 small islands)

22 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 21 Physical Geograph y of South Asia (Fig. 12.2) Indus-Ganges- Brahmaputra Lowlands Peninsular India Mountains of the North The Southern Islands

23 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 22 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma India has more than 1 billion people –Concern about producing enough food –India’s TFR at 3.2, but preference for males creates problems Pakistan has 145 million people –Pakistan lacks an effective, coordinated family planning program –Overall TFR is 5.6; RNI is 2.8% –Linked to Muslim culture –Early childhood mortality, and low rate of female contraception Bangladesh has million people –Has one of the highest settlement densities in the world –TFR is 3.3 –Strong government support for family planning –Muslim culture, but more flexible

24 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 23 Population Density POPULATION DENSITY (INDIA) –ARITHMETIC- 904/sq mi –PHYSIOLOGIC- 1,615/sq mi (US=415/sq mi) People per square mile Europe Russia North America Japan Middle America South America N. Africa/S.W. Asia Subsaharan Africa South Asia Southeast Asia Europe Russia North America Japan Austral Middle America South America N. Africa/S.W. Asia Subsaharan Africa South Asia East Asia Southeast Asia Pacific World Average = 117/mi 2 Realm

25 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 24 Population Map of South Asia (Fig. 12.8)

26 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 25 POPULATION DENSITY COMPARISON United States - Bangladesh UNITED STATES 77 people/ sq mile BANGLADESH 133,000,000 50,300 2,644 people/ sq mile

27 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 26 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) Migration and the Settlement Landscape South Asia is one of the least urbanized regions of the world –Majority live in compact rural villages –Rural-to-urban migration caused by agricultural changes Most settlement near fertile soils and dependable water sources Agricultural Regions and Activities Agriculture has historically been unproductive Green Revolution: agricultural techniques based on hybrid crop strains and heavy use of industrial fertilizers and chemical pesticides –Greatly increased agricultural yields in South Asia –High social and cultural costs

28 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 27 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) Agricultural Regions and Activities –Crop Zones Rice: lower Ganges Valley, lowlands of India’s eastern and western coasts, delta lands of Bangladesh, Pakistan’s lower Indus Valley, and Sri Lanka Wheat: northern Indus Valley, western half of India’s Ganges Valley –Punjab is India’s “breadbasket” Millet and sorghum in less fertile areas

29 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 28 WHAT CLIMATE VARIABLES HELP TO EXPLAIN THIS DISTRIBUTION? Cooler to the north and warmer to the south Drier in the west and wetter in the east Orographic precipitation in the south

30 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 29 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) –The Green Revolution Use of hybrid, high-yield seeds to bolster production –1970 to 1990s: India more than doubled annual grain production Only more prosperous farmers could afford to adopt seeds and use mechanization Environmental problems from dependency on chemical fertilizers and pesticides Poorer farmers forced from their lands Salinization in irrigated areas

31 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 30 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) Urban South Asia About 25% of the South Asian population resides in urban areas –Many live in bustees (sprawling squatter settlements) –Mumbai (Bombay) Largest city in South Asia Financial, commercial, and industrial center Less-fortunate immigrants live in “hutments” – crude shelters built on formerly busy sidewalks –Delhi/New Delhi More than 11 million people India’s capital, has British colonial imprint Air pollution a problem

32 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 31 Mumbai (Bombay) Boy begging from motorists Three ages in architecture: colonial, modern, and pre- colonial.

33 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 32 Modern HotelRed Fort Mosque (disused) Lotus Temple Parliament Delhi street scene

34 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 33 Population and Settlement: The Demographic Dilemma (cont.) Urban South Asia (cont.) –Calcutta More than 12 million people Problems: poverty, pollution, congestion, homelessness –Karachi More than 7 million people Pakistan’s largest city Political and ethnic tensions between Sindis (native inhabitants) and Muhajirs (Muslim refugees from India)

35 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 34 Calcutta Street scene Modern Business District Children on school bus Jain templeOutdoor market

36 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 35 Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries Since its inception in 1948, India has been a secular state –Growth of Hindu nationalism: movement promoting Hindu values as essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society –Tensions between Hindus and Muslims in India –Tensions between fundamentalists and secularists in Pakistan Origins of South Asian Civilizations Indus Valley civilization established 5,000 years ago By 800 B.C., a new urban focus in Ganges Valley –Hindu Civilization Hinduism: a complicated faith without a single, uniformly accepted system of belief Sanskrit: sacred languages of Hinduism Caste system: strict division of Hindu society into ranked hereditary groups

