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Mendel and the Gene Idea

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1 Mendel and the Gene Idea
Chapter 14 Mendel and the Gene Idea

2 Overview: Drawing from the Deck of Genes
The “blending” hypothesis genetic material from the two parents blends together The “particulate” hypothesis parents pass on discrete heritable units Traits reappear after several generations Mendel used experiments with garden peas

3 Figure 14.1 Figure 14.1 What principles of inheritance did Gregor Mendel discover by breeding garden pea plants?

4 Concept 14.1: Mendel identified two laws of inheritance
Discovered the basic principles of heredity by breeding garden peas

5 Mendel’s Experimental, Quantitative Approach
Advantages of pea plants for genetic study There are many varieties of heritable features(characters) Character variants (Traits) Controlled Mating Individual sex organs Cross-pollination

6 Parental generation (P)
Figure 14.2 TECHNIQUE 1 2 Parental generation (P) Stamens 3 Carpel 4 Figure 14.2 Research Method: Crossing Pea Plants RESULTS 5 First filial generation offspring (F1)

7 What Mendel Used Mendel chose to track only those characters that occurred in two distinct alternative forms True-breeding (plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate)

8 Terms of the Experiment
Hybridization: mating two contrasting, true-breeding varieties P generation: true-breeding parents F1 generation: hybrid offspring of the P generation F2 generation: F1 individuals self-pollinate or cross- pollinate with other F1 hybrids

9 The Law of Segregation Crossing contrasting true-breeding white and purple pea plants: all of the F1 hybrids were purple Crossing the F1 hybrids: many of the F2 plants had purple flowers, but some had white Three to one ratio purple to white flowers in the F2 generation

10 (true-breeding parents) Purple flowers White flowers
Figure EXPERIMENT P Generation (true-breeding parents) Purple flowers White flowers F1 Generation (hybrids) All plants had purple flowers Self- or cross-pollination Figure 14.3 Inquiry: When F1 hybrid pea plants self- or cross-pollinate, which traits appear in the F2 generation? F2 Generation 705 purple- flowered plants 224 white flowered plants

11 Ideas that stemmed from observations
Only the purple flower factor was affecting flower color in the F1 hybrids purple flower color: dominant trait white flower color: recessive trait Six other pea plant characters had same patterns “Heritable factor”: we now call a gene

12 Table 14.1 The Results of Mendel’s F1 Crosses for Seven Characters in Pea Plants

13 Mendel’s Model Alternative versions of genes: account for variations in inherited characters Alternative versions of a gene are now called alleles Each gene resides at a specific locus

14 Allele for purple flowers
Figure 14.4 Allele for purple flowers Locus for flower-color gene Allele for white flowers Pair of homologous chromosomes Figure 14.4 Alleles, alternative versions of a gene.

15 Mendel’s Model Organisms inherits two alleles, one from each parent
Dominant alleles determine the organism’s appearance Recessive alleles have no noticeable effect on appearance Law of segregation: two alleles for a heritable character separate during gamete formation

16 Punnett Square Diagram for predicting the results of a genetic cross between individuals of known genetic makeup A capital letter represents a dominant allele A lowercase letter represents a recessive allele

17 P Generation Appearance: Purple flowers White flowers Genetic makeup:
Figure P Generation Appearance: Purple flowers White flowers Genetic makeup: PP pp Gametes: P p F1 Generation Appearance: Purple flowers Genetic makeup: Pp Gametes: 1/2 P 1/2 p Sperm from F1 (Pp) plant F2 Generation P p Figure 14.5 Mendel’s law of segregation. P Eggs from F1 (Pp) plant PP Pp p Pp pp 3 : 1

18 Useful Genetic Vocabulary
Homozygous: An organism with two identical alleles for a character Heterozygous: An organism that has two different alleles for a gene Unlike homozygotes, heterozygotes are not true-breeding Phenotype: physical appearance Genotype: genetic makeup

19 PP (homozygous) Pp (heterozygous) Pp (heterozygous) pp (homozygous)
Figure 14.6 Phenotype Genotype Purple PP (homozygous) 1 3 Pp (heterozygous) Purple 2 Pp (heterozygous) Purple Figure 14.6 Phenotype versus genotype. pp (homozygous) 1 White 1 Ratio 3:1 Ratio 1:2:1

20 The Testcross How can we tell the genotype of an individual with the dominant phenotype? Could be either homozygous dominant or heterozygous

21 Dominant phenotype, unknown genotype: PP or Pp?
Figure 14.7 TECHNIQUE Dominant phenotype, unknown genotype: PP or Pp? Recessive phenotype, known genotype: pp Predictions If purple-flowered parent is PP or If purple-flowered parent is Pp Sperm Sperm p p p p P P Pp Pp Pp Pp Eggs Eggs Figure 14.7 Research Method: The Testcross P p Pp Pp pp pp RESULTS or All offspring purple 1/2 offspring purple and 1/2 offspring white

