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CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill1 Terry Bahill Systems and Industrial Engineering University of Arizona.

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Presentation on theme: "CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill1 Terry Bahill Systems and Industrial Engineering University of Arizona."— Presentation transcript:

1 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill1 Terry Bahill Systems and Industrial Engineering University of Arizona

2 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill2 References M. B. Chrissis, M. Konrad and S. Shrum, CMMI: Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement, Pearson Education Inc., Boston, D. M. Ahern, A. Clouse and R. Turner, CMMI Distilled: A Practical Guide to Integrated Process Improvement, Addison-Wesley, Some of the slides of this presentation were downloaded from these sites: They are Copyright 2002 Carnegie Mellon University, used by permission.

3 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill3 What is CMMI? The Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) is a collection of best practices from leading engineering companies. It provides a model that you can base your company processes on.

4 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill4 A system can be implemented with software hardware bioware algorithms organizations processes You can call these types of systems.

5 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill5 What is process? A process is a set of practices performed to achieve a given purpose; it may include tools, methods, materials, and/or people.

6 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill6 Why focus on process? Process provides a constructive, high-leverage focus... as opposed to a focus on people -Your work force is as good as it is trained to be. -Working harder is not the answer. -Working smarter, through process, is the answer. as opposed to a focus on technology -Technology applied without a suitable roadmap will not result in significant payoff. -Technology provides the most benefit in the context of an appropriate process roadmap.

7 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill7 When creating a process the most important facets are illustrating tasks that can be done in parallel suggesting feedback loops including a process to improve the process configuration management

8 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill8 Why use CMMI? CMMI provides guidance for improving your organization’s processes and your ability to manage the development, acquisition, and maintenance of products or services. CMMI places proven approaches into a structure that -helps your organization examine the effectiveness of your processes -establishes priorities for improvement -helps you implement these improvements

9 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill LTI Process Capability. A multidisciplinary, structured, and integrated development process with a strong emphasis on systems engineering, software engineering and integrated product and process development (IPPD) will be a cornerstone of the program. Capability Maturity Model Integration, Version 1.1, will be used as a guideline and benchmark when evaluating offeror’s systems engineering, software engineering and IPPD maturity and capabilities. Certification by relevant Capability Maturity Models (e.g., SECAM, SE-CMM, IPDCMM, etc.) is not required, except for Software Engineering, however, if such certifications have been obtained, that certification information will be considered during the Government’s evaluation process. … The LTI shall implement software management processes maintained at no less than level 3 of the Capability Maturity Model for Software (SW-CMM). Objective Force Warrior Solicitation

10 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill10 Areas Your company’s divisions can be evaluated for Software Systems IPPD *

11 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill11 CMM Integration SM Project The CMM Integration Project was formed to build an initial set of integrated models establish a framework to enable integration of future models create an associated set of appraisal and training products Source models serving as the starting point for CMMI were SW-CMM (software), V2.0 Draft C EIA 632 (engineering) EIA/IS-731 (systems engineering) IPD-CMM (integrated product development), V0.98

12 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill12 CMMI development team Membership from industry U.S. government Software Engineering Institute Membership characteristics average of about 21 years experience from organizations with solid process improvement credentials Financing from DoD

13 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill13 Development strategy Base the model content on current industry best practices as represented in widely- accepted source models. Conduct public reviews of the models. Conduct pilots of the product suite prior to official product release. Update the product suite based on feedback from pilots and reviewers. Release v1.0 of the product suite. Update the product suite based on feedback from users. Release v1.1 of the updated product suite.

14 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill14 The Bottom Line Process improvement should be done to help the business— not for its own sake. “In God we trust, all others bring data.” - W. Edwards Deming

15 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill15 Categories of benefits Process improvement benefits fall into these general categories: improved schedule and budget predictability improved cycle time increased productivity increased customer satisfaction improved employee morale increased return on investment improved quality (as measured by defects) decreased cost of quality

16 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill16 Results: Boeing Effort Estimation Reference: John D. Vu. “Software Process Improvement Journey:From Level 1 to Level 5.” 7th SEPG Conference, San Jose, March Improved schedule and budget predictability

17 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill17 Improved cost & cycle time

18 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill18 Increased productivity and quality Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems (NE&SS) - Radar Systems - Syracuse

19 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill19 Measurable return on investment Return on software improvement investment was reported to be between 5:1 and 8:1. (Herbsleb 94) Process improvement provides measurable return on investment.

20 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill20 Improved program performance Performance to contract Cost at Completion = Budget Increases in productivity 150% over 5 years Industry Cost / Schedule Estimation Tool (COCOMO) projects 20% reduction in effort for 1 level improvement Decreases in Cost of Nonconformance 40% down to 10% Increased customer satisfaction ROI 5:1 and greater Raytheon Missile Systems Software Center

21 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill21 Remember The CMMI model is not a process. This model shows what to do, Not how to do it or who does it.