37 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 36 Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.) –Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama (563 B.C.), the Buddha –From elite caste, but rejected wealth and power –Sought to attain mystical union with the universe (enlightenment) Faith spread throughout South Asia, and East, Southeast, and Central Asia, but retreated from South Asia –Arrival of Islam Around 700 A.D. Arab armies conquered lower Indus Valley Mughal Empire, a powerful Muslim state, dominated Conversion in northwest (Pakistan) and Northeast (Bangladesh)

38 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 37 Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) Origins of South Asian Civilizations (cont.) –The Caste System Regional variations, religious differences in acceptance of caste system Caste: complex social order –Varna: ancient fourfold social hierarchy of the Hindu world –Jati: refers to local hundreds of local endogamous groups »Castes include Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Sudras »Scheduled castes or “untouchables” or dalits

39 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 38 Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) Contemporary Geographies of Religion –Hinduism Major faith of India and Nepal Forms of worship differ by region –Islam 400 million Muslims in the region, among the largest Muslim communities in the world –Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives are mostly Muslim –In India, Muslims concentrated in the cities, in the north, the upper and central Ganges plain, and in Kerala –Sikhism Sikhism: faith incorporating elements of Hinduism and Islam Originated in Punjab in 1400s, still concentrated in Punjab Sikh men noted for work as soldiers and bodyguards

40 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 39 HINDUISM Not just a religion – an intricate web of religious, philosophical, social, economic, & artistic elements No common creed No single doctrine No direct divine revelation No rigid narrow moral code No leadership hierarchy Can be practiced on different levels of spirituality – mainly an individual enterprise Has had the ability to absorb competing religious ideologies – except for Islam

41 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 40 MONOTHEISM OR POLYTHEISM? BRAHMAN – the “Ultimate Reality” – something like “The Force” of Star Wars –not a “personal” god –impersonal force under girding all BRAHMA – the creator – & many incarnations VISHNU – the sustainer – & many incarnations SHIVA – the destroyer – & many incarnations CYCLES OF CREATION (somewhat like reincarnation of the universe) – we’re in 4 th cycle When reincarnation ceases, one becomes one with Brahman

42 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 41 Shiva – the Destroyer Shiva- nataraja – incarnation as the king of dancers – very common symbol of Shiva

43 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 42 Hindu Temple

44 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 43 MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM Four main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste system –Reincarnation –Karma –Dharma –Ahimsa

45 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 44 REINCARNATION Every living thing has a soul. When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature (transmigration of souls). Souls are reborn in a newly created human or animal life. This continues until the “ultimate reality” is fully understood (one sees the Atman is also Brahman)– then it ceases

46 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 45 KARMA Every action brings about certain results. There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions. Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature. Karma is somewhat the result of one’s approach to one’s dharma.

47 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 46 DHARMA A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation. This ties into the caste system. Sometimes seen as analogous to duty Each person’s dharma is different.

48 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 47 Ahimsa Seeing all life as sacred – a part of a “oneness” Results in the life principle of non- violence Supports the idea of being in harmony with nature A principle also found in Jainism and Buddhism

49 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 48 THREE BASIC PRACTICES Puja or worship – corporate worship not required – largely individual practices Cremation of the dead Regulations of the caste system

50 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 49 Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) Contemporary Geographies of Religion (cont.) –Buddhism and Jainism Buddhism virtually disappeared in India but persisted in Sri Lanka, mainland Southeast Asia, and the high valleys of the Himalayas Jainism – religion that emerged around 500 B.C. as protest to orthodox Hinduism –Stressed extreme non-violence –Other Religious Groups Parsis (Zoroastrians): an ancient religion focusing on the cosmic struggle between good and evil –Concentrated in the Mumbai area More Indian Christians than either Parsis or Jains British missionaries converted animists to Protestantism

51 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 50 ORIGINS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM Siddhartha Gautama ( B.C.) – founder searching for understanding of suffering Emperor Asoka (3rd Century B.C.) Spread Buddhism in India

52 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 51 BUDDHISM Objected to harsher features of Hinduism such as the caste system Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge Enlightenment ends the cycle of reincarnation Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals

53 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 52 FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Sorrow and suffering are part of all life. People suffer because they desire things they cannot have. The way to escape suffering is to end desire, to stop wanting, and to reach a stage of not wanting. To end desire, follow the “middle path,” i.e., the path that avoids the extremes of too much pleasure and desire.

