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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Understanding Populations Chapter 8 POPULATIONS: How Populations.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Understanding Populations Chapter 8 POPULATIONS: How Populations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Understanding Populations Chapter 8 POPULATIONS: How Populations Change in Size How Species Interact with Each Other

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Understanding Populations Chapter 8 Table of Contents Section 1 How Populations Change in Size Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 How Populations Change in Size Objectives Describe the three main properties of a population. Describe exponential population growth. Describe how the reproductive behavior of individuals can affect the growth rate of their population. Explain how population sizes in nature are regulated. Chapter 8

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Is a Population? A population is a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area and interbreed. A population is a reproductive group because organisms usually breed with members of their own population. The word population refers to the group in general and also to the size of the population, or the number of individuals it contains. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Properties of Populations Density is the number of individuals of the same species in that live in a given unit of area. Dispersion is the pattern of distribution of organisms in a population. A populations dispersion may be even, clumped, or random. Size, density, dispersion, and other properties can be used to describe populations and to predict changes within them. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How Does a Population Grow? A population gains individuals with each new offspring or birth and loses them with each death. The resulting population change over time can be represented by the equation below. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How Does a Population Grow? Growth rate is an expression of the increase in the size of an organism or population over a given period of time. It is the birth rate minus the death rate. Overtime, the growth rates of populations change because birth rates and death rates increase or decrease. For this reason, growth rates can be positive, negative, or zero. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How Does a Population Grow? For the growth rate to be zero, the average number of births must equal the average number of deaths. A population would remain the same size if each pair of adults produced exactly two offspring, and each of those offspring survived to reproduce. If the adults in a population are not replaced by new births, the growth rate will be negative and the population will shrink. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu How Fast Can a Population Grow? Populations usually stay about the same size from year to year because various factors kill many individuals before they can reproduce. These factors control the sizes of populations. In the long run, the factors also determine how the population evolves. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reproductive Potential A species biotic potential is the fastest rate at which its populations can grow. This rate is limited by reproductive potential. Reproductive potential is the maximum number of offspring that a given organism can produce. Some species have much higher reproductive potentials than others. Darwin calculated that it could take 750 years for a pair of elephants to produce 19 million descendants. While bacteria could produce that in a few days or weeks. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reproductive Potential Reproductive potential increases when individuals produce more offspring at a time, reproduce more often, and reproduce earlier in life. Reproducing earlier in life has the greatest effect on reproductive potential. Reproducing early shortens the generation time, or the average time it takes a member of the population to reach the age when it reproduces. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Reproductive Potential Small organisms, such as bacteria and insects, have short generation times and can reproduce when they are only a few hours or a few days old. As a result, their populations can grow quickly. In contrast, large organisms, such as elephants and humans, become sexually mature after a number of years and therefore have a much lower reproductive potential than insects. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Exponential Growth Exponential growth is logarithmic growth or growth in which numbers increase by a certain factor in each successive time period. Exponential growth occurs in nature only when populations have plenty of food and space, and have no competition or predators. For example, population explosions occur when bacteria or molds grow on a new source of food. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Exponential Growth In exponential growth, a large number of individuals is added to the population in each succeeding time period. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu What Limits Population Growth? Because natural conditions are neither ideal nor constant, populations cannot grow forever. Eventually, resources are used up or the environment changes, and deaths increase or births decrease. Under the forces of natural selection in a given environment, only some members of any population will survive and reproduce. Thus, the properties of a population may change over time. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Carrying Capacity Carrying capacity is the largest population that an environment can support at any given time. A population may increase beyond this number but it cannot stay at this increased size. Because ecosystems change, carrying capacity is difficult to predict or calculate exactly. However, it may be estimated by looking at average population sizes or by observing a population crash after a certain size has been exceeded. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Carrying Capacity Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Resource Limits A species reaches its carrying capacity when it consumes a particular natural resource at the same rate at which the ecosystem produces the resource. That natural resource is then called a limiting resource. The supply of the most severely limited resources determines the carrying capacity of an environment for a particular species at a particular time. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Competition Within a Population The members of a population use the same resources in the same ways, so they will eventually compete with one another as the population approaches its carrying capacity. Instead of competing for a limiting resource, members of a species may compete indirectly for social dominance or for a territory. Competition within a population is part of the pressure of natural selection. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Competition Within a Population A territory is an area defended by one or more individuals against other individuals. The territory is of value not only for the space but for the shelter, food, or breeding sites it contains. Many organisms expend a large amount of time and energy competing with members of the same species for mates, food, or homes for their families. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Two Types of Population Regulation Population size can be limited in ways that may or may not depend on the density of the population. Causes of death in a population may be density dependent or density independent. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Population Regulation When a cause of death in a population is density dependent, deaths occur more quickly in a crowded population than in a sparse population. This type of regulation happens when individuals of a population are densely packed together. Limited resources, predation and disease result in higher rates of death in dense populations than in sparse populations. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Population Regulation When a cause of death is density independent, a certain proportion of a population may die regardless of the populations density. This type of regulation affects all populations in a general or uniform way. Severe weather and natural disasters are often density independent causes of death. Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other Objectives Explain the difference between niche and habitat. Give examples of parts of a niche. Describe the five major types of interactions between species. Explain the difference between parasitism and predation. Explain how symbiotic relationships may evolve. Chapter 8

