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3 Main Factors that affect show animal performance 1.) Genetics – Inherited performance potential the prospect animal has from parents at birth. Ex. Growth.

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Presentation on theme: "3 Main Factors that affect show animal performance 1.) Genetics – Inherited performance potential the prospect animal has from parents at birth. Ex. Growth."— Presentation transcript:

1 3 Main Factors that affect show animal performance 1.) Genetics – Inherited performance potential the prospect animal has from parents at birth. Ex. Growth potential, frame size and muscle characteristics, maternal instincts, etc… 2.) Management – Providing feed, water, housing and general care to maximize the animals comfort and therefore maximize production potential and profit. 3.) Nutrition – Maximizing an animals performance through a complete and nutritionally balanced feed program.

2 Nutrition Management for Show Cattle and Swine Market trends change through out time…. But the basic nutritional requirements of all livestock have not. 1950’s 2009

3 Nutrition 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 1.Protein- Made up of Amino Acids, building blocks of complex proteins. Build Structure (frame and muscle), repair and regulation: Body frame and structure Soybean meal, cottonseed meal, fish meal, corn gluten meal, whey products, animal protein products, plant protein products, etc…

4 Nutrition 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 2. – 2. Carbohydrates – Primary function to provide energy, contribute small amounts to protein and other nutrients. Fuel for the body and some structure Corn, barley, oats, milo, grain by-products, forage products, etc…

5 Nutrition 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 3. Lipids– 3. Lipids (fats)– Only function to provide energy, fatty acids aid in skin condition, hair coat – 95% fat, allows for economically increase the energy density of a feed without feeding more bulk. Fuel for the body liquid vegetable oils, dried fats, animal tallow, etc…

6 Nutrition 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 4. and 5. Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins- Regulation of bodily function: Vitamin A, D, E, K, C, B-Vitamins (Thiamine, riboflavin, B12, etc…) Minerals- Building Stucture (skeletal), body repair, function and regulation: (Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Selenium, Iodine Minerals- Building Stucture (skeletal), body repair, function and regulation: (Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Selenium, Iodine, etc…) Structural and Regulatory Support Structural and Regulatory Support

7 Nutrition 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 6 Nutrient Classes essential for proper body function- 6. Water - MOST IMPORTANT nutrient, and most forgotten. Involved in the regulation of all bodily functions. Makes up largest single component of body – average 60% in large livestock. Effects feed intake, ability to fight stress, illness and disease. Effects feed intake, ability to fight stress, illness and disease. Never with-hold water for more than very short periods of time with the exception of under a veterinarians instruction and supervision. Never with-hold water for more than very short periods of time with the exception of under a veterinarians instruction and supervision.

8 Complete and Balanced

9 How to Pick a Feed Species -Cattle, Dairy, Swine, Sheep, Goat, Horse, Poultry, Rabbit. For show animals, general grain mixes or mixed species feeds may be cheaper, but are not specific in nutrients (especially vitamins and minerals) for optimum growth and production. Species -Cattle, Dairy, Swine, Sheep, Goat, Horse, Poultry, Rabbit. For show animals, general grain mixes or mixed species feeds may be cheaper, but are not specific in nutrients (especially vitamins and minerals) for optimum growth and production. Type of digestive system: Type of digestive system: * Ruminant : Beef and Dairy Cattle, Sheep, Goats. They have 4 chambers in digestive tract (rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum). Primary feed is vegetative, plants. High fiber with large capacity. * Non-ruminant (Simple stomach): Swine, dogs, fish, and humans. Have one stomach. Limited capacity. * Non-ruminant Herbivore: Horses, rabbits, guinea pig, hamster: Have limited capacity, but primary feed is vegetative, plants. Grazing

10 Feeding Show Steers and Heifers Purpose of Feed: What is the desired end result? Purpose of Feed: What is the desired end result? * Starter - For young animals under 300 pounds- 18% crude protein, 3.0 – 3.5% crude fat Feeding steer and heifers calves at this stage the same. Feeding steer and heifers calves at this stage the same. High in protein, energy and vitamins and minerals to support optimum structural and muscular growth. High in protein, energy and vitamins and minerals to support optimum structural and muscular growth. Promote a good start, Promote a good start, And it will carry on into later life