54 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 53 EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY Right understanding Right purpose Right speech Right conduct Right means of earning a living Right effort Right awareness Right meditation

55 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 54 FALL OF BUDDHISM ON THE SUBCONTINENT Hinduism - broad and tolerant, accepting many of the teachings of Buddha Buddhists in India - willing to compromise with the beliefs and customs of Hinduism Final blow - 8th century - arrival of Islam -- Destroyed the great Buddhist monasteries -- Burned libraries -- Killed monks Today - only 1 million Buddhists in India

56 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 55 ISLAM

57 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 56 Hindu/Muslim-practices/perceptions Hindus tend to be vegetarians (ahimsa and reincarnation beliefs foster this) Cows are sacred animals Believe in reincarnation Brahman, if it is God, is an impersonal one Follow caste system – no social or religious mobility within one lifetime Formerly practiced sutee Muslims see Hindus as polytheistic infidels not to be tolerated Muslims eat meat (cows) – not pork Muslims are strict monotheists Muslims believe in a personal God Muslims reject the concept of castes – equality of believers Reject reincarnation

58 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 57 Religious Geograph y of South Asia (Fig )

59 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 58 Cultural Coherence and Diversity: A Common Heritage Undermined by Religious Rivalries (cont.) Geographies of Language Dravidian: a linguistic group is unique to southern India Major languages of India associated with an Indian state; political subdivisions follow linguistic lines –The Indo-European North Hindi: most widely spoken language of South Asia –Second-most widely spoken language in the world –Language of the Hindu majority Urdu: language of the Muslim minority –Languages of the South Dravidian languages prevail in southern India and northern Sri Lanka –Tamil in Sri Lanka

60 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 59 Geographies of Language (cont.) –Linguistic Dilemmas Linguistic nationalism: linking of a language with political goals –India encountered resistance to Hindi as a national language Role of Hindi is expanding English is the main integrating language in South Asia South Asians in a Global Cultural Context Use of English helped spread global culture to the region South Asian literature has spread throughout the world Indians migrate to developed and less-developed world regions Imported global culture, especially with sexual content, creates tensions

61 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 60 Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region South Asia Before and After Independence in 1947 During the 1500s most of region was under the Mughal Empire –European merchants established coastal trading posts By 1700s the empire weakened and contending states emerged –The British Conquest British East India Company – a private organization acted as an arm of the British government and monopolized trade –Exploited political chaos to stake empire Sepoy Mutiny (1856) led to South Asia being ruled directly by the British Hindu, Muslim, and Sikh rulers retained their states under British rule

62 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 61 South Asia Before and After Independence in 1947 (cont.) –Independence and Partition By the 1920s political protestors called for independence Gandhi favored a unified state, while Muslim leaders argued for a division Post World War II partitioning –India, East and West Pakistan –1971: Bangladesh independence –Geopolitical Structure of India –India organized as a federal state »Individual states retain significant power »Following linguistic patterns »Added in 2000: Jharkand, Uttaranchal, and Chhattisgarh

63 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 62 India’s Political Development – effective leaders in early years Jawaharlal Nehru Lal Bahadur Shastri – Indira Gandhi – Janata Coalition (had defeated Indira Gandhi) Indira Gandhi Assassinated Rajiv Gandhi 1984 – 1989 – assassinated in election of 1991 Mid 1990s –corruption and scandals 1997 – K. R. Narayanan (of the lowest caste) 1998 – Atal Vajpayee – Hindu Nationalist party Oldest continuously functioning democracy in Asia Took a neutralist position in the Cold War

64 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 63 West Pakistan East Pakistan (Bangladesh) India INDIA & PAKISTAN (AT PARTITION) Kashmir -- disputed

65 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 64 Centrifugal & Centripetal Forces – India Centrifugal –Caste System –Jharkhand—new state in the making? Area of marginalized people seeking statehood so as to have a “voice” in the system. –Muslim minority –Frontier wars –Cultural/linguistic diversity –Hindu nationalism Centripetal –A single capital –An interregional transport network –A lingua franca –A trained civil service –Federal system of government –Strong leadership in its formative years after gaining independence

66 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 65 Geopolitical Issues in South Asia (Fig )

67 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 66 Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia –Kashmir During British period, ruled by a maharaja (a Hindu king subject to British advisors) During partitioning, Kashmir went to India Tensions between India and Pakistan because Kashmir is Muslim –The Punjab Original Punjab area divided between India and Pakistan in 1947 Punjab has Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs Tensions, violence led to assassination of Prime Minister Indira Ghandi by her Sikh bodyguards in 1984 Still potential for conflict