22 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill22 The IDEAL SM Model SM IDEAL is a service mark of Carnegie Mellon University. The IDEAL model maps to the SIMILAR Process

23 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill23 Using CMMI models with the IDEAL model 1 Initiating phase CMMI models can assist an organization in understanding how to build sponsorship and in developing the infrastructure for improvement. Diagnosing phase The Standard CMMI Appraisal Methodology for Process Improvement (SCAMPI SM ) provides a yardstick for appraising processes based on CMMI. SM SCAMPI is a service mark of Carnegie Mellon University.

24 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill24 Using CMMI models with the IDEAL model 2 Establishing phase CMMI process areas focus the process improvement teams. Acting phase CMMI models provide guidance for defining or improving processes. Learning phase Lessons learned are documented and are the basis for revision of an organizational approach.

25 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill25 Process notation schemes 1 Process notations should represent What activities are performed in the process? Who does them? Why are they done? When are they done? How are they done? What inputs must you have? What outputs do you produce? How do you measure performance?

26 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill26 Process notation schemes 2 Different notation schemes emphasize different aspects of a process and, thus, have different strengths and weaknesses. Different notations may or may not have the ability to conveniently represent sequencing of activities timing of activities data flow among activities hierarchical detail entry and exit criteria narrative information

27 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill27 Process notation schemes 3 Other notation scheme attributes flexibility simplicity ease of training and understanding availability of tool support

28 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill28 Common process notations data flow diagrams flowcharts decision trees check lists task descriptors (narratives) activity diagrams (UML) functional flow block diagrams IDEF0

29 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill29 Simplified notation Flow chart to show activity sequencing supplemented with activity details as structured narrative Decision to make change I DENTIFY P ROBLEM Operator SCF V ALIDATE P ROBLEM Senior Analyst Validated SCF R OUTE SCF T O A FFECTED G ROUPS OASB Secretariat P ERFORM T ECHNICAL & C OST A NALYSIS AFMC/SSSG R EVIEW R ECOMMENDATIONS OASB Secretariat D ETERMINE D ISPOSITION Site OARB Decision to make change D ETERMINE D ISPOSITION OASB Decision to make change E NTER SCF-R ELATED I NFO INTO D ATABASE OASB Secretariat O THER S ITES A FFECTED ? D ETERMINE D ISPOSITION Each Affected Site D ETERMINE D ISPOSITION ITW/AA OAP (ASPC) Decision to make change A SSIGN P RIORITY FOR C HANGE Unknown M AKE S OFTWARE C HANGE Software Engineers M AKE S OFTWARE C HANGE Software Engineers V ERIFICATION & V ALIDATION Certification Board Yes No

30 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill30 Activity details Activity Activity Details What is the purpose of this activity? Who participates in this activity? What are the inputs needed to perform the activity? What are the work products that are generated by this activity? How do you know when this activity should begin? How do you know when the activity has successfully completed? What do you do to accomplish this activity? What are the 3-6 subactivities that you perform to accomplish this activity? How do you determine or measure the performance of this activity? What activity is performed prior and after this one?

31 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill31 Maturity levels Process unpredictable, poorly controlled, and reactive Process characterized for projects and is often reactive Process characterized for the organization and is proactive Process measured and controlled Focus on process improvement Optimizing Quantitatively Managed Defined Initial Managed Optimizing Defined

32 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill32 Process areas A process area (PA) is a cluster of related practices in an area that, when performed collectively, satisfy a set of goals considered important for making significant improvement in that area. Practices are actions to be performed to achieve the goals of a process area. All CMMI process areas are common to both continuous and staged representations. A process area is NOT a process description.

33 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill33 Organizational Innovation and Deployment Causal Analysis and Resolution 5 Optimizing 4 Quantitatively Managed 3 Defined 2 Managed Continuous Process Improvement Quantitative Management Process Standardization Basic Project Management Organizational Process Performance Quantitative Project Management Requirements Development Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Integrated Project Management for IPPD Risk Management Integrated Teaming Integrated Supplier Management Decision Analysis and Resolution Organizational Environment for Integration Requirements Management Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier Agreement Management Measurement and Analysis Process and Product Quality Assurance Configuration Management Quality Productivity Risk, Rework 1 Initial Process AreasLevel Focus

34 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill34 CMMI Model Process Areas

35 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill35 CMMI applied to your life High School College B.S. Graduate School M.S. Buy a car Get married Have children Did you plan the process? Did you discover and manage requirements? Did you use a formal analysis process for important decisions? Does your family work as a team? Do you try to improve your personal processes?*

36 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill36 Level 2 process areas 1 Project Planning The purpose of PP is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities. Project Monitoring and Control The purpose of PMC is to provide understanding of the project’s progress so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when the project’s performance deviates significantly from the plan. Requirements Management The purpose of REQM is to manage the requirements of the project’s products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the project’s plans and work products.

37 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill37 Level 2 process areas 2 Supplier Agreement Management The purpose of SAM is to manage the acquisition of products and services from suppliers for which there exists a formal agreement. Measurement and Analysis The purpose of MA is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to support management information needs. Process and Product Quality Assurance The purpose of PPQA is to provide staff and management with objective insight into the processes and associated work products. Configuration Management The purpose of CM is to establish and maintain the integrity of the work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits.