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu An Organisms Niche A niche is the unique position occupied by a species, both in terms of its physical use of its habitat and its function within an ecological community. A niche is different from a habitat. An organisms habitat is a location. However, a niche is an organisms pattern of use of its habitat. A niche can also be though of as the functional role, or job of a particular species in an ecosystem. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ways in Which Species Interact Interactions between species are categorized at the level where one population interacts with another. The five major types of species interactions are: Competition Predation Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Species Interactions Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Ways in Which Species Interact These categories are based on whether each species causes benefit or harm to the other species in a given relationships in terms of total effects over time. Other types of interactions are possible. Many interactions between species are indirect, some interactions do not fit in a category clearly, and other types seem possible but are rarely found. Therefore, many interactions are neither categorized nor well studied. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Competition Competition is the relationship between two species (or individuals) in which both species (or individuals) attempt to use the same limited resource such that both are negatively affected by the relationship. Members of the same species must compete with each other because they require the same resources because they occupy the same niche. When members of different species compete, we say that their niches overlap, which means that each species uses some of the same resources in a habitat. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Indirect Competition Species can compete even if they never come into direct contact with each other. For example, suppose that one insect feeds on a certain plant during they day and that another species feeds on the same plant during the night. Because they use the same food source, the two species are indirect competitors. Humans rarely interact with the insects that eat our food crops, but those insects are still competing with us for food. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Adaptations to Competition When two species with similar niches are placed together in the same ecosystem, we might expect one species to be more successful than the other. But in the course of evolution, adaptations that decrease competition will also be advantageous for species whose niches overlap. One way competition can be reduced between species is by dividing up the niche in time or space. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Adaptations to Competition Niche restriction is when each species uses less of the niche than they are capable of using. It is observed in closely related species that use the same resources within a habitat. For example, Chthamalus stellatus, a barnacle species, is found only in the upper level of the intertidal zone when another barnacle species is present. When the other species is removed, C. stellatus can be found at deeper levels. The actual niche used by a species may be smaller than the potential niche. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Adaptations to Competition Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Predation Predation is an interaction between two species in which one species, the predator, feeds on the other species, the prey. In complex food webs, a predator may also be the prey of another species. Most organisms have evolved some mechanisms to avoid or defend against predators. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Predators Some predators eat only specific types of prey. In this kind of close relationship, the sizes of each population tend to increase and decrease in linked patterns, as shown below. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Parasitism An organism that lives in or on another organism and feeds on the other organism is a parasite. Examples include ticks, fleas, tapeworms, heartworms, and bloodsucking leeches. The organisms the parasite takes its nourishment from is known as the host. Parasitism is a relationship between two species, the parasite, benefits from the other species, the host, and usually harms the host. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Parasitism The differences between a parasite and a predator are that a parasite spends some of its life in or on the host, and that the parasites do not usually kill their hosts. In fact, the parasite has an evolutionary advantage if it allows its host to live longer. However, the host is often weakened or exposed to disease by the parasite. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Mutualism Many species depend on another species for survival. In some cases, neither organism can survive alone. Mutualism is a relationship between two species in which both species benefit. Certain species of bacteria in your intestines form a mutualistic relationship with you. These bacteria help break down food that you cannot digest. In return, you give the bacteria a warm, food-rich habitat. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Commensalism Commensalism is a relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other in unaffected. An example is the relationship between sharks and a type of fish called remoras. Remoras attach themselves to sharks and feed on scraps of food left over from the sharks meals. Even seemingly harmless activity, however, might have an effect on another species. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Symbiosis and Coevolution Symbiosis is a relationship in which two different organisms live in close association with each other. Symbiosis is most often used to describe a relationship in which at least one species benefits. Overtime, species in close relationships may coevolve. These species may evolve adaptations that reduce the harm or improve the benefit of the relationship. Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Population Change & Exponential Growth Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Populations Changes & Carrying Capacity Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Bellringer Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Species Interactions Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Niche Restriction Due to Competition Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1.What determines the carrying capacity of an environment? A.growth rates B.limiting resources C.natural selection D.territorial size Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1.What determines the carrying capacity of an environment? A.growth rates B.limiting resources C.natural selection D.territorial size Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.Which of the following statements can be made about competition between organisms in a particular ecosystem? F.Organisms rarely compete with members of their own species. G.Organisms compete directly when they require the same resources. H.Organisms only compete when supplies of a resource are unlimited. I.Organisms only compete for resources when their populations are small. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2.Which of the following statements can be made about competition between organisms in a particular ecosystem? F.Organisms rarely compete with members of their own species. G.Organisms compete directly when they require the same resources. H.Organisms only compete when supplies of a resource are unlimited. I.Organisms only compete for resources when their populations are small. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.Which of the following describes a species niche? A.the unique role the species plays in an ecosystem B.the physical location where the species can be found on Earth C.the adaptation of a species population to its physical environment D.the maximum number of offspring all members of that species can produce Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3.Which of the following describes a species niche? A.the unique role the species plays in an ecosystem B.the physical location where the species can be found on Earth C.the adaptation of a species population to its physical environment D.the maximum number of offspring all members of that species can produce Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4.Which of the following expressions is used to calculate the change in population size? F.births plus deaths G.births plus deaths plus population H.births minus deaths I.births minus deaths plus population Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4.Which of the following expressions is used to calculate the change in population size? F.births plus deaths G.births plus deaths plus population H.births minus deaths I.births minus deaths plus population Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use this table to answer question 5. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5.Which of the interactions listed in the table is harmful to both species? A.commensalism B.competition C.mutualism D.predation Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which of the interactions listed in the table is harmful to both species? A.commensalism B.competition C.mutualism D.predation Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use this illustration to answer questions 6 and 7. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6.What happens to population size between the time it overshoots carrying capacity to when it recovers and stabilizes? F.It remains stable. G.It declines steadily. H.It decreases before it stabilizes. I.It continues to increase at a steady rate. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. What happens to population size between the time it overshoots carrying capacity to when it recovers and stabilizes? F.It remains stable. G.It declines steadily. H.It decreases before it stabilizes. I.It continues to increase at a steady rate. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7.If the population size was nearly 2,000 when it overshot carrying capacity, and 1,500 when it was at its lowest amount of decline during its recovery, what is the estimated carrying capacity of the population? A.1,600 B.1,750 C.1,800 D.1,950 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 7. If the population size was nearly 2,000 when it overshot carrying capacity, and 1,500 when it was at its lowest amount of decline during its recovery, what is the estimated carrying capacity of the population? A.1,600 B.1,750 C.1,800 D.1,950 Standardized Test Prep Chapter 8

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Section 1 How Populations Change in Size Chapter 8

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 8 Section 1 How Populations Change in Size

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other Chapter 8

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Image and Activity Bank Chapter 8 Section 2 How Species Interact with Each Other


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