2The process of studying student work is a meaningful and challenging way to be data-driven, to reflect critically on our instructional practices, and to identify the research we might study to help us think more deeply and carefully about the challenges our students provide us. Rich, complex work samples show us how students are thinking, the fullness of their factual knowledge, the connections they are making. Talking about them together in an accountable way helps us to learn how to adjust instruction to meet the needs of our students.Annenberg Institute of School Reform
3Educational Research: Formative Assessment and Student Work to Inform Instruction Assessing Student Outcomes; Marzano, Pickering, McTigheInside the Black Box; Black,WiliamsUnderstanding by Design; Wiggins, McTigheResults Now; SchmokerProfessional Learning Communities at Work; Dufour, EakerAccountability for Learning; ReevesMath Talk Learning Community; Fuson, et alNormalizing Problems of Practice; Little, HornChange the Terms for Teacher Learning; FullanWorking toward a continuum of professional development; Loucks-Horsley, et al.
5The Results from an Assessment X23456789101Students’ performances are across the continuum
6Traditionally Teachers Choose One of Three Options Go back and re-teach the topic with the entire class.Identify the students needing remediation and find some time/opportunity to re-teach the topic while the rest of the class continues on.Feeling the pressure of the over packed curriculum the teacher ventures on to the next topic.
7Formative Assessment Cycle Scoring and Student Works ProtocolsMARS TasksAdminister TasksExamine Student WorkInform Teacher KnowledgeInform InstructionFormative Assessment CycleTools for Teachers and Professional DevelopmentRe-engagement Lessons
8The Need for Multiple Measures WYTIWYGWhat You Test Is What You Get!
9The MAC/MARS Math Performance Assessments The Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) is an NSF funded collaboration between U.C. Berkeley, Michigan State and the Shell Centre in Nottingham England.The Assessments target grades 2- Geometry and are aligned with the State and NCTM National Math Standards.
10Dimensions of Balance Mathematical Content Process Dimension: Modeling and Formulating, Transforming and Manipulating, Inferring and Drawing conclusions, Checking and Evaluating, ReportingTask Type: Non-routine, design, plan, evaluate and make a recommendation, review and critique, representation of information, technical exercise, definition of conceptsOpennessReasoning Length
11Task Design Entry level (access into task) Core Mathematics - (meeting standards)Ramp Up (conceptually deeper, beyond)EntryCoreRamp
12Link Assessment and Learning “Assessment should be an integral part of teaching. It is the mechanism whereby teachers can learn how students think about mathematics as well as what students are able to accomplish.”Everybody Counts
13Cycle of Formative Assessment to Inform and Improve Learning Collectively score and analyze student workAdminister quality assessment tasksCycle of Formative Assessment to Inform and Improve LearningDocument student thinking to inform instruction.Leads to improved teaching and learning in the classroomDrives the professional development experiences of the teachers.
14Re-engagement Video Clip Fran Dickenson, San Carlos Charter SchoolStacy Emory, San Carlos Charter SchoolMargie Trainer, Math Coach
15Re-engagement Happens “Live” The heart of the process is in the discussion, controversy, and convincing of the big mathematical ideas.This is where students have the opportunity to clarify their own thinking, confront their misconceptions to see the errors in logic, use mathematical vocabulary for a purpose, and make generalizations and connections.
16Re-engagementHas all students re-work task from different perspectives.Confronts misconceptions, so that they can be dealt with and let go.Gives some students strategies for solving problemHelps other students solidify and clarify their ideas.
21Framing the Video As you watch this video, look for evidence of GOOD CLASSROOMPRACTICE.There are different types of norms. One set is the “social” set…the intrapersonal interactions between and among individuals, small groups and an entire community. These norms help us as teachers to provide a structure for discourse and for classroom management expectations. So, in order for us to set the stage for our learning community we would like to look at some social norms that typicaly come up in our groups. Here is a list of typical responses to the question, “What do you consider important mathematical social and community norms?”21
22Re-engagement Video Clip Hillary Lewis-Wolfsen, FUSDCarolyn Dobson, BUSDLinda Fisher, MAC Director
23Reflection and Quick Write What is your role in making GOOD CLASSROOM PRACTICE happen?Individual timePair/Share23
26Sample MARS Tasks __________________________________________ 4. In how many years will Jan be twice as old as Will? _______yearsExplain how you figured it out.__________________________________________Sample MARS TasksAccess Core Ramp
27Prepare to Design a Re-engagement Lesson Do the task and consider the mathConsider how the students might approach the math, where and how would the be successful, what challenges or misconception may arise?Look through the student work. Categorize solution strategies, approaches and where students struggled. What is the story of the task?Use the Math Toolkit to compare your findings with history of the tasks.
28Design a Re-engagement Lesson What are the foundational concepts that need to be solidified?What examples of student work or errors could be presented?What approaches or strategies are unique or present a reasoning dilemma? What student work might be shared?What conceptual ideas do you want students to learn or connect? What student work would engage the students and invite high cognition.
29Create a PosterDetail your re-engagement lesson plan.
30Assessments to Rank, Certify, or Grade. SummativeFormativeFormative meaning during instruction to inform instructionAssessments to Rank, Certify, or Grade.BenchmarksInterimTestsQuizzesAssignmentsTo inform instructionUnit/Chapter TestsBenchmark TestsSemester/Quarter TestsComputer-based examsHigh-Stakes TestsState TestsHS Exit ExamsSAT, ACTNorm-ReferenceFinal ExamsStudents comments, explanations, questions and/or work in class
31A Need for Formative Data "Everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts can not necessarily be counted."- Albert Einstein
32Educational Interventions Extra months of learning per yearClassroom cost per yearClass-size reduction (from 20 to 30)3$30,000Increase teacher content knowledge (2 sd)1.5UnknownFormative Assessment6 to 9$3,000Black & Wiliams
33Formative Assessment is: Students and teachers Using evidence of learning To adapt teaching and learning To meet immediate learning needs Minute-to-Minute and day to dayDylan Wiliams, University of London
34Effective Formative Assessment Strategies Clarifying learning intentions and sharing criteria for successEngineering effective classroom discussions.Providing feedback that moves learners forward.Activating students as the owners of their own learning.Activating students as instructional resources for one another.Dylan Wiliams, University of London
35Design of the Performance Assessments Aligned with the NCTM StandardsFive tasks: touching each of the major strands or Core Ideas for that grade levelGeometry, Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations, Data and Statistics, and one other depending on the grade levelDesigned to hit areas of instructional emphasis rather than the edgesLook at different dimensions of learning key to understanding mathematics