68 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 67 Kashmir Disputed with India

69 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 68 Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region (cont.) Ethnic Conflicts in South Asia (cont.) –The Northeast Fringe Ethnic conflict in states of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and portions of Assam –Migration from Bangladesh and other parts of India is a potential threat to local culture –Sri Lanka North dominated by Hindu Tamils (minority) and south by Buddhist Singhalese (majority) Singhalese favor a national government whereas Tamils support political and cultural autonomy A rebel force, the Tamil Tigers, attacked Sri Lankan army in 1983; tensions still brewing

70 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 69 Civil War in Sri Lanka (Fig )

71 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 70 Sinhalese vs Tamils Tamils - demanded equal rights in: -- education -- employment -- landownership -- linguistic & political representation Insurgent State LTTE - Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam SRI LANKA

72 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 71 Geopolitical Framework: A Deeply Divided Region (cont.) International and Global Geopolitics Cold war between India and Pakistan –Nuclear capabilities of both countries escalated tensions –China allied with Pakistan (China-India border conflict) –Terrorist attacks of September 11 th complicated matters –Pakistani had supported Afghanistan’s Taliban regime, now helps U.S. Marxist rebel movement against India in Nepal

73 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 72 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty South Asian Poverty More than 300 million Indian citizens are below their country’s poverty line, and Bangladesh is poorer Nepal and Bhutan are in worse condition India has a growing middle class, and an upper class –About 100 million Indians afford modern consumer goods Geographies of Economic Development –The Himalayan Countries Rugged terrain and isolation in Nepal and Bhutan are a disadvantage Bhutan has isolationist stance (tourists must spend $165/day) Nepal’s tourism has resulted in environmental degradation

74 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 73 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.) Geographies of Economic Development –Bangladesh Poorest country in the region Heavy reliance on production of commercial crops Environmental degradation has contributed to poverty Internationally competitive in textile and clothing manufacturing –Pakistan Inherited a reasonably well-developed urban infrastructure Agriculture, cotton, textile industry are important Less dynamic economy and less potential for growth Burdened by high levels of defense spending

75 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 74 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.) Geographies of Economic Development (cont.) –Sri Lanka and the Maldives Sri Lanka: second-most highly developed economy in region –Exports of agricultural products (rubber and tea) and textiles –Civil war has undercut economic progress Maldives is most prosperous country in region, based on GNI –Small total economy –India’s Lesser Developed Areas India’s economy dwarfs that of other South Asian countries Prosperous west and poorer east Caste tensions exist in these areas

76 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 75 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.) Geographies of Economic Development (cont.) –India’s Centers of Economic Growth Punjab and Haryana are showcase states of Green Revolution Gujarat and Maharashtra are noted for their industrial and financial clout –Many Gujarat merchants and traders were part of Indian diaspora (migration of large numbers of Indians to foreign countries) –Karnataka’s capital Bangalore is a growing high-tech center

77 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 76 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.) Globalization and India’s Economic Future South Asia is one of the world’s least globalized regions –Low foreign trade and low foreign direct investment –Economy based on private ownership combined with government control of planning, resource allocation, and certain heavy industrial sectors »Led to low, slow-paced growth –1990s: liberalization of the economy, regulations reduced –Future economic policies remain uncertain

78 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 77 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.) Social Development South Asia has low levels of health and education –Punjab, Gujarat, Maharashtra on top; Bihar at the bottom –But literacy rates are high in the poor northeast because of missionary education –The Educated South Sri Lanka has high levels of social welfare –Long life expectancy, low literacy rate –Fertility rate reduced to near replacement levels Kerala on the mainland, though not prosperous, has best social development in India –Socialist leaders promote education and community health care

79 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 78 Economic and Social Development: Burdened by Poverty (cont.) The Status of Women Both Hindu and Muslim traditions tend to limit women In many regions of India, female literacy is far lower than that of male literacy Gender imbalances as a result of “differential neglect” –In poorer families, boys tend to receive better and more preferential treatment than girls Social position of women is improving, especially in the more prosperous parts of the north

80 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 79 Conclusions End of Chapter 12: South Asia Geopolitical tensions in South Asia cause concern Nuclear rivalry between India and Pakistan Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka Religious strife between Hindus and Muslims Bangladesh draws foreign direct investment and prospects for the future India may be perfectly positioned for globalization


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