Presentation on theme: "By: BIRBAL JAT, PGT-Comp.Sc. Kendriya Vidyalaya No 3 Jaipur OPEN SOURCE CONCEPTS."— Presentation transcript:
By: BIRBAL JAT, PGT-Comp.Sc. Kendriya Vidyalaya No 3 Jaipur OPEN SOURCE CONCEPTS
Learning objectives After learning this chapter the student will be able to: Understand about OSS/FOSS/FLOSS Cite different examples of OSS Describe open document format Understand character encoding in Indian languages Know about open type/true type/static/dynamic fonts
Introduction The term “open source” refers to software in which the source code is freely available for others to view, amend and adapt. Freeware: There do exist software which are actually "free" in the sense of price. These are known as Freeware. Lots of freeware can be downloaded from the internet for various different purposes such as currency converters, drawing graphs and charts etc. But freeware may not come with the source code. Therefore freeware differ from free software. The focus in this chapter is on free software rather than freeware. FREE SOFTWARE means the software is freely accessible and can be freely used, changed, improved, copied and distributed by all who wish to do so. And no payments are needed to be made for FREE SOFTWARE. Note: Freeware and Free S/W are two different things. Freeware are the S/w which permit redistribution but not modification and their Source Code is not available. These packages are not free software; so don’t use the word ‘freeware’ to refer to free Software. Shareware is software, which is made available with the right to redistribute copies, but it is stipulated required) that if one intends to use the software often after a certain period of time, then a license fee should be paid.
Free Software The first formal definition of "free software" was given in 1983 by Richard Stallman, a long time member of the hacker community at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He insisted that a free software should give the following four freedoms to users: Freedom 1: The freedom to run the program for any purpose. Freedom 2: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish. Freedom 3: The freedom to redistribute copies so as to help your neighbour. Freedom 4: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements (and modified versions in general) to the public, so that the whole community benefits. Later on, the term "free software" was recoined as "open source software (OSS)" and soon after as "free open source software (FOSS)". In order to avoid the ambiguity in the word "free", in 2001, FOSS was termed as FLOSS, short form of "free/liberal open source software".
Free Software (Terminologies) FLOSS: A software which is free as well as open belongs to category FREE /LIBRE/ OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE. GNU: refers to GNU’s Not UNIX. The GNU system, combined with a third party kernel called Linux, is one of the most widely used operating systems in the world, commonly known as either “GNU/ Linux” or often simply “Linux”. FSF: is Free Software Foundation. It promotes the development and use of free software. It is an non- profit organization. OSI:Open Source Initiative, is a non-profit corporation dedicated to managing and promoting the Open Source definition by certifying products. W3C: is acronym for World Wide Web Consortium. It is responsible for producing the software standards for world wide web. Proprietary S/W: is the software that is neither open nor freely available. Its use is regulated and modification is either forbidden or requires special permission by the supplier. NRCFOSS :National Resource Centre for Free and Open Source Software (NRCFOSS) is an initiative of the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Government of India.