11 Feeding Show Steers and Heifers * Grower – For animals between 300 to 900# depending upon breed, sex and desired finished weight. At this phase, begin feeding steers and heifers differently. Steers: Moderate protein and energy with a high vitamin and mineral balance to still support optimum structural and muscular growth. Steers: Moderate protein and energy with a high vitamin and mineral balance to still support optimum structural and muscular growth. 15 to 16% crude protein, 3 – 3.5% crude fat 15 to 16% crude protein, 3 – 3.5% crude fat ----------------------------------- ----------------------------------- Feeding Rate: Steers will be eat between 2.5 to 3% body weight per day, Divided into 40% concentrate (grain mix) Divided into 40% concentrate (grain mix) 60% roughage (hay) 60% roughage (hay) For Example: a 600# steer will eat between 15 to 18# total feed per head per day. 17# x 60% = 10# roughage, hay 17# x 60% = 10# roughage, hay 17# x 40% = 7# grain mix 17# x 40% = 7# grain mix Feed at least 2 times per day. Feed at least 2 times per day. Provide free choice access to a clean, fresh water supply and salt at all times. Provide free choice access to a clean, fresh water supply and salt at all times.

12 Feeding Show Steers and Heifers Heifers: Moderate protein and reduced energy. A high vitamin and mineral balance to still support optimum structural and reproductive growth. Heifers: Moderate protein and reduced energy. A high vitamin and mineral balance to still support optimum structural and reproductive growth. 15 to 16% crude protein, 2.0 -2.5% crude fat 15 to 16% crude protein, 2.0 -2.5% crude fat Too high a fat level for heifers will cause them to finish out too soon, Too high a fat level for heifers will cause them to finish out too soon, put on too much weight that will interfere with reproduction and may negatively put on too much weight that will interfere with reproduction and may negatively influence development of milk production systems. Feed to breeding weight. influence development of milk production systems. Feed to breeding weight. ----------------------------- ----------------------------- Feeding Rate: Heifers will be eat between 2.5 to 3% body weight per day, Divided into 40% concentrate (grain mix) Divided into 40% concentrate (grain mix) 60% roughage (hay) 60% roughage (hay) For Example: a 600# heifer will eat between 15 to 18# total feed per head per day. 17# x 60% = 10# roughage, hay 17# x 60% = 10# roughage, hay 17# x 40% = 7# grain mix 17# x 40% = 7# grain mix Feed at least 2 times per day. Feed at least 2 times per day. Provide free-choice access to a loose or block form of vitamin and mineral supplement – not tm salt. Provide free-choice access to a loose or block form of vitamin and mineral supplement – not tm salt. Provide free choice access to a clean, fresh water supply and salt at all times. Provide free choice access to a clean, fresh water supply and salt at all times.

13 Feeding Show Steers *Finisher- For final phase of cattle growth. Protein requirements are lower, but energy requirements increase for marbling and finish conditioning (fattening). Vitamins and minerals are still required but in lower amounts to maintain proper bodily function, such as immune system. 12-13% crude protein, 4 to 5% crude fat. 12-13% crude protein, 4 to 5% crude fat. ----------------------------------- ----------------------------------- Feeding Rate: Steers will still be eating between 2.5 to 3% body weight per day, BUT, now Divided into 60% concentrate (grain mix) Divided into 60% concentrate (grain mix) 40% roughage (hay) 40% roughage (hay) For Example: a 900# steer will eat approximately 27# total feed per head per day. 17# x 40% = 11# roughage, hay 17# x 40% = 11# roughage, hay 17# x 60% = 16# grain mix 17# x 60% = 16# grain mix Feed at least 2 times per day. Feed at least 2 times per day. Provide free choice access to a clean, fresh water supply and salt at all times. Provide free choice access to a clean, fresh water supply and salt at all times. Watch carefully at this stage. When your feeding 25 to 30 # per day, watch for scours, feed Watch carefully at this stage. When your feeding 25 to 30 # per day, watch for scours, feed refusal, any change in regular behavior. These signs could indicate serious digestive upset and need to refusal, any change in regular behavior. These signs could indicate serious digestive upset and need to addressed quickly. addressed quickly. Keep sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) on hand for acidosis and Thera-Bloat for bloat control. Keep sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) on hand for acidosis and Thera-Bloat for bloat control.

