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1 Punang Amaripuja Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia Muhammadiyah University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Punang Amaripuja Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia Muhammadiyah University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Punang Amaripuja Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakartat

2 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 2 General Context Enormous population base (+/- 220 M) Scattered through islands –Limited physical infrastructure in outer islands –Low access to communication lines Java centric –Human capital –Knowledge base

3 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 3 Education in General Pre-Elementary: 1-2 years, optional Elementary: 6 years (compulsary) Junior High: 3 years (compulsary) High School: 3 years –General –Vocational Higher Education: –General (Universities, 4 yrs) –Vocational (Academies, Polytechnics, 2-3 yrs) Others: –Informal –Non Formal

4 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 4 Current Issues in Education Ammended Constitution orders 20% of National Budget for Education (not including salaries, etc.), while current budget is only 11%  outruled by Constitutional Court Certification of Teachers and Lecturers with up to 3x current salaries Some state universities converted to State Owned Education Corporations

5 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 5 Some Facts on Education InstitutionsStudentsTeachers Kindergarten47,9371,985,749254,531 Primary School1,08929,092,1301,490,948 Junior Secondary 32,9669,586,753749,571 Senior Secondary 17,3296,175,528480,564 Higher Education 2,5894,001,191208,181 (Directorate General of Higher Education, 2005)

6 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 6 NUMBER OF TEACHERS BASED ON EDUCATION IN 2007 GRADUATE OF EMPLOYMENT STATUS TOTAL% GOV’MTPRIVATE HIGH SCHOOL 288, , , % Diploma 1 34,565 20,792 55, % Diploma 2 532, , , % Diploma 3 85,550 52, , % Bachelor 459, , , % Masters 7,379 1,743 9, % Ph.D % TOTAL 1,408, ,797 2,245, %

7 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 7 9 S-3 Sp S D-4 S-1 3 D-3 2 D-2 1 D-1 Indonesian tertiary educations qualifications framework

8 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 8 Number of HE Students DescriptionQuantity Population aged ,901,100 Total HE Students3,550,485 Public Univ Students937,510 Private Univ Students2,099,383 Departemental Univ51,539 Islamic Univ462,053 Gross Enrollment14.26%

9 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 9 Government Support for Private Universities Competitive Research Grants Competitive Departmental & University Level Grants Competitive University Unit level Grants The grants are competed between public and private universities Some private university lecturers (and teachers) become government officials Both public and private univ lecturers are licensed and promoted through the Ministry of Education Certification of public and private university lecturers Domestic Scholarships

10 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 10 Ministry of Education Strategic Plan Vision A Smart and Competitive Indonesia Mission Establish and education system that could develop a smart and competitive Indonesia which is just, qualified, and relevant with the needs of the local and global community Strategic Policy Equity and Extension of Access Quality, Relevance, and Competitiveness Governance, Accountability, and Public Image

11 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 11 Targets of the DGHE Capacity building and modernization Services Improvement Regional Competitiveness International Competitiveness

12 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 12 Indonesian Higher Education Vision 2010 On 1 April 2003 the DGHE has proclaimed HELTS (the Higher Education Long Term Strategy 2003 – 2010) Which incorporates the Indonesian Higher Education Vision: In order to contribute to the nation’s competitiveness, the national higher education has to be organizationally healthy, and the same requirement also applies to institutions. A structural adjustment in the existing system is, however, needed to meet this challenge. The structural adjustment aims, by the year of 2010, of having a healthy higher education system, effectively coordinated and demonstrated by the following features : Quality Quality Access and Equity Access and Equity Autonomy Autonomy

13 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 13 Strategic Issues in the HELTS One of the strategic issues described in the HELTS 2003 – 2010 point E is Quality Assurance as stated below : In healthy organizations, continuous quality improvement should become its primary concern. Quality assurance should be internally driven, institutionalized within each organization’s standard procedure, and could also involve external parties. However, since quality is also a concern of all stakeholders, quality improvement should aim at producing quality outputs and outcomes as part of public accountability.