Examples of FLOSS/FOSS : Operating systems and Desktop environments: Linux - Operating system kernel Ubuntu - Linux distribution with full complement of software for everyday use. Google Chrome OS - Lightweight operating system based around the web browser Android smart - phone operating system - by Google / Open Handset Alliance Symbian smart - phone operating system - by Nokia. BOSS( Bharat Operating Systems Solutions) BOSS is a free Indian Operating System based on GNU/LINUX developed by C-DAC(Center for Development of Advance Computing). BOSS makes it easier for a Microsoft Windows user to shift to GNU/LINUX platform which is there with variant features. Graphics and multimedia: GIMP - Bitmap graphics editor, similar to Adobe Photoshop Blender - Advanced 3D modelling and rendering application. Songbird - similar to iTunes with built-in browser. Audacity - digital audio editor Ardour - digital audio workstation F-Spot - Photo manager
Examples of FLOSS/FOSS … Office software : OpenOffice.org - office productivity software. Comparable to Microsoft Office. It uses an open file format and can read and write Microsoft Office files NeoOffice - Mac OS X version of OpenOffice PDFCreator - creates PDFs from any Windows program. Internet related software Apache webserver - web server Mozilla Firefox - web browser Mozilla Thunderbird - mail client Google Chrome - Google's web browser
Type of standards 1. Proprietary Standards : are those for which users have to buy license to use them. These are also known as closed or exclusive standards. Standards like Microsoft Office Formats (eg..doc,. docx,. ppt,. xls) or Media formats (e.g..wma,.wmv etc.), Apple Media Formats (Such as.mov) are proprietary standards as they are the property of their respective owners. 2. Open Standards : are internationally accepted technical standards that guarantee that data can be exchanged or is accessible across platforms and application. Simply we can say that the specification of open standards is open to all without any restriction. 1. Common open standard formats: JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group), PNG( Portable Network Graphic), SVG( Scalable Vector Graphic), FLAC( Free Lossless Audio Codec) ODF( Open Document Format), OGG( Ogg Vorbis),
ODF (Open Document Format) ODF is an XML based file format for representing electronic document such as formatted text documents, spreadsheets, electronic presentation, graphics etc. The ODF was developed by OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) and approved by ISO (International Standards Organization) and by IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). The official name for approved ODF standard is ISO/IEC ODF is the default file format for applications like OpenOffice.org2.0, KOffice1.5,StarOffice8, IBM Workplace and many others. We can represent a document in ODF,in two different manners: As a single XML document As a collection of several sub documents in a package ZIP) file Most commenly used file extensions with ODF are:.odt (text file).ods (spreadsheets).odp( presentations).odg (graphics).odb( database)
Ogg Vorbis It is a new audio compression format which is an open format developed by Xiph.org. It is used to store and play digital music. It is completely free,open and unpatented. In Ogg Vorbis: Ogg is a wrapper format. Or is the name of Xiph.org’s container format for audio, video, and meta data. Vorbis is a codec that is written inside the Ogg Framework or is the name of a specific audio compression scheme that is designed to be contained in Ogg. Why Ogg Vorbis? Ogg Vorbis is freely available open format for audio streaming, without any restrictions. The other formats available today such as MP3, MP4, MPEG etc are available under certain terms. Their owner can change its policy and may start changing licensing fees for using their format in certain way. But it is not the case with Ogg-Vorbis. Character Encoding A character encoding system consists of a code that associates each character from a given system with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, binary numbers or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the transmission of data (generally numbers and/or text) through telecommunication networks or for storage of text in computers
INDIAN LANGUAGE COMPUTING India is a multilingual country. Many companies are now working to develop the use of Indian languages on computers. A computer should recognize codes that represent letters of the alphabet, punctuation marks and other special characters as well as numbers. These codes are called ‘Alphanumeric Codes’. A complete alphanumeric code would include the 26 lowercase letters, 26 uppercase letters, 10 numeric digits, 7 punctuation marks, and anywhere from 20 to 40 other characters, such as etc. ASCII code (AMERICAN STANDARD CODE FOR INFORMATION INTERCHANGE) the most widely used alphanumeric code in computers world wide. ASCII is a 7 bit code and so it has 2 7 = 128 possible code groups. For example: Character A is represented as: bit is divided as ( 3 Zone bit + 4 Digit bit) Character7 bit ASCII A TO O to P TO Z to TO to HELP
INDIAN LANGUAGE COMPUTING ISCII (Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange) : In 1991, Bureau of Indian Standards adopted the ISCII. This is an 8 bit code capable of coding 2 8 =256 characters. This code retains all ASCII characters and offers coding of Indian Scripts also. Thus it is also called Scripts Code for Information Interchange. This standard is applied to the DEVANAGARI,GURUMUKHI, GUJARATI, ORIYA,BENGALI, ASSAMESE, TELUGU,KANNADA, MALAYALAM,etc all Indian scripts. ISFOC (Indian Standard Font Code) C-DAC evolved the character-slice (glyph) coding standards for Indic fonts and evolved the ISFOC standards. Unlike ISCII, these code charts are different for each script and are represented in 8 bits only. INSCRIPT (INdian SCRIPT) For the data entry in Indian languages, the default option is INSCRIPT layout. This layout uses the standard 101 keyboard. The mapping of the characters is such that it remains common for all the Indian languages (written left to right.