14 Feeding Show Swine * Starter - For young animals under 40 pounds- 20% to 23% crude protein, 3.5 – 4.5% crude fat 20% to 23% crude protein, 3.5 – 4.5% crude fat High in protein, lysine and methionine, energy and vitamins and minerals to support optimum structural and muscular growth. High in protein, lysine and methionine, energy and vitamins and minerals to support optimum structural and muscular growth. A combination of protein sources such as soybean meal, blood or plasma, and whey make for a better amino acid profile. A combination of protein sources such as soybean meal, blood or plasma, and whey make for a better amino acid profile. Lysine and methionine are the most important amino acids to growing swine. Lysine and methionine are the most important amino acids to growing swine. ----------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------- Feeding rate: Feed free choice during this period. Provide free-choice access to a clean, fresh water supply at all times. Promote a good start, And it will carry on into later life

15 Feeding Show Swine * Grower/Finisher - For hogs from 40 pounds to market weight- 16% to 20% crude protein, 4.5 – 6.0% crude fat 16% to 20% crude protein, 4.5 – 6.0% crude fat High quality protein, lysine and methionine, energy and vitamins and minerals to continue optimum structural and muscular growth. High quality protein, lysine and methionine, energy and vitamins and minerals to continue optimum structural and muscular growth. Lysine and methionine are still limiting amino acids and are required for muscle development. Lysine and methionine are still limiting amino acids and are required for muscle development. ------------------------ ------------------------ Feeding directions: Feed free-choice to 160 pounds, then… Evaluate for average daily gain and body condition. Evaluate for average daily gain and body condition. If on track, continue with same feed, hand feed at 3 – 4% of body weight per day in 2 equal feedings. If on track, continue with same feed, hand feed at 3 – 4% of body weight per day in 2 equal feedings. example: For a 180 pound pig, feed 6 pounds (3.5%) example: For a 180 pound pig, feed 6 pounds (3.5%) OR OR If needing to push for extra weight or need a “softer” carcass, hand feed at 4% of body weight per day and add a weight gain supplement such as liquid fat (golden energizer), Calf Manna, Sumo as label recommended. You may need to feed 3X per day, make any changes gradually over a 5 – 7 day period. If needing to push for extra weight or need a “softer” carcass, hand feed at 4% of body weight per day and add a weight gain supplement such as liquid fat (golden energizer), Calf Manna, Sumo as label recommended. You may need to feed 3X per day, make any changes gradually over a 5 – 7 day period. OR OR If needing to slow down growth and hold, reduce the amount of complete feed by ¼ to ½ and replace with beet pulp, Full Tank, Bloom and Fiber, etc. If using beet pulp shreds, best to soak before feeding. If needing to slow down growth and hold, reduce the amount of complete feed by ¼ to ½ and replace with beet pulp, Full Tank, Bloom and Fiber, etc. If using beet pulp shreds, best to soak before feeding. Slows down daily gain and growth Slows down daily gain and growth Maintains happier pigs due to feeling full, not hungry, easier to work with. Maintains happier pigs due to feeling full, not hungry, easier to work with. Important: Provide free-choice access to a clean, fresh water supply at all times. Limiting access to water during weigh-in and on show day is a common practice and should be exercised carefully. Dehydration will be made worse by stress, and can be dangerous. Limiting access to water during weigh-in and on show day is a common practice and should be exercised carefully. Dehydration will be made worse by stress, and can be dangerous.