14 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 14 The New Paradigm Autonomy Assurance/ Evaluasi Accreditation Accountability Quality The purpose of evaluation is not to prove but to improve. (Stufflebeam et al., Educational Evaluation and Design Making, 1997)

15 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 15 The Definition of Higher Education Quality Assurance Higher Education Quality Assurance is the process of defining and fulfillment of Higher Education Quality Management Standards in a consistent and sustainable manner in order to satisfy all its stakeholders (students, parents, industry, government, lecturers, supporting staff, and other relevant parties)

16 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 16 Mechanism for identifying HE Quality Standards StakeholderNeeds Vision Standards Recruitment Probation period Permanent staff status Work performance appraisal Mutations, Promotions, Demotions Work schedules Overtime and paid leave Compensations and Rewards Social security and welfare Development and trainings Work health and safety Discipline Field work compensation Work separations This example assumes that all HE Institutions are Educational Legal Bodies

17 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 17 HE Quality Assurance Structure Self Evaluation Program Evaluation (Self Evaluated) Internal Quality Assurance External Higher Education EPSBED IQA Accredi-tation

18 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 18 Sustainable Higher Education Quality Assurance Activities ACTIVITYGOALSTATUSINSTITUTION ACREDITATION SELF EVALUATED PROGRAM EVALUATION (EPSBED) INTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE External HE Quality Control and Audit Compulsary Extension of Operational Permit Internalimprovement of HE Quality Facultative(optional) HE National Acreditation Board BAN – PT and / or others Directorate General of Higher Education Self Innitiated HE Institution

19 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 19 Overview of HE Quality Assurance 8 Minimal Standard (NED) Other standards (above the National Education Standard) Compul- sary Internally Driven (HELTS) 1. Content 2. Process 3. Graduate Competence 4. Academic staff 5. Infrastructure 6. Operations 7. Financial 8. Academic Appraisal 1. Community services 2. Information Systems 3. Alliances & Cooperations 4. Student affairs 5. Academic atmosphere 6. Financial resources 7. Others (Inst. based) HE Quality Assurance A Smart and Competitive Indonesia T.Frame

20 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 20 Standards Improvement Strategy Higher Education Surpass NES, AUN Quality Label, Acquire AUN Standard ASSISTANCE INDEPENDENCY Acquire AUN Standard 100 best in Asia / World Acquire Internasional Standard 100 best in Asia / World REGIONALINTERNASIONAL INTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE / ACCREDITATION (HE-NAB) LAW OBEDIENCY 100 NASIONAL

21 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 21 Quality Assurance Process a. The HE Institution defines its vision and mission b. Every program defines its vision and mission based on the institution’s vision and mission c. The program’s vision is broken down into a set of quality standards d. The HE Institution sets the organization and mechanism of quality assurance e. The HE Institution implements quality assurance through quality control management f. The HE Institution evaluates and revises its quality standard through ongoing benchmarking

22 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 22 Self Evaluated Items (LRAISE) Leadership Relevance Environmental sensitivity Graduate quality Industry acceptance Academic Atmosphere Lecturer – student, lecturer – lecturer, & student - student interactions SOP Discipline Internal Management & Organization Decision making processes Budget priorities Internal and external evaluations Sustainability Assure institutional existance Assure quality level Resources Efficiency and Productivity Length of study, length of thesis, etc. Ability to produce good output

23 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 23 Self Evaluation Report Summary I. Self Evaluation Process II. Background a. Department & Program History b. Long Term Development Plans c. External Environment III. Academis Program Evaluation a. Education b. Research c. Community Services d. Quality Assurance Programs IV. Management of Resources a. Financial Management b. Human Resources Management c. Physical Facilities Management 1. Infrastructure (Buildings) 2. Laboratories 3. Libraries d. Data and Information Management V. Departmental Performance Indicators a. Primary Performance Indicators b. Supporting Performance Indicators VI. Identified Problems VII. Alternative Solutions VIII. Appendix

24 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 24 NATIONAL ACCREDITATION SYSTEM (Current) Ministry of Education HE-National Accreditation Board HE Institution AHE Institution B P 1P 3P 4P 2 P WP XP YP Z ACCREDITATION

25 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 25 NATIONAL ACCREDITATION SYSTEM (Alternate) Ministry of Education HE-NAB HE Institution AHE Institution B ASSOCATION OF HEI Program Accreditation ACCREDITATION P 1P 3P 4P 2 P WP XP YP Z

26 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 26 Goals of Accreditation  Protect the community  Assist Quality Assurance of HE Institutions  Public Accountability of HEI  Standardization of academic credit to allow student mobilization  Basis for accreditation / license  Consideration for grants  Consideration for employee recruitment  International recognition of certificate / competence  Input for meta-evaluation of HE quality

27 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 27 Scope of Accreditation Quality Control : –System and mechanism to assess comlpiance with performance indicators Quality Audit: –Appraisal of internal Quality Control mechanisms Quality Assessment: –System efficiency and effectiveness

28 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 28 Who is responsible for HE Quality? HE Institutions Association of HEI (self regulation) Directorate General of HE HE National Accreditation Board

