Presentation on theme: "Realistic Representation Duane Hanson. "I'm not duplicating life. I'm making a statement about human values," - Duane Hanson."— Presentation transcript:
Realistic Representation Duane Hanson
"I'm not duplicating life. I'm making a statement about human values," - Duane Hanson
Enduring Understanding Through the study of these artworks, students discover: 1.Why naturalism is selected as a means of expression. 2.How artists use the mechanism of realistic representation to realise its purpose and function.
Essential Questions Overarching Questions 1. What are the criteria for a realistic artwork? 2. How do artists use realistic representation to express their artistic intentions? 3. How do artists use realistic representation as a mechanism to express social issues? Topical Questions 1. How is the subject matter in the artwork being represented? 2. Which artist is more successful in using realistic representation to express social issues? 3. Which artist is more successful in depicting a high level of technical skill?
5W1H Duane Hanson When Where America Germany Which Photorealism Social realism What People Why Art = Life Life = Art How Sculptures
Keywords/phrases Hyperrealism Social Realism Sculpture Life-like Blur boundary between art and life Mundane everyday life Life casting
Key Dates 1925:Born in Minnesota, America Midwest. 1944:Enrolled into the University of Washington in Seattle but never graduated from there. 1946:B.F.A. from Macalester College in Saint Paul. 1951:M.F.A. from Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 1952:First solo exhibition at Wilton Gallery. 1961:Returned to US and taught at Oglethorpe College. 1996:Died of cancer due to over-exposure to his media.
When The social and cultural happenings which affects the artist and his works
When : World War II. 1950s: Abstract Expressionism indicated a shift away from naturalism toward abstraction s:Civil Rights Movement Racial Riots made his sculptures in the spirit of contemporaneous social protest and political agitation movements 1960s: Pop Art encouraged Hanson to yield to his naturalistic inclinations
When : Vietnam War. 1971:High Unemployment Social Discontent 1980 :Ronald Reagan (surge of confidence in the society but US became the worlds greatest debtor in economy)
Where America, Florida Germany
Where Germany (1953 to 1960 ) –began to experiment with synthetic media, in particular polyester resin and fiberglass America, NY (1960s) –Social and political unrest
Abortion, 1965 Clay, fibreglass and polyester resin, 60 cm long
Race Riot, 1967
Housewife, 1970 Polyester and fiberglass, polychromed in oil, with accessories Life-size
Young Shopper, 1973 Polyester resin and fibreglass, polychromed in oil with accessories, life size
Queenie II,1988 Polychromed bronze, with accessories, life size
Tourists II, 1988 Autobody filler, fibreglass and mixed media, with accessories life size
Drug Addict, 1974
Museum Guard, mixed media, 1975
Man on a bench, 1977 Polyvinyl polychromed in oil and mixed media with accessories,
Which Photorealism Social Realism
Photorealism (late 1960s to early 1970s) America witnessed a return to figurative painting in the 1960s as a challenge against Abstract Expressionism. A reaction against Minimalism. Realistic, detailed paintings and sculptures. Naturalistic form and illusionistic space- presented like flat snapshots, colour slides with photographic excellence. - Hugh Honour – Copied from photographs Appear photographic Started from the States and spread to Europe. - Artlex- Which
Abstract Expressionism A Brief Overview Technique Paint is applied rapidly, and with force to the huge canvases to show feelings and emotions. Artists paint gesturally, applying paint with large brushes, dripping or even throwing it onto canvas Subject Matter Usually no effort to represent subject matter.
A Brief Overview Philosophy Works depend on supposed accident and chance, but which is actually highly planned The spontaneity of the artists' approach to their work draws from and release the creativity of their unconscious minds. The expressive method of painting was often considered as important as the painting itself. Abstract Expressionism
Also Realism with a capital R. Denotes a mid-19 th century art movement of the realist school. Concerned with social realities. Showed facts rather than ideals. Rejected Academic Art (see next slide) and Romanticism. Dealt with the harshness of life- poverty, human degradation. Social Realism
Academic Art Art based on academic principles. Art academies originated from late 16 th century Italy. These academies raised the social status of artists from that of an apprentice under the medieval system. Examples are Royal Academy of Art in London, and Académie des Beaux-Arts. These institutions stressed a system of art training that is strictly confined to a hierarchy of subjects. They are classified in ranking order according to historic painting first, then portraits and landscapes, and finally still-life and scenes of everyday life (ideals). It is this system and the system of official support that led to its demise- rejected by the modern artists.