16 Feeding Show Steers, Heifers and Swine * Supplements - Feed additives top dressed or mixed into primary feed to produce a more specific result. * Supplements - Feed additives top dressed or mixed into primary feed to produce a more specific result. - Vegetable Oil – added to increase energy (fat) density of primary feed. - Vegetable Oil – added to increase energy (fat) density of primary feed. - Prebiotics and Probiotics – addition of microbial products to strengthen digestive health and balance during times of stress. - Prebiotics and Probiotics – addition of microbial products to strengthen digestive health and balance during times of stress. Probios, Manna E, BioMos, Acidifiers Probios, Manna E, BioMos, Acidifiers - Other additives – Calf Manna, Beet Pulp, Rolled Oat Groat, Sumo, Full Tank, MEDICATIONS, etc…. - Other additives – Calf Manna, Beet Pulp, Rolled Oat Groat, Sumo, Full Tank, MEDICATIONS, etc…. All of these feeds have specific purposes. All of these feeds have specific purposes. Using a product by mistake or inappropriately can not only be expensive, it can prevent a successful project. can not only be expensive, it can prevent a successful project. Call your feed store or contact the manufacturer for any questions. Call your feed store or contact the manufacturer for any questions.

17 Medications Medications are added to feed for specific reasons. Do not assume that if it works in one species, it automatically would work in another. Medications are added to feed for specific reasons. Do not assume that if it works in one species, it automatically would work in another. For example: asprin in dogs vs. cats For example: asprin in dogs vs. cats Do not misuse or abuse any medications. Do not misuse or abuse any medications. * Do not use in unapproved species. Not only is this unlawful, but it is unethical and may be causing undo harm to an animal and you won’t know it. * Always follow label instruction for proper use. Off label use is against the law. Don’t forget that you are raising “food”! * Do not over-dose. “Well, it this much works this good, more should work even better.” Not necessarily, some medications when over-dosed become harmful, even lethal. * Do not over-dose. “Well, it this much works this good, more should work even better.” Not necessarily, some medications when over-dosed become harmful, even lethal. * Always check expiration dates on medications. Some expired drugs get weaker the older they get, but some get stronger and even lethal. Even check the dates when your at the feed store. * Always check expiration dates on medications. Some expired drugs get weaker the older they get, but some get stronger and even lethal. Even check the dates when your at the feed store. * ALWAYS, ALWAYS, ALWAYS pay attention to warning about personal safety when using a product. * Special warnings about Paylean. * Special warnings about Paylean.

18 Management Figuring (ADG) Average Daily Gain needed to make fair weight. Figuring (ADG) Average Daily Gain needed to make fair weight. 1. Get accurate start weight of animal. Example 40# piglett 2. Determine finished weight desired at fair time. Example 230# pig 3. Check calendar and determine how many days until fair check in. Example: 4 months and 8 days = 128 days total Example: 4 months and 8 days = 128 days total Calculation: 2 parts Part 1: Finish weight – Start weight = Total weight needed to gain Part 1: Finish weight – Start weight = Total weight needed to gain (230#) - (40#) = 190 pounds needed to gain (230#) - (40#) = 190 pounds needed to gain then then Part 2: Pounds needed to gain ÷ Number of day until fair check in = A verage D aily G ain (ADG) Part 2: Pounds needed to gain ÷ Number of day until fair check in = A verage D aily G ain (ADG) 190# ÷ 128 days = 1.48 # ADG 190# ÷ 128 days = 1.48 # ADG Meaning: Your pig needs to gain at a minimum 1.48# a day until fair to hit the target weight of 230#. Do this exercise regularly!!! 2 – 3 x per month is not too often with animals that may be smaller, slower growers or fast growers and easy keepers. This will help determine how well your animal is growing and will prevent any surprises at the check-in scales. It is easier to hold or slow down versus pushing hard.

19 Estimating weight – without a scale

20 Dana Moore-Young The Greeley Elevator Company The Greeley Elevator Company (970) 352-2575 (970) 352-2575 dyoung.greeleyelevator@gmail.com dyoung.greeleyelevator@gmail.com


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