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1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry Dr. Richard Malik.

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1 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Chemistry Dr. Richard Malik

2 2 The Stories of Two Chemicals Ozone is formed when oxygen gas is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere forming an ozone layer. Ozone is formed when oxygen gas is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere forming an ozone layer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is harmful to plants and animals. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) is harmful to plants and animals. Importance of the Ozone Layer: Importance of the Ozone Layer: –Ozone absorbs most of the harmful UV radiation before it reaches Earths surface.

3 3 The Stories of Two Chemicals Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) –Used as coolant for refrigerators –Used as propellants in spray cans –CFCs escape into the atmosphere causing a thinning of the ozone layer.

4 4 What is Chemistry? Chemistry is the study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Chemistry is the study of the matter, its composition, properties, and the changes it undergoes. Applied chemistry is the using of chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Applied chemistry is the using of chemistry to attain certain goals, in fields like medicine, agriculture, and manufacturing Pure chemistry gathers knowledge for knowledges sake Pure chemistry gathers knowledge for knowledges sake

5 5 Which Comes First? Pure Chemistry Pure Chemistry Usually comes first, applied later Called technology Or engineering Pure chemistry can explain behavior that has been used without knowing why Steel swords Applied Chemistry Applied Chemistry Cant be good or bad Can be good or bad depending on use

6 6 Mass and Matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. (Ex. Book) Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. (Ex. Book) Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Measured in grams (g) Mass is the amount of matter in an object. Measured in grams (g) Weight- The weight of an object is a measure of the force of gravity on the object. Weight- The weight of an object is a measure of the force of gravity on the object. Your weight will change if you move from the North pole to the equator but our mass will stay the same. Your weight will change if you move from the North pole to the equator but our mass will stay the same.

7 7 Branches of Chemistry Analytical Chemistry -studies composition of substances. Analytical Chemistry -studies composition of substances. Organic Chemistry -compounds containing carbon Organic Chemistry -compounds containing carbon Inorganic Chemistry -substances without carbon Inorganic Chemistry -substances without carbon Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Biochemistry- Chemistry of living things Physical Chemistry studies behavior of substances Physical Chemistry studies behavior of substances –rates and mechanisms of reactions –energy transfers

8 8 Applied Chemistry Material Design Material Design –Plastics –Paints –Nanotechnology Scale Scale –Macroscopic- Big enough to see –Microscopic- Too small to see unaided –Nanotechnology- manipulating individual atoms and molecules

9 9 Applied Chemistry Agriculture Agriculture –Production- fertilizers, soil tests –Protection – pesticide, herbicide Medicine Medicine –Drugs –Materials- hips, artificial skin –Biotechnology- using organisms as a means of production

10 10 Scientific Method A way of solving problems or answering questions. A way of solving problems or answering questions. Step 1:Observation- the act of gathering information. Observations can be: Step 1:Observation- the act of gathering information. Observations can be: –Qualitative data- Anything that relates to the five senses. (look, feel, sound, taste, smell) –Quantitative data- Numerical information that tells you how much, how little, etc.

11 11 Scientific Method (cont.) Step Step 2:Hypothesis- 2:Hypothesis- a testable statement or prediction that explains the cause of the observation, based on research and previous knowledge Step Step 3: Experiment- Experiment- a process designed to test the hypothesis. –only –only two possible answers, hypothesis is right or wrong –Generates –Generates data data -observations from experiments.

12 12 Scientific Method (cont.) Step Step 4 Conclusion: Conclusion: A judgment based on the information obtained. Can lead to a theory. –Theory –Theory -Hypothesis supported by many experiments. –Scientific –Scientific Law- Law- Summary of accepted facts of nature. Step Step 5 Modify hypothesis hypothesis - repeat the cycle.

13 13 Observations Hypothesis Experiment Cycle repeats many times. Cycle repeats many times. By you and by others By you and by others The hypothesis gets more and more certain. The hypothesis gets more and more certain. Becomes a theory Becomes a theory A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way. A thoroughly tested model that explains why things behave a certain way.

14 14 Theory can never be proven. Theory can never be proven. It is the best explanation It is the best explanation Useful because they predict behavior Useful because they predict behavior Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Help us form mental pictures of processes (models) Observations Hypothesis Experiment

15 15 Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Another outcome is that certain behavior is repeated many times Scientific Law is developed Scientific Law is developed Description of how things behave Description of how things behave Usually an equation Usually an equation Law - how Law - how Theory- why Theory- why Observations Hypothesis Experiment

16 16 Prediction Experiment Modify Observations Hypothesis Experiment Law Theory (Model)

17 17 Variables Controlled experiment- Only want one thing to change at a time in a laboratory. Controlled experiment- Only want one thing to change at a time in a laboratory. Independent variable- What you change or control directly. Independent variable- What you change or control directly. Dependent variable – What changes as a result of changing the independent variable. No direct control. Dependent variable – What changes as a result of changing the independent variable. No direct control.

18 18 References Dingranso, L, Gregg, K, Hainen, N, & Wistrom, C (2002). Chemistry: matter and change. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Dingranso, L, Gregg, K, Hainen, N, & Wistrom, C (2002). Chemistry: matter and change. Columbus, OH: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Green, N.D., Mr. Greens Home Page. Retrieved October 17, 2008 from Green, N.D., Mr. Greens Home Page. Retrieved October 17, 2008 from


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