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1 Responsible Tourism 3. Planning for responsible tourism enterprises © Anna Spenceley, 2007Tibet University module development supported by Columbia University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Responsible Tourism 3. Planning for responsible tourism enterprises © Anna Spenceley, 2007Tibet University module development supported by Columbia University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Responsible Tourism 3. Planning for responsible tourism enterprises © Anna Spenceley, 2007Tibet University module development supported by Columbia University

2 2 Contents A. Business planning, market research, and the importance of commercial viability. B. Location and accessibility, including Namtso case study C. Impact assessment D. Infrastructure and architectural design E. Sustainable resource use, waste management and resource-saving technologies F. Local consultation and partnerships G. Discussion questions H. Assignment I. Sources of information

3 3 A. Business planning, market research and the importance of commercial viability © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Important to remember that tourism is a business Successful businesses need a wide variety of things including: Strategic plans Business plans – with goals and plan of action Good human resources Links to the market Promotion & competitive edge Sales and reservations systems Safe and healthy working conditions Licenses and registration Cash flow management Hospitality and customer service Negotiation skills Market research & a viable market

4 4 Who are tourists and what do they want? 1.Long distance visitors Seek something unique – the best Invest significant time and money in getting there Target destinations Many have pre-planned packages or set itineraries Will not be attracted directly from their original location by lesser attractions unless part of a package Some can be diverted to other nearby sites while visiting the primary sites © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

5 5 May have already visited the key regional attractions Most have their own vehicle, and can plan their own itinerary Can be attracted by mix of experiences, or by linked stops and routes Some have habitual itineraries May time their visits to events Seek variety Who are tourists and what do they want? 2. Regional tourists © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

6 6 Who are the tourists and what do they want? 3. Weekenders Generally from nearby urban communities Seek contrast to what is found in their community Will overnight only if there is reason to do so Will target events, recreational opportunities Often focused on same places, attractions or services as niche tourists Create weekend peaks, traffic problems May stress particular utilities or services (e.g all buses, cars arrive for lunch) © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

7 7 Who are the tourists and what do they want? 4. Day visitors Limit to distance – approx two hours maximum, with majority within one hour travel of home. Focus on specific experiences Shopping (crafts, cheese, wine, outlets etc) Recreation (boating, skiing, birdwatching) Dining (scenic luncheon, picnic, inn) Event (auction, fair, competition, show) Often season or weather specific – peak concentrations on single day/week © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

8 8 Who are the tourists and what do they want? 5. Passers-by En route from one place to another. Stop for services, interest Limited distance from main route for most stops (must be very special to drag them off the main route) Seek food, lodging, basic services Can be enticed to spend for other goods or services if these are special – e.g., pottery, cheeses, local preserves. Most are very time limited © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

9 9 Plans - Economic ecological and social factors, participatory process Holistic approach – examining options, selection of concept /project area Site selection - Siting of structures and activities should site sensitivities. (seek most appropriate site to minimize negative impacts) Location location location Access by air, road, sea: infrastructure requirements B. Location and accessibility (1) © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

10 10 © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Case study: Namtso Lake

11 11 At the site: Crowd control Mitigation of development Protection of key assets – both natural and cultural Managing tourist behavior Cleaning up after them Many of the most important sites are fragile, difficult to reach, and hard to protect. B. Location and accessibility (2) © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc Sera Monastery, Tibet

12 12 1. Environmental Impact Assessment 2. Social Impact Assessment 3. Economic Impact Assessment 4. Strategic Environmental Assessment C. Impact assessment © Anna Spenceley, 2007

13 13 1.Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool used to assess proposed development initiatives and the environment in which it is to be located. When applied effectively, it can minimise the depletion of natural resources and social disruption. It allows the withdrawal of unsound projects, legitmation of sound projects, selection of improved project locations, reformulation of plans and redefinition of goals. C. Impact assessment © Anna Spenceley, 2007

14 14 2.Social Impact Assessment (SIA) is a process of assessing or estimating in advance the social consequences that are likely to occur as a result of as specific policy, action or development in the context of relevant legislation. Social impacts include all cultural and social consequences of actions in the way people live, work, play, interact, meet their needs, and cope as members of society. Cultural impacts involve changes to the norms, values and beliefs of individuals that guide their understanding of themselves and society C. Impact assessment © Anna Spenceley, 2007

15 15 3.Economic Impact Assessment (EcIA) tools can be used to determine economic inputs of local, regional or national economies, and predict regional accounts for specific regional areas. Direct, indirect and changes in gross output and final demands; employment and import requirements; income and earnings are incorporated. C. Impact assessment © Anna Spenceley, 2007

16 16 4.Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the formalised, systematic and comprehensive process of evaluating the environmental effects of a policy, plan or programme and its alternatives, including the preparation of a written report on the findings of that evaluation, and using the findings in publicly accountable decision- making. C. Impact assessment © Anna Spenceley, 2007

17 17 D. Infrastructure and architectural design © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc Project design Design standards for siting, design compatibility, aesthetics, impact reduction re ecological and cultural values (design to minimize negative effects on site and surrounding areas) Design for wastewater, water use reduction, energy conservation. Build in energy conservation technology

18 18 Design Makasutu Cultural Forest, The Gambia Singita Lebombo, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007

19 19 Design Makasutu Cultural Forest, The Gambia Singita Lebombo, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 These lodges at Makasutu in The Gambia are floating on tidal water, that goes up and down 1-2 metres each day. Local fishermen use the river to access fishing zones. The lodges are designed to take advantage of natural winds, and the floating structures are unique.

20 20 Design Makasutu Cultural Forest, The Gambia Singita Lebombo, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 This lodge in Kruger National Park has stunning views over the river, but was not designed to account for the heat generated. Therefore air conditioning systems had to be included, which use a lot of energy to run.

21 21 Construction Makalali, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, During the construction of Makalali, the architect trained local carpenters and thatchers in new techniques, which used the skills they already had to develop a traditional, but high quality lodge in a private game reserve. These skills could then be used afterwards for people to set up new businesses.

22 22 E. Sustainable resource use, waste management, new technologies © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

23 23 Environmental management systems: Water Spier, South Africa Kruger National Park, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007

24 24 Environmental management systems: Water Spier, South Africa Kruger National Park, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Water conservation is important everywhere. These are wetland systems treat sewage waste naturally using reed beds. Water that comes out at the end is perfectly clean, and can re-enter natural streams.

25 25 Environmental management systems: Water Spier, South Africa Kruger National Park, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 At Spier the water sprinkers are on timers, so that they only spray water for a short time. By spraying early in the morning, and later in the day, evaporation is reduced

26 26 Environmental management systems: Water Spier, South Africa Kruger National Park, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 By installing showers, instead of baths, hotels can save water. Water-efficient faucets create finer sprays of water, which also reduce the volume used.

27 27 Environmental management systems: Waste Bushmans Kloof, South Africa Spier, South Africa Malelela, Lesotho © Anna Spenceley, 2007

28 28 Environmental management systems: Waste Bushmans Kloof, South Africa Spier, South Africa Malelela, Lesotho © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Reduce Re-use Recycle

29 29 Environmental management systems: Waste Bushmans Kloof, South Africa Spier, South Africa Malelela, Lesotho © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Sorting waste for recycling (e.g. glass, plastic, paper, metal, food)

30 30 Environmental management systems: Waste Bushmans Kloof, South Africa Spier, South Africa Malelela, Lesotho © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Colourful waste plastic bags can even be re-used to make attractive craft, like these chickens!