22 The Law of Independent Assortment
Followed a single character Monohybrids: individuals that are heterozygous for one character A cross between such heterozygotes is called a monohybrid cross Dihybrids: Two true-breeding parents differing in two characters produces A dihybrid cross, a cross between F1 dihybrids

23 Hypothesis of dependent assortment
Figure 14.8 EXPERIMENT YYRR P Generation yyrr Gametes YR yr F1 Generation YyRr Predictions Hypothesis of dependent assortment Hypothesis of independent assortment Sperm Predicted offspring of F2 generation or 1/4 YR 1/4 Yr 1/4 yR 1/4 yr Sperm 1/2 YR 1/2 yr 1/4 YR YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr 1/2 YR YYRR YyRr 1/4 Yr Eggs YYRr YYrr YyRr Yyrr Eggs Figure 14.8 Inquiry: Do the alleles for one character assort into gametes dependently or independently of the alleles for a different character? 1/2 yr YyRr yyrr 1/4 yR YyRR YyRr yyRR yyRr 3/4 1/4 1/4 yr Phenotypic ratio 3:1 YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr 9/16 3/16 3/16 1/16 Phenotypic ratio 9:3:3:1 RESULTS 315 108 101 32 Phenotypic ratio approximately 9:3:3:1

24 Law of independent assortment
Pairs of alleles segregate independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation

25 Segregation of alleles into eggs Segregation of alleles into sperm
Figure 14.9 Rr Rr Segregation of alleles into eggs Segregation of alleles into sperm Sperm 1/2 R 1/2 r R R 1/2 R R r Figure 14.9 Segregation of alleles and fertilization as chance events. 1/4 1/4 Eggs r r R r 1/2 r 1/4 1/4

26 The Multiplication and Addition Rules Applied to Monohybrid Crosses
probability that two or more independent events will occur together is the product of their individual probabilities Each gamete has a ½ chance of carrying the dominant allele and a ½ chance of carrying the recessive allele

27 The addition rule Probability that any one of two or more exclusive events will occur is calculated by adding together their individual probabilities The rule of addition can be used to figure out the probability that an F2 plant from a monohybrid cross will be heterozygous rather than homozygous

28 1/4 (probability of pp)  1/2 (yy)  1/2 (Rr)  1/16 ppYyrr
Figure 14.UN01 Probability of YYRR 1/4 (probability of YY) 1/4 (RR) 1/16 Probability of YyRR 1/2 (Yy) 1/4 (RR) 1/8 ppyyRr 1/4 (probability of pp)  1/2 (yy)  1/2 (Rr)  1/16 ppYyrr 1/4  1/2  1/2  1/16 Ppyyrr 1/2  1/2  1/2  2/16 PPyyrr 1/4  1/2  1/2  1/16 Figure 14.UN01 In-text figure, p. 270 ppyyrr 1/4  1/2  1/2  1/16 Chance of at least two recessive traits  6/16 or 3/8

29 Extending Mendelian Genetics for a Single Gene
Inheritance of characters by a single gene may deviate from simple Mendelian patterns in the following situations: When alleles are not completely dominant or recessive When a gene has more than two alleles When a gene produces multiple phenotypes

30 Degrees of Dominance Complete dominance heterozygote and dominant homozygote phenotypes are identical Incomplete dominance F1 hybrids are somewhere between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties Codominance two dominant alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways

31 P Generation Red White CRCR CWCW Gametes CR CW F1 Generation Pink CRCW
Figure P Generation Red White CRCR CWCW Gametes CR CW F1 Generation Pink CRCW Gametes 1/2 CR 1/2 CW Sperm Figure Incomplete dominance in snapdragon color. F2 Generation 1/2 CR 1/2 CW 1/2 CR CRCR CRCW Eggs 1/2 CW CRCW CWCW

32 Dominance and Phenotype
A dominant allele does not subdue a recessive allele; alleles don’t interact that way Alleles are simply variations in a gene’s nucleotide sequence Frequency of Dominant Alleles Dominant alleles are not necessarily more common 1/400 babies in the US is born with extra fingers or toes

33 Multiple Alleles Four phenotypes of the ABO blood group in humans are determined by three alleles for the enzyme (I) that attaches A or B carbohydrates to red blood cells: IA, IB, and i.