38 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill38 Level 3 process areas 1 Requirements Development The purpose of RD is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product component requirements. Technical Solution The purpose of TS is to develop, design, and implement solutions to requirements. Product Integration The purpose of PI is to assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the product. Verification The purpose of VER is to assure that the selected work products meet their specified requirements. Validation The purpose of VAL is to demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment.

39 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill39 Level 3 process areas 2 Integrated Project Management The purpose of IPM is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the organization’s set of standard processes. Integrated Teaming The purpose of IT is to form and sustain an integrated team for the development of work products. Decision Analysis and Resolution The purpose of DAR is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria. Risk Management The purpose of RSKM is to identify potential problems before they occur, so that risk- handling activities may be planned and invoked as needed across the life cycle to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives.

40 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill40 Level 3 process areas 3 Organizational Process Focus The purpose of OPF is to plan and implement organizational process improvement based on a through understanding of current strengths and weakness of the organization’s processes. Organizational Process Definition The purpose of OPD is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets. Organizational Training The purpose of OT is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. Organizational Environment for Integration The purpose of OEI is to provide an integrated product and process development infrastructure and manage people for integration.

41 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill41 Level 4 process areas Organizational Process Performance The purpose of OPP is to establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization’s set of standard processes, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization’s projects. Quantitative Project Management The purpose of QPM is to quantitatively manage the project’s defined processes to achieve the project’s established quality and process performance objectives.

42 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill42 Level 5 process areas Organizational Innovation and Deployment The purpose of OID is to select and deploy incremental and innovative improvements that measurably improve the organization’s processes and technologies. Causal Analysis and Resolution The purpose of CAR is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to prevent them from occurring in the future.

43 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill43 Homework Go through the list of CMMI process areas and state whether or not you think that I used that process in designing and managing this course, SIE-454/554A. Give examples of what I did do and examples of what I could have done.

44 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill44 Specific Goals (SG) A specific goal applies to a process area and addresses the unique characteristics that describe what must be implemented to satisfy the process area. Example from the DAR process area: SG 1Evaluate Alternatives.

45 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill45 Specific Practices (SP) A specific practice is an activity that is considered important in achieving the associated specific goal. Practices are the major building blocks in establishing the process maturity of an organization.

46 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill46 Specific Practice Number DAR Specific Practice Name Example 1.1Decide if formal evaluation process is warranted When to do a trade study 1.2Establish Evaluation Criteria What is in a good trade study 1.3Identify Alternative Solutions 1.4Select Evaluation Methods 1.5Evaluate Alternatives 1.6Select Preferred Solutions

47 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill47

48 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill48 Generic Goals (GG) Achievement of a generic goal in a process area signifies improved control in planning and implementing the processes associated with that process area. Generic goals are called “generic” because the same goal statement appears in multiple process areas. Each process area has only one generic goal at each level.

49 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill49 Level 2 generic goal The generic goal for all maturity level 2 process areas is: GG 2: The xxx process is institutionalized as a managed process. A managed process is a performed process that is planned and executed in accordance with policy; employs skilled people having adequate resources to produce controlled outputs; involves relevant stakeholders; is monitored, controlled, and reviewed; and is evaluated for adherence to its process description.

50 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill50 Generic Practices (GP) Generic practices are activities that ensure that the processes associated with the process area will be effective, repeatable, and lasting. Generic practices contribute to the achievement of the generic goal when applied to a particular process area.

51 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill51 Generic Practices Under GG 2 1 Generic practices for all maturity level 2 process areas: GP 2.1: Establish an Organizational Policy Establish and maintain an organizational policy for planning and performing the xxx process. GP 2.2: Plan the Process Establish and maintain the plan for performing the xxx process.

52 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill52 Generic Practices Under GG 2 2 GP 2.3: Provide Resources Provide adequate resources for performing the xxx process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the process. GP 2.4: Assign Responsibility Assign responsibility and authority for performing the process, developing the work products, and providing the services of the xxx process. GP 2.5: Train People Train the people performing or supporting the xxx process as needed.

53 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill53 Generic Practices Under GG 2 3 GP 2.6: Manage Configurations Place designated work products of the xxx process under appropriate levels of configuration management. GP 2.7: Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders Identify and involve the relevant stakeholders of the xxx process as planned. GP 2.8: Monitor and Control the Process Monitor and control the xxx process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action.

54 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill54 Generic Practices Under GG 2 5 GP 2.9: Objectively Evaluate Adherence Objectively evaluate adherence of the xxx process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address non-compliance. GP 2.10: Review Status with Higher Level Management Review the activities, status, and results of the xxx process with higher level management and resolve issues.

55 CMMI SM 8/25/2014Bahill55 Product Development Process Deployment-Improvement Deploy Raytheon standard processes guide our business Following R6  methods, we use CMMI metrics to guide improvements to our processes and their deployment Measure CMMI measures the “goodness” of our processes and the effectiveness of deployment ISO ISO wants us to plan, control and improve our processes Improve


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