What Subject matter working-class Americans Themes Socio-Political Criticism Comical Caricature The Downtrodden
Subject Matter People of the middle or lower class. "slice-of-life" figures in their ordinary activities Stereotypes. Everyday heroes (those that work the nuts and bolts of the economy). Victims (eg. of racism). What
Socio-Political Criticism Ruling against abortion like Abortion, The lack of welfare like Welfare, Discrimination like Race Riot, Organized crime like Gangland Victim, America s intervention in Vietnam like War, 1967
Comical Caricatures Satirical pieces on the society. Some examples- Tourists, Supermarket Shopper, Housewife, Sunbather, Lady with Shopping Bags, The Downtrodden People who fall behind in a rapidly evolving society. The mundane and banal side of America. Working class- those who work with their hands. What
Showing reality of life using art Confusion between reality and fiction. Creating non-verbal communication between viewer and sculpture. What
Paradox His lifelike figures seem incapable of escaping their situations. Yet… the courage they show in enduring this fate expresses the dignity and nobility that Hanson found in the common American.
Why Artist Intention/Philosophy Influences
His philosophy Art is life and life is realistic. Farming environment shaped his moral character- respected those earning a living doing manual labour. "I'm mostly interested in the human form as subject matter and means of expression for my sculpture. What can generate more interest, fascination, beauty, ugliness, joy, shock or contempt than a human being." - Duane Hanson Why
His Intention To express his critical view of life/reality through art To create public awareness. To show the mundane everyday lives of Americans by capturing hidden sentiment such as emptiness. to represent a cross-section of American society by focusing on the singularities of individuals
Why His Intention to evoke emotional responses from the audience by communicating the internal attitudes and experiences of his subjects * audience forced to face challenging issues without the psychic distancing inherent to television and newspaper reports * invade reality in an urgent and physical way: as three-dimensional forms, usually life-size, sharing viewers' space and incorporating real objects
Why Influences He met Alonzo Hauser and John Rood (sculptors) in Minnesota (see next slide). He was impressed with Rood s figural works. He went to Munich to teach at schools affiliated with the American army for a period of four years. He met George Gryo, a sculptor who worked with polyester resin and fiberglass He returned to US in 1961 and taught at Oglethorpe College, and began experimenting with polyester resin. (No one at that time was using the medium).
Samples by Hauser and Rood Female Figure, 1939 by John Rood Wood, 43.2 x 30.5 cm "Buckminster" Fuller, 1953 by Alonzo Hauser Bronze, 14"
Why Influences He moved to Miami in 1965 and began a new teaching career with Miami Dade College. This is where he became interested in George Segal and Jasper Johns. These artists viewed the banality and triviality of everyday life as iconographic material. He was later impressed by the two-dimensional works of the Photorealists.
Influence from George Segal Depression Bread Line, 1999 cast bronze 2/7, 108" x 148" x 36" Street Crossing, 1992 Bronze with white patina,
How He began to cast from live models in He had to exaggerate the light and shade, particularly around the eyes to achieve a realistic effect. Sculptures have blank look like robots, introspective, emotional indifference, depression He usually chose poses that are in a state of repose or static in between activities
Process of his sculpture Tried to determine pose (usually typical of character) by taking photos of live models until satisfied with figures position. Formed molds of each part of the subjects body. Dried molds were cut off from the model. Molds filled with flesh coloured polyester resin reinforced with fibreglass. How
Process of his sculpture Working from feet up, body parts re- assembled to create figure that looks natural. Painted cast sculptures with acrylic first, then oil paint. Added materials- nail polish applied on fingernails, wigs for hair, aging clothes with dirt, bleach or paint. How
How (Summary) Medium polyester resin and fibreglass Acrylic Oil paint Readymades (eg. Nail polish, wig) What are readymades? Go and research on it.
How (Summary) Technique Take photos of model Form and fill molds Reassemble different parts of body Paint the sculpture Accessorise with readymades
Reference Buchsteiner, T and Letze, O. (Ed). (2007) Duane Hanson: Sculptures of the American Dream. Germany: Hatje Cantz Video links -Hyper-Realist Sculpture (John De Andrea and Duane Hanson)