UNICODE (Universal Code) Unicode is an industry standard which provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language. The Unicode standard has been adopted by such industry leaders as Apple, HP, IBM, Microsoft, Oracle, Sun, Sybase and many others. Unicode is required by modern standards such as XML, JAVA, CORBA,LDAP etc. Unicode is becoming very popular and is supported in many operating systems, all modern browsers and many other products. Unicode version 3.1 represents characters. Unicode for Indian Languages uses ISCII-88 and ISCII-91 which is the latest official standard. The Unicode standard has incorporated Indian scripts under the group named Asian Scripts that includes Devnagari also.
FONTS A font refers to a set of displaying text characters (called glyphs), having specific and size. On the basis of technical specification, fonts can be categorized as: TRUE TYPE FONT (TTF): The true type is a font format developed by Apple and licensed to Microsoft. True type is the native operating system Font Format for Windows and MacOS. True Type fonts are normally 8 bit fonts. OPEN TYPE FONT (OTF): is an extension of the True Type Font Format. OTF are 16 bit fonts and allow the handling of large glyph set using Unicode encoding. On the basis of Font Configuration, fonts can be categorized as: Static Font :In static fonts, the characters are designed and digitized and then stored in font files. Every time printing takes place, same character will appear with same shape. i.e., identical shapes (Times New Roman, Arial, Courier etc.) Dynamic Font: In dynamic fonts, the characters are redefined at each occurrence (i.e. every time they are displayed or printed) rather than when the font is created and digitized. Dynamic fonts generate different font shape using certain parameter values. All hand written fonts such as hand written alphabets, calligraphic letters, grafiti, hand printed capital etc, are dynamic fonts because of individual variations.
Indian Language Text Entry 1. PHONETIC TEXT ENTRY: In this type of text entry, traditional keyboards with English keys are used. But while typing, the Indian alphabets are phonetically i.e., the way they sound. So, for phonetic text entry, a combination of keys can be used to represent one Indian Language character. In other words, we can say that words typed as per their pronunciation in English script and later converted to corresponding language word, is known as PHONETIC TEXT ENTRY or TRANSLITERATION. The Phonetic text entry is supported by many word processors, many search engines such as google,orkut, facebook etc. and many other websites( Blogger,Gmail etc.) as well. Example : BhartiyaOO.o (Indianized version of OpenOffice) For example if we type “mera desh mahan” it will transliterate it as “ मेरादेश महान ”.
2. Keymap Based Text Entry: The mappings of a keyboard’s keys to specific characters are known as keymap. e.g. if we press the key horizontally adjacent to CapsLock key on your keyboard, the letter “a” gets typed. So this key has been mapped to character ‘a’. A keymap internally is stored as table. Multiple tables are used to store complete key mapping. Indian Language keymaps are known as Inscript keymaps or Indian Script Keymaps. When we type text from a keyboard having keymappings of Indian Language Characters, it is known as keymap based text entry. Indian Language Text Entry
Assignments Expand the terms: OSS,OSI,FLOSS,FSF,GNU,GPRS,GPL,GSM,W3C,PHP,PDF,PNG,JPEG. What for are these software used? (i) Linux (ii) Mozilla (iii) PHP (iv) Python (v) Apache (vi) MySQL Define the following: (i) ODF (ii) Ogg Vorbis (iii) TTF (iv) OTF (v) Unicode How is phonetic text entry different from keymap based text entry? Name an open standard for the following: (i) web page (ii) office document (iii) vector images (iv) audio compression (v) any image type Mention two advantages and two disadvantages of open standards? CBSE Board Based Questions: