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Systems and Industrial Engineering

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1 Systems and Industrial Engineering
Terry Bahill Systems and Industrial Engineering University of Arizona 4/5/2017 Bahill

2 References M. B. Chrissis, M. Konrad and S. Shrum, CMMI: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement, Pearson Education Inc., Boston, 2003. D. M. Ahern, A. Clouse and R. Turner, CMMI Distilled: A Practical Guide to Integrated Process Improvement, Addison-Wesley, 2001. Some of the slides of this presentation were downloaded from these sites: They are Copyright 2002 Carnegie Mellon University, used by permission. 4/5/2017 Bahill

3 What is CMMI? The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a collection of best practices from leading engineering companies. It provides a model that you can base your company processes on. 4/5/2017 Bahill

4 A system can be implemented with software hardware bioware algorithms
organizations processes You can call these types of systems. 4/5/2017 Bahill

5 What is process? A process is a set of practices performed to achieve a given purpose; it may include tools, methods, materials, and/or people. 4/5/2017 Bahill

6 Why focus on process? Process provides a constructive, high-leverage focus... as opposed to a focus on people Your work force is as good as it is trained to be. Working harder is not the answer. Working smarter, through process, is the answer. as opposed to a focus on technology Technology applied without a suitable roadmap will not result in significant payoff. Technology provides the most benefit in the context of an appropriate process roadmap. 4/5/2017 Bahill

7 When creating a process
the most important facets are illustrating tasks that can be done in parallel suggesting feedback loops including a process to improve the process configuration management 4/5/2017 Bahill

8 Why use CMMI? CMMI provides guidance for improving your organization’s processes and your ability to manage the development, acquisition, and maintenance of products or services. CMMI places proven approaches into a structure that helps your organization examine the effectiveness of your processes establishes priorities for improvement helps you implement these improvements 4/5/2017 Bahill

9 Objective Force Warrior Solicitation
LTI Process Capability. A multidisciplinary, structured, and integrated development process with a strong emphasis on systems engineering, software engineering and integrated product and process development (IPPD) will be a cornerstone of the program. Capability Maturity Model Integration, Version 1.1, will be used as a guideline and benchmark when evaluating offeror’s systems engineering, software engineering and IPPD maturity and capabilities. Certification by relevant Capability Maturity Models (e.g., SECAM, SE-CMM, IPDCMM, etc.) is not required, except for Software Engineering, however, if such certifications have been obtained, that certification information will be considered during the Government’s evaluation process. … The LTI shall implement software management processes maintained at no less than level 3 of the Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM). 4/5/2017 Bahill

10 Areas Your company’s divisions can be evaluated for Software Systems
IPPD* Integrated product and process development 4/5/2017 Bahill

11 CMM IntegrationSM Project
The CMM Integration Project was formed to build an initial set of integrated models establish a framework to enable integration of future models create an associated set of appraisal and training products Source models serving as the starting point for CMMI were SW-CMM (software), V2.0 Draft C EIA 632 (engineering) EIA/IS-731 (systems engineering) IPD-CMM (integrated product development), V0.98 4/5/2017 Bahill

12 CMMI development team Membership from industry U.S. government
Software Engineering Institute Membership characteristics average of about 21 years experience from organizations with solid process improvement credentials Financing from DoD 4/5/2017 Bahill

13 Development strategy Base the model content on current industry best practices as represented in widely-accepted source models. Conduct public reviews of the models. Conduct pilots of the product suite prior to official product release. Update the product suite based on feedback from pilots and reviewers. Release v1.0 of the product suite. Update the product suite based on feedback from users. Release v1.1 of the updated product suite. 4/5/2017 Bahill

14 The Bottom Line Process improvement should be done to help the business— not for its own sake. “In God we trust, all others bring data.” - W. Edwards Deming 4/5/2017 Bahill

15 Categories of benefits
Process improvement benefits fall into these general categories: improved schedule and budget predictability improved cycle time increased productivity increased customer satisfaction improved employee morale increased return on investment improved quality (as measured by defects) decreased cost of quality 4/5/2017 Bahill