34 (a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups and their carbohydrates
Figure 14.11 (a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups and their carbohydrates Allele IA IB i Carbohydrate A B none (b) Blood group genotypes and phenotypes Genotype IAIA or IAi IBIB or IBi IAIB ii Figure Multiple alleles for the ABO blood groups. Red blood cell appearance Phenotype (blood group) A B AB O

35 Pleiotropy Most genes have multiple phenotypic effects, a property called pleiotropy For example, pleiotropic alleles are responsible for the multiple symptoms of certain hereditary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell disease

36 Epistasis A gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at a second locus Coat color of certain animals depend on two genes One gene determines the pigment color (with alleles B for black and b for brown) The other gene (with alleles C for color and c for no color) determines whether the pigment will be deposited in the hair

37 BbEe BbEe Sperm 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 Eggs 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 9 : 3 : 4 BE bE
Figure 14.12 BbEe BbEe Sperm 1/4 1/4 BE 1/4 1/4 bE Be be Eggs 1/4 BE BBEE BbEE BBEe BbEe 1/4 bE BbEE bbEE BbEe bbEe 1/4 Be BBEe BbEe BBee Bbee Figure An example of epistasis. 1/4 be BbEe bbEe Bbee bbee 9 : 3 : 4

38 Polygenic Inheritance
Quantitative characters: vary in the population along a continuum Quantitative variation usually indicates polygenic inheritance an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotype Skin color in humans is an example of polygenic inheritance

39 Number of dark-skin alleles: 1 2 3 4 5 6
Figure 14.13 AaBbCc AaBbCc Sperm 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 Eggs 1/8 1/8 Figure A simplified model for polygenic inheritance of skin color. 1/8 1/8 Phenotypes: 1/64 6/64 15/64 20/64 15/64 6/64 1/64 Number of dark-skin alleles: 1 2 3 4 5 6

40 The effect of environment on phenotype
Figure The effect of environment on phenotype.

41 Integrating a Mendelian View of Heredity and Variation
An organism’s phenotype includes its physical appearance, internal anatomy, physiology, and behavior An organism’s phenotype reflects its overall genotype and unique environmental history

42 Pedigree Analysis A pedigree is a family tree that describes the interrelationships of parents and children across generations Inheritance patterns of particular traits can be traced and described using pedigrees

43 Is a widow’s peak a dominant or recessive trait? b)
Figure 14.15 Key Male Female Affected male Affected female Mating Offspring 1st generation Ff Ff ff Ff 1st generation Ww ww ww Ww 2nd generation 2nd generation FF or Ff ff ff Ff Ff ff Ww ww ww Ww Ww ww 3rd generation 3rd generation ff FF or Ff WW or Ww ww Figure Pedigree analysis. Widow’s peak No widow’s peak Attached earlobe Free earlobe (a) Is a widow’s peak a dominant or recessive trait? b) Is an attached earlobe a dominant or recessive trait?

44 Pedigrees Can also be used to make predictions about future offspring
Can use the multiplication and addition rules to predict the probability of specific phenotypes

45 Recessively Inherited Disorders
Many genetic disorders are inherited in a recessive manner These range from relatively mild to life-threatening Recessively inherited disorders show up only in individuals homozygous for the allele Carriers are heterozygous individuals who carry the recessive allele

46 Parents Normal Aa Normal Aa Sperm A a Eggs Aa Normal (carrier) AA
Figure 14.16 Parents Normal Aa Normal Aa Sperm A a Eggs Aa Normal (carrier) AA Normal A Figure Albinism: a recessive trait. Aa Normal (carrier) aa Albino a

47 Dominantly Inherited Disorders
Dominant alleles that cause a lethal disease are rare and arise by mutation Achondroplasia is a form of dwarfism caused by a rare dominant allele

48 Parents Dwarf Dd Normal dd Sperm D d Eggs Dd Dwarf dd Normal d Dd
Figure 14.17 Parents Dwarf Dd Normal dd Sperm D d Eggs Dd Dwarf dd Normal d Figure Achondroplasia: a dominant trait. Dd Dwarf dd Normal d

49 Multifactorial Disorders
Heart disease, diabetes, alcoholism, mental illnesses, and cancer have both genetic and environmental components

50 Fetal Testing In amniocentesis, the liquid that bathes the fetus is removed and tested In chorionic villus sampling (CVS), a sample of the placenta is removed and tested Other techniques, such as ultrasound and fetoscopy, allow fetal health to be assessed visually in utero

51 Biochemical and genetic tests
Figure 14.19 (a) Amniocentesis (b) Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) 1 Ultrasound monitor Ultrasound monitor Amniotic fluid withdrawn Fetus 1 Placenta Fetus Suction tube inserted through cervix Chorionic villi Placenta Cervix Uterus Cervix Uterus Centrifugation Fluid Several hours Several hours Biochemical and genetic tests 2 Fetal cells Fetal cells Several weeks Figure Testing a fetus for genetic disorders. 2 Several weeks Several hours 3 Karyotyping

52 Newborn Screening Some genetic disorders can be detected at birth by simple tests that are now routinely performed in most hospitals in the United States

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