31 31 Environmental management systems: Waste Bushmans Kloof, South Africa Spier, South Africa Malelela, Lesotho © Anna Spenceley, 2007 At Malelela, waste drink cans are used to make furniture for a local primary school

32 32 Environmental management systems: Energy De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa Spier, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Energy saving light bulbs, with daylight-sensors for use outdoors – save energy

33 33 Environmental management systems: Energy De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa Spier, South Africa © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Solar panels can be used to heat water and power lights – a renewable source of energy. Wind power is also possible in some places

34 34 Participatory processes Plans/programs should involve local suppliers/guides etc Ongoing participation in facility and site management/decision process for local community/stakeholders F. Local consultation and partnerships © Ted Manning, Tourisk Inc

35 35 Planning © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Fort Dauphin, Madagascar Nosy Be, Madagascar Watamu, Kenya 1 Examples of participatory planning and stakeholder discussion meetings in Africa, where local stakeholders are actively involved in the planning process

36 36 Planning © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Fort Dauphin, Madagascar Nosy Be, Madagascar Watamu, Kenya 1 In Nosy Be, Madagascar, landscape architects, urban planners, fishermen and artisan all sat and discussed the best way to plan tourism on the island.

37 37 Planning © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Fort Dauphin, Madagascar Nosy Be, Madagascar Watamu, Kenya 1 Open discussion of issues and problems in Kenya were used to highlight how planning and coordination of activities could improve local conflicts

38 38 Planning © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Fort Dauphin, Madagascar Nosy Be, Madagascar Watamu, Kenya 1 A participatory planning meeting, doing a SWOT analysis of skills, tourism assets, and other important points. This helped to ensure local ownership over plans developed, and to ensure that they were relevant to local people.

39 39 Establish cooperative structures Canhane community Mozambique © Anna Spenceley, 2007 Canhane is the community that owns Covane Community Lodge. A cooperative structure was set up, facilitated by the Swiss NGO Helvetas The whole community became a general assembly, who would meet annually to discuss the running of the lodge. The community are also the owners of the lodge, and could make decisions on its management (the photo is an AGM of the community, where dividends were distributed). 10 members of the community became elected representatives of the community – the Social committee. These people would be more actively involved in the running of the lodge, and would report back to the community with any issues.

40 40 G. Discussion questions Discussion questions: Why is it important to do market research before planning a tourism enterprise? What would happen to local rivers if waste water was to pollute them? What could be the impacts on the health of local people, livestock and plants and animals in the rivers? How could you find out what local skills, products and services would be available to supply a responsible tourism enterprise? What is the difference between planning a responsible hotel, and an irresponsible hotel? Group work Develop a list of questions you would ask tourists to find out if tourists visiting Lhasa were interested in staying at responsible community-based hotel. Also explain where you would find tourists to interview them, and how you would analyse the data. © Anna Spenceley, 2007

41 41 H. Assignment Option A: Using a 5-10 page business plan template from write a business plan for a rural, family based guest house in Tibet. The purpose of the business plan is to apply for a loan to finance the infrastructure development. Be clear about the type of information you need to complete the plan if there are some unknowns (e.g. market research; cost estimates for building materials; time to promote the product.) Or Option B: Make a list of all the architectural features, and resource-saving technologies that could be used in a new environmentally friendly hotel. Consider the use of natural lighting, heating and cooling through the design of the buildings; renewable energy resources such as solar and wind power; water conservation through rainwater collection, grey-water recycling; sewage and solid waste disposal; and energy saving appliances. © Anna Spenceley, 2007

42 42 I. Sources of information Denman, R. (2001) Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development, WWF International. Available at Gunn, C. A. and Var, T. (2002) Tourism planning, 4th Edition, Routledge: Chapter 9 Site planning concepts pp329 Guitierrez, E., Lamoureux, K., Matus, S., and Sebunya, K. (2005) Linking communities, tourism and conservation : A Tourism assessment process, Conservation International and The George Washington University. Infrastructure and services (pp38), Involving local stakeholders (pp18). Available at web.conservation.org/xp/CIWEB/downloads/TAPManual.pdf Lindberg, K. and D. E. Hawkins (1993), Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers Volume 1. The Ecotourism Society. Lindberg, Epler Wood and Engeldrum (1998), Ecotourism: A Guide for Planners and Managers Volume 2. The Ecotourism Society. World Tourism Organisation (2004) Indicators of sustainable development for tourism destinations: A guidebook. World Tourism Organisation, Madrid. Chapter 3.2 on Designing products and services (pp223), and Chapter 3.14 on Sustainability of tourism operations and services (pp241). Available from © Anna Spenceley, 2007


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