2"I'm not duplicating life "I'm not duplicating life. I'm making a statement about human values," - Duane Hanson
3Enduring Understanding Through the study of these artworks,students discover:1.Why naturalism is selected as a means of expression.2.How artists use the mechanism of realistic representation to realise its purpose and function.
4Essential Questions Overarching Questions 1. What are the criteria for a realistic artwork?2. How do artists use realistic representation to express their artistic intentions?3. How do artists use realistic representation as a mechanism to express social issues?Topical Questions1. How is the subject matter in the artwork being represented?2. Which artist is more successful in using realistic representation to express social issues?3. Which artist is more successful in depicting a high level of technical skill?
8Key Dates 1925: Born in Minnesota, America Midwest. 1944: Enrolled into the University of Washington in Seattle but never graduated from there.1946: B.F.A. from Macalester College in Saint Paul.1951: M.F.A. from Cranbrook Academy of Art in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.1952: First solo exhibition at Wilton Gallery.1961: Returned to US and taught at Oglethorpe College.1996: Died of cancer due to over-exposure to his media.
9WhenThe social and cultural happenings which affects the artist and his works
10When 1939-45: World War II. 1950s: Abstract Expressionism indicated a shift away from naturalism toward abstractions: Civil Rights MovementRacial Riotsmade his sculptures in the spirit of contemporaneous social protest and political agitation movements1960s: Pop Artencouraged Hanson to yield to his naturalistic inclinations
11When 1957-73: Vietnam War. 1971: High Unemployment Social Discontent 1980 : Ronald Reagan (surge of confidence in the society but US became the world’s greatest debtor in economy)
15Clay, fibreglass and polyester resin, 60 cm long Consumerism is economically manifested in the chronic purchasing of new goods and services, with little attention to their true need, durability, product origin or the environmental consequences of manufacture and disposal. Consumerism is driven by huge sums spent on advertising designed to create both a desire to follow trends, and the resultant personal self-reward system based on acquisition.Abortion, 1965Clay, fibreglass and polyester resin, 60 cm long
18Housewife, 1970Polyester and fiberglass, polychromed in oil, with accessories Life-size
19Young Shopper, 1973Polyester resin and fibreglass, polychromed in oil with accessories, life sizeConsumerism is economically manifested in the chronic purchasing of new goods and services, with little attention to their true need, durability, product origin or the environmental consequences of manufacture and disposal. Consumerism is driven by huge sums spent on advertising designed to create both a desire to follow trends, and the resultant personal self-reward system based on acquisition.
20Polychromed bronze, with accessories, Queenie II,1988Polychromed bronze, with accessories,life size
21Autobody filler, fibreglass and mixed media, with accessories Tourists II, 1988Autobody filler, fibreglass and mixed media, with accessorieslife size
26Photorealism Social Realism WhichPhotorealismSocial Realism
27Which Photorealism (late 1960s to early 1970s) America witnessed a return to figurative painting in the 1960s as a challenge against Abstract Expressionism.A reaction against Minimalism.Realistic, detailed paintings and sculptures.“Naturalistic form” and “illusionistic space”- presented like flat snapshots, colour slides with photographic excellence.- Hugh Honour –Copied from photographsAppear photographicStarted from the States and spread to Europe.- Artlex-
28Abstract Expressionism A Brief OverviewTechniquePaint is applied rapidly, and with force to the huge canvases to show feelings and emotions.Artists paint gesturally, applying paint with large brushes, dripping or even throwing it onto canvasSubject MatterUsually no effort to represent subject matter.
29Abstract Expressionism A Brief OverviewPhilosophyWorks depend on supposed accident and chance, but which is actually highly plannedThe spontaneity of the artists' approach to their work draws from and release the creativity of their unconscious minds.The expressive method of painting was often considered as important as the painting itself.
30Social Realism Also Realism with a capital ‘R’. Denotes a mid-19th century art movement of the realist school.Concerned with social realities.Showed facts rather than ideals.Rejected Academic Art (see next slide) and Romanticism.Dealt with the harshness of life- poverty, human degradation.
31Academic Art Art based on academic principles. Art academies originated from late 16th century Italy.These academies raised the social status of artists from that of an apprentice under the medieval system.Examples are Royal Academy of Art in London, and Académie des Beaux-Arts.These institutions stressed a system of art training that is strictly confined to a hierarchy of subjects.They are classified in ranking order according to historic painting first, then portraits and landscapes, and finally still-life and scenes of everyday life (ideals).It is this system and the system of official support that led to its demise- rejected by the modern artists.