16 Results: Boeing Effort Estimation
Improved schedule and budget predictability . 0 % 140% -140% .. . . . .. Without Historical Data With Historical Data Variance between + 20% to % Variance between - 20% to + 20% (Mostly Level 1 & 2) (Level 3) Over/Under Percentage (Based on 120 projects in Boeing Information Systems) . . . Results: Boeing Effort Estimation Reference: John D. Vu. “Software Process Improvement Journey:From Level 1 to Level 5.” 7th SEPG Conference, San Jose, March 1997. 4/5/2017 Bahill 9

17 Improved cost & cycle time
4/5/2017 Bahill

18 Increased productivity and quality
KLOC kilo lines of code: SLOC source lines of code. Source code requires a complete recompile. We also have lines of patch code. Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems (NE&SS) - Radar Systems - Syracuse 4/5/2017 Bahill

19 Measurable return on investment
Process improvement provides measurable return on investment. Return on software improvement investment was reported to be between 5:1 and 8:1. (Herbsleb 94) 4/5/2017 Bahill

20 Improved program performance
Performance to contract Cost at Completion = Budget Increases in productivity 150% over 5 years Industry Cost / Schedule Estimation Tool (COCOMO) projects 20% reduction in effort for 1 level improvement Decreases in Cost of Nonconformance 40% down to 10% Increased customer satisfaction ROI 5:1 and greater Raytheon Missile Systems Software Center 4/5/2017 Bahill

21 Remember The CMMI model is not a process. This model shows what to do,
Not how to do it or who does it. 4/5/2017 Bahill

22 The IDEALSM Model The IDEAL model maps to the SIMILAR Process 4/5/2017
SM IDEAL is a service mark of Carnegie Mellon University. 4/5/2017 Bahill

23 Using CMMI models with the IDEAL model1
Initiating phase CMMI models can assist an organization in understanding how to build sponsorship and in developing the infrastructure for improvement. Diagnosing phase The Standard CMMI Appraisal Methodology for Process Improvement (SCAMPISM) provides a yardstick for appraising processes based on CMMI. SM SCAMPI is a service mark of Carnegie Mellon University. 4/5/2017 Bahill

24 Using CMMI models with the IDEAL model2
Establishing phase CMMI process areas focus the process improvement teams. Acting phase CMMI models provide guidance for defining or improving processes. Learning phase Lessons learned are documented and are the basis for revision of an organizational approach. 4/5/2017 Bahill

25 Process notation schemes1
Process notations should represent What activities are performed in the process? Who does them? Why are they done? When are they done? How are they done? What inputs must you have? What outputs do you produce? How do you measure performance? 4/5/2017 Bahill

26 Process notation schemes2
Different notation schemes emphasize different aspects of a process and, thus, have different strengths and weaknesses. Different notations may or may not have the ability to conveniently represent sequencing of activities timing of activities data flow among activities hierarchical detail entry and exit criteria narrative information 4/5/2017 Bahill

27 Process notation schemes3
Other notation scheme attributes flexibility simplicity ease of training and understanding availability of tool support 4/5/2017 Bahill

28 Common process notations
data flow diagrams flowcharts decision trees check lists task descriptors (narratives) activity diagrams (UML) functional flow block diagrams IDEF0 4/5/2017 Bahill

29 Simplified notation Flow chart to show activity sequencing supplemented with activity details as structured narrative Decision to make change I DENTIFY P ROBLEM Operator SCF V ALIDATE Senior Analyst Validated R OUTE SCF T O A FFECTED G ROUPS OASB Secretariat ERFORM T ECHNICAL & C OST NALYSIS AFMC/SSSG EVIEW ECOMMENDATIONS D ETERMINE ISPOSITION Site OARB OASB E NTER SCF-R ELATED NFO INTO ATABASE THER S ITES ? Each Affected Site ITW/AA OAP (ASPC) SSIGN RIORITY FOR C HANGE Unknown M AKE OFTWARE Software Engineers ERIFICATION & ALIDATION Certification Board Yes No 4/5/2017 Bahill

30 Activity details Activity Details
What is the purpose of this activity? Who participates in this activity? What are the inputs needed to perform the activity? What are the work products that are generated by this activity? How do you know when this activity should begin? How do you know when the activity has successfully completed? What do you do to accomplish this activity? What are the 3-6 subactivities that you perform to accomplish this activity? How do you determine or measure the performance of this activity? What activity is performed prior and after this one? Activity 1 2 3 4/5/2017 Bahill

31 Maturity levels Optimizing Focus on process improvement 5
1 2 3 4 5 Process unpredictable, poorly controlled, and reactive Process characterized for projects and is often reactive Process characterized for the organization and is proactive Process measured and controlled Focus on process improvement Optimizing Quantitatively Managed Defined Initial 4/5/2017 Bahill

32 Process areas A process area (PA) is a cluster of related practices in an area that, when performed collectively, satisfy a set of goals considered important for making significant improvement in that area. Practices are actions to be performed to achieve the goals of a process area. All CMMI process areas are common to both continuous and staged representations. A process area is NOT a process description. 4/5/2017 Bahill

33 4/5/2017 Bahill Level Focus Process Areas Continuous
Process Improvement Quality Productivity Organizational Innovation and Deployment Causal Analysis and Resolution 5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed Quantitative Management Organizational Process Performance Quantitative Project Management Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Integrated Project Management for IPPD Risk Management Integrated Teaming Integrated Supplier Management Decision Analysis and Resolution Organizational Environment for Integration 3 Defined Process Standardization Requirements Management Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Measurement and Analysis Process and Product Quality Assurance Configuration Management 2 Managed Basic Project Management Risk, Rework 1 Initial 4/5/2017 Bahill

34 CMMI Model Process Areas
4/5/2017 Bahill

35 CMMI applied to your life
High School College B.S. Graduate School M.S. Buy a car Get married Have children Did you plan the process? Did you discover and manage requirements? Did you use a formal analysis process for important decisions? Does your family work as a team? Do you try to improve your personal processes?* Can you find something for your left hand to do while your right hand is brushing y0our teeth? 4/5/2017 Bahill

36 Level 2 process areas1 Project Planning The purpose of PP is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities. Project Monitoring and Control The purpose of PMC is to provide understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. Requirements Management The purpose of REQM is to manage the requirements of the project’s products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project’s plans and work products. 4/5/2017 Bahill

37 Level 2 process areas2 Supplier Agreement Management The purpose of SAM is to manage the acquisition of products and services from suppliers for which there exists a formal agreement. Measurement and Analysis The purpose of MA is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs. Process and Product Quality Assurance The purpose of PPQA is to provide staff and management with objective insight into the processes and associated work products. Configuration Management The purpose of CM is to establish and maintain the integrity of the work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. 4/5/2017 Bahill

38 Level 3 process areas1 Requirements Development The purpose of RD is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product component requirements. Technical Solution The purpose of TS is to develop, design, and implement solutions to requirements. Product Integration The purpose of PI is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. Verification The purpose of VER is to assure that the selected work products meet their specified requirements. Validation The purpose of VAL is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. 4/5/2017 Bahill

39 Level 3 process areas2 Integrated Project Management The purpose of IPM is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. Integrated Teaming The purpose of IT is to form and sustain an integrated team for the development of work products. Decision Analysis and Resolution The purpose of DAR is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. Risk Management The purpose of RSKM is to identify potential problems before they occur, so that risk-handling activities may be planned and invoked as needed across the life cycle to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives. 4/5/2017 Bahill

40 Level 3 process areas3 Organizational Process Focus The purpose of OPF is to plan and implement organizational process improvement based on a through understanding of current strengths and weakness of the organization’s processes. Organizational Process Definition The purpose of OPD is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets. Organizational Training The purpose of OT is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. Organizational Environment for Integration The purpose of OEI is to provide an integrated product and process development infrastructure and manage people for integration. 4/5/2017 Bahill

41 Level 4 process areas Organizational Process Performance The purpose of OPP is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects. Quantitative Project Management The purpose of QPM is to quantitatively manage the project’s defined processes to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives. 4/5/2017 Bahill

42 Level 5 process areas Organizational Innovation and Deployment The purpose of OID is to select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization’s processes and technologies. Causal Analysis and Resolution The purpose of CAR is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future. 4/5/2017 Bahill

43 Homework Go through the list of CMMI process areas and state whether or not you think that I used that process in designing and managing this course, SIE-454/554A. Give examples of what I did do and examples of what I could have done. 4/5/2017 Bahill

44 Specific Goals (SG) A specific goal applies to a process area and addresses the unique characteristics that describe what must be implemented to satisfy the process area. Example from the DAR process area: SG 1 Evaluate Alternatives. 4/5/2017 Bahill

45 Specific Practices (SP)
A specific practice is an activity that is considered important in achieving the associated specific goal. Practices are the major building blocks in establishing the process maturity of an organization. 4/5/2017 Bahill

46 Specific Practice Name Example
Number DAR Specific Practice Name Example 1.1 Decide if formal evaluation process is warranted When to do a trade study 1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria What is in a good trade study 1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions 1.4 Select Evaluation Methods 1.5 Evaluate Alternatives 1.6 Select Preferred Solutions 4/5/2017 Bahill

47 4/5/2017 Bahill

48 Generic Goals (GG) Achievement of a generic goal in a process area signifies improved control in planning and implementing the processes associated with that process area. Generic goals are called “generic” because the same goal statement appears in multiple process areas. Each process area has only one generic goal at each level. 4/5/2017 Bahill

49 Level 2 generic goal The generic goal for all maturity level 2 process areas is: GG 2: The xxx process is institutionalized as a managed process. A managed process is a performed process that is planned and executed in accordance with policy; employs skilled people having adequate resources to produce controlled outputs; involves relevant stakeholders; is monitored, controlled, and reviewed; and is evaluated for adherence to its process description. 4/5/2017 Bahill

50 Generic Practices (GP)
Generic practices are activities that ensure that the processes associated with the process area will be effective, repeatable, and lasting. Generic practices contribute to the achievement of the generic goal when applied to a particular process area. 4/5/2017 Bahill

51 Generic Practices Under GG 21
Generic practices for all maturity level 2 process areas: GP 2.1: Establish an Organizational Policy Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the xxx process. GP 2.2: Plan the Process Establish and maintain the plan for performing the xxx process. 4/5/2017 Bahill

52 Generic Practices Under GG 22
GP 2.3: Provide Resources Provide adequate resources for performing the xxx process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process. GP 2.4: Assign Responsibility Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the xxx process. GP 2.5: Train People Train the people performing or supporting the xxx process as needed. 4/5/2017 Bahill

53 Generic Practices Under GG 23
GP 2.6: Manage Configurations Place designated work products of the xxx process under appropriate levels of configuration management. GP 2.7: Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the xxx process as planned. GP 2.8: Monitor and Control the Process Monitor and control the xxx process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action. 4/5/2017 Bahill

54 Generic Practices Under GG 25
GP 2.9: Objectively Evaluate Adherence Objectively evaluate adherence of the xxx process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address non-compliance. GP 2.10: Review Status with Higher Level Management Review the activities, status, and results of the xxx process with higher level management and resolve issues. 4/5/2017 Bahill

55 Product Development Process Deployment-Improvement
ISO wants us to plan, control and improve our processes ISO Measure Deploy Raytheon standard processes guide our business CMMI measures the “goodness” of our processes and the effectiveness of deployment Improve Following R6 methods, we use CMMI metrics to guide improvements to our processes and their deployment 4/5/2017 Bahill

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