29 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 29 Functions of the HE-NAB Prepare organization Formulate technical policy Setup appraisal criteria Collect data Operate appraisals Determine accreditation Publish accreditation certificates Announce accreditation results Give recommendation for supervision Assist self evaluation of HE Institutions Periodic reports to the Ministry of Education Kepmendikbud 187/U/1998

30 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 30 TYPE OF INSTIT- UTIONS LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION ACCRE- DITED D-3 STUDY PROGRA MS NUMBER OF D-3 STUDY PROGRA MS ACCREDI TED D-3 FROM TOTAL D- 3 STUDY PROGRA MS ABCD State Univer- sities % % % % % % 24.4 % Private Univer- sities % % % % % % 23.9 % Institute for Religious Studies 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % % 0 % Service Institutes 0 0 % % % 0 0 % % % 6.9 % TOTAL % % % % % Accreditation results of Diploma (D-3) programs (25 Aug 2004)

31 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 31 TYPE OF INSTIT- UTIONS LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION ACCRE- DITED S- 1 STUDY PROGRA MS NUMBER OF S-1 STUDY PROGRA MS ACCREDIT ED S-1 FROM TOTAL S-1 STUDY PROGRAM S ABCD State Univer- sities % % % % % % 74.1 % Private Univer- sities % % % % % % 78.2 % Institute for Religious Studies % % % % % % 61.2 % Service Institutes % % % % % % 73.3 % TOTAL % % % % % Accreditation results of S-1 programs (25 Aug 2004)

32 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 32 TYPE OF INSTIT- UTIONS LEVEL OF ACCREDITATION ACCRE- DITED S-2 STUDY PROGRA MS NUMBE R OF S-2 STUDY PROGRA MS ACCREDI TED S-2 FROM TOTAL S- 2 STUDY PROGRA MS ABCD State Universiti es % % % 0 0 % % % 14.3 % Private Univer- sities % % % % % % 29.4 % Institute for Religious Studies 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 37 7 % 0 % Service Institutes 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 0 % 0 TOTAL % % % % % Accreditation results of S-2 programs (Jan Aug 2004)

33 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 33 KOPERTIS (Coordinator of Private HE Institutions) There are 12 regional offices covering all provinces Their functions include: –Implement supporting policies towards private HE institutions in its jurisdiction –Support implementation of the three HE services –Support resources to private HE institutions –Technical guidance and support to private HE institutions

34 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 34 HE System Problems and Constraints Immature system Wide variety in stage of development of institutions and programs Wide variety of quality within programs in different institutions Wide variety of quality between programs within institutions

35 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 35 HE Quality Assurance Problems and Constraints Lack synchronization between internal HEI system and data and external requirements (Self Evaluation, NAB, Competitive Grants) Limited awareness of HEI senior officials towards the impotance of accurate and complete data collection Limited data utilization in the decision making process

36 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 36 Accreditation Problems & Constraints Huge number of programs Limited number of experts Limited number of reviewers Limited funding

37 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 37 PROBLEMS IN COMPILATION OF SELF EVAL, NAB, AND QA DATA 1.Data spread out over several units and levels 2.Different data codification and stratification in each unit and HEI 3.Different content and format between Self Eval, NAB, and HE-QA data 4Limited use of data in planning of HEI 5Underutilization of existing units for data collection 6Underutilization of Self Evaluation data for planning in HEI

38 Higher Education Quality Assurance in Indonesia 38 References Badan Akreditasi Nasional Perguruan Tinggi, DGHE of MOE, Akreditasi Dalam Uu Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (Uu No. 20/2003) DGHE-MOE, Kebijakan Nasional Sistim Penjaminan Mutu Perguruan Tinggi (Spm-pt), “Sub Tema: Sinkronisasi Sistim Penjaminan Mutu Internal (Spm-pt), Epsbed Dan Penjaminan Mutu Eksternal (Akreditasi) Gunawan, J. Pedoman Penjaminan Mutu (Quality Assurance) Pendidikan Tinggi M. K. Tadjudin, Capacity Building In Quality Assurance And Accreditation In Higher Education In The Asia Pacific Region Rapat Kerja Wilayah Pimpinan Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (Pts) (2006),Rapat Kerja Wilayah Pimpinan Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (Pts) (2006), Kebijakan Nasional Spm-pt Untuk Sinkronisasi Sistem Penjaminan Mutu Internal (Spmpt), Penjaminan Mutu Eksternal (Akreditasi) Dan Perijinan (Epsbed)


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