3Significant FiguresAll the digits used to report a measurement including the uncertain digit (your guess).The only digits that are NOT considered significant are zeros that are present simply as placeholders.
4Rules to help decide which digits are significant All non-zero numbers in a measurement are significant. (Ex: 1, 2, 3 ect)Zeros are significant only if they:are surrounded by other significant figures. Sandwiched in between (ex. 120,001m)appear at the end of a decimal number. (ex )have a bar over them. (ex. 6,32Ō KJ)
5Examples How many significant figures are in 23,457.12km? Rule 1 – All non-zero numbers are significant. Therefore there are 7 significant figures.How many significant figures are in 98,001g?Use Rule 1 and 2a – Zeros are significant if they are surrounded by other significant figures. Therefore there are 5 significant figures.
6More Examples How many significant figures are in 2.3100s? Use Rules 1, 2a, and 2b – Zeros at the end of a decimal number are significant. There are 5 significant figures.How many significant figures are in 57ŌŌ00 nm?Use rules 1, 2a, 2c – Zeros with a bar over them are significant. Therefore the last 2 zeros are NOT significant. There are 4 significant figures
7One More Example How many significant figures are in 0.0030160L? Use rules 1, 2a, and 2b. The first 3 zeros do NOT fit any rules, therefore there are 5 significant figures.
8Figuring Significance Indicate the number of significant figures in each of the following numbers.1. 3,409 kg ,050 mmL , s5. 84,000.0 Ω ,Ō00 Lcm ,000 kgL km11. 1,430,000 s m
9Significant Measurements Look at the scale to the right and record the measurement in the space below.A. 5,880 LHow many significant figures does the measurement have? Explain your answer.A. 3, The last zero is not significantAssume there is another arrow pointing exactly at the 6,000 L mark, how would you report the measurement so that you have the correct number of significant figures?A. 6,000.0 L6,000 L5,000 L
10Exact or Counted Numbers Significant figures only apply to measurements when there is an uncertain digit.Counted numbers are perfectly exact and do not have uncertainty. They have an infinite number of significant figures.Example: 12 eggs could be …eggs (a dozen always means 12no matter what yourtalking about)
12Rounding RulesAlways use the number to the right of the number you are rounding to.1, 2, 3, 4 always round down: 3.3 rounds to 36,7,8, and 9 always round up : 4.7 rounds to 5.
13Rule of 5’s 5 can round both up and down: When rounding with a 5, always remember:Odd numbers round up to the closest even numberExample: 7.5 rounds to 8Even numbers round back down to themselvesExample: 6.5 rounds to 6
14Rounding With FivesExceptionsAnytime the 5 you are rounding with has a non-zero number anywhere after it, the number you are rounding will round up.rounds to 5
15Let’s Review 4.5 rounds to 4 3.5 rounds to 4 2.57 rounds to 3
16Measurements used in calculations When measurements are used in calculations the answer cannot be any more accurate than the original measurements.Example: Rectangle with a width of 1.8 cm and a length of cm. What is the area?Multiplying gives you cm.You can only have 2 significant figures. Therefore the answer is cm.
18Addition and Subtraction The answer must be rounded to the last decimal place of the least accurate number.Example: mmmThe correct answer should be 157.4m.
19Examples Example: 17,000m - 6,430m 10,570m The correct answer should be 11,000m since the least accurate measurement is 17,000 with uncertainty in the thousands place.
20Adding to Your Significance Solve the following math problems, reporting your answers to the correct number of significant figures. Indicate the uncertain figure in each number by underlining it. Be sure to also show the pre- and post rounded numbers.34.8 nm nm = nm =3.67 kg – 3.62 kg = kg =7.39 m m m – 8 m = m =
22Multiplication and Division The answer should contain the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the least number of significant figures3 Sig Figs sig figs sig figsExample: (4.56 mm) (3.4624mm) = mm2 = 15.8mm23 sig figs sig figs sig figs sig figsExample: (3.45m) (6.24m) (2.0m) = m = 43m
24Mixed Problems Follow the Order of Operations PEMDAS Please Excuse My Dear Aunt SallyParenthesesExponents and RootsMultiplication and DivisionAddition and SubtractionEX: (23 cm cm) (450 cm) / (16.3 cm) =SHOW YOUR WORK!!!
25Significant Operations Solve the following math problems, reporting your answers to the correct number of significant figures. For addition or subtraction, indicate the uncertain figure in each number by underlying it. For multiplication and division, indicate the number of significant figures in each number by placing a small number above each measurement. Be sure to also show the pre- and post rounded numbers.(176 m)(325 m)(1.2 m) ==68,640m3(2 sig fig)=69,000m32. ( cm)(1.435 cm)(7,000 cm) / (122 cm) =cm2 =(1 sig fig)0.0002cm2(Continued on Next Page)
26Significant Operations cont ( m)(16,000.0 m) =m2 =(6 sig fig)21,358.4m2(1.948m) / (2.43s) =m/s =(3 sig fig)0.802 m/s5. (0.663 kg)(4.391 m) / [(3.2 s)( s)]= kg m/s2(2 sig fig)=0.010 kg-m/s2