33What Subject Matter People of the middle or lower class. "slice-of-life" figures in their ordinary activitiesStereotypes.Everyday heroes (those that work the nuts and bolts of the economy).Victims (eg. of racism).
34What Socio-Political Criticism Ruling against abortion like Abortion, 1965.The lack of welfare like Welfare, 1967.Discrimination like Race Riot, 1967.Organized crime like Gangland Victim, 1967.America’s intervention in Vietnam like War, 1967
35What Comical Caricatures Satirical pieces on the society. Some examples- Tourists, Supermarket Shopper, Housewife, Sunbather, Lady with Shopping Bags, 1972.The DowntroddenPeople who fall behind in a rapidly evolving society.The mundane and banal side of America.Working class- those who work with their hands.
36What Showing reality of life using art Confusion between reality and fiction.Creating non-verbal communication between viewer and sculpture.
37WhatParadoxHis lifelike figures seem incapable of escaping their situations.Yet…the courage they show in enduring this fate expresses the dignity and nobility that Hanson found in the common American.
39Why His philosophy Art is life and life is realistic. Farming environment shaped his moral character- respected those earning a living doing manual labour."I'm mostly interested in the human form as subject matter and means of expression for my sculpture. What can generate more interest, fascination, beauty, ugliness, joy, shock or contempt than a human being."- Duane HansonHe would update his sculptures with wrinkles.
40WhyHis IntentionTo express his critical view of life/reality through artTo create public awareness.To show the mundane everyday lives of Americans by capturing hidden sentiment such as emptiness.to represent a cross-section of American society by focusing on the singularities of individuals
41WhyHis Intentionto evoke emotional responses from the audience by communicating the internal attitudes and experiences of his subjects* audience forced to face challenging issues without the psychic distancing inherent to television and newspaper reports* invade reality in an urgent and physical way: as three-dimensional forms, usually life-size, sharing viewers' space and incorporating real objects
42WhyInfluencesHe met Alonzo Hauser and John Rood (sculptors) in Minnesota (see next slide).He was impressed with Rood’s figural works.He went to Munich to teach at schools affiliated with the American army for a period of four years.He met George Gryo, a sculptor who worked with polyester resin and fiberglassHe returned to US in 1961 and taught at Oglethorpe College, and began experimenting with polyester resin. (No one at that time was using the medium).He would update his sculptures with wrinkles.
43Samples by Hauser and Rood Female Figure, 1939by John RoodWood , 43.2 x 30.5 cm"Buckminster" Fuller, by Alonzo HauserBronze, 14"
44WhyInfluencesHe moved to Miami in 1965 and began a new teaching career with Miami Dade College. This is where he became interested in George Segal and Jasper Johns.These artists viewed the banality and triviality of everyday life as iconographic material.He was later impressed by the two-dimensional works of the Photorealists.He would update his sculptures with wrinkles.
45Influence from George Segal American Pop. A movement that began in Britain and the United States in the 1950s. It used the images and techniques of mass media, advertising, and popular culture, often in an ironic way. Fibreglass-plastic reinforced with glass fibres. Give photocopy of Motorcycle accident.Depression Bread Line, 1999 cast bronze 2/7, 108" x 148" x 36"Street Crossing, 1992 Bronze with white patina,
47How He began to cast from live models in 1967. He had to exaggerate the light and shade, particularly around the eyes to achieve a realistic effect.Sculptures have blank look like robots, introspective, emotional indifference, depressionHe usually chose poses that are in a state of repose or static in between activitiesPoint form!
48How Process of his sculpture Tried to determine pose (usually typical of character) by taking photos of live models until satisfied with figure’s position.Formed molds of each part of the subject’s body.Dried molds were cut off from the model.Molds filled with flesh coloured polyester resin reinforced with fibreglass.Point form!
49How Process of his sculpture Working from feet up, body parts re-assembled to create figure that looks natural.Painted cast sculptures with acrylic first, then oil paint.Added materials- nail polish applied on fingernails, wigs for hair, aging clothes with dirt, bleach or paint.
50How (Summary) Medium polyester resin and fibreglass Acrylic Oil paint Readymades (eg. Nail polish, wig)What are readymades? Go and research on it.
51How (Summary) Technique Take photos of model Form and fill molds Reassemble different parts of bodyPaint the sculptureAccessorise with readymades
52Reference Buchsteiner, T and Letze, O. (Ed). (2007) Duane Hanson: Sculptures of the AmericanDream. Germany: Hatje CantzVideo linksHyper-Realist Sculpture (John De Andrea and Duane Hanson)