Presentation on theme: "Self- Efficacy Beliefs"— Presentation transcript:
1 Self- Efficacy Beliefs By: Micah Day EPFR 515 November 18- December 2
2 Have you been here?I’m sure the majority of you can relate to a situation similar to this one. After all, who really feels motivated to complete work when its too easy and you already know how to complete the task at hand.Do I really have to finish this assignment? I already know how to do this.
3 IF I BELIEVE IT, I CAN ACHIEVE IT Do You Believe…IF I BELIEVE IT, I CAN ACHIEVE ITSeeming a bit cleshay, the phrase “If I believe it, I can achieve it,” actually fosters a great deal of power. Not always perceived, self-motivating phrases such as this can transcribe into futuristic outcomes.Take this person in the image above, obviously if they did not believe they could move the object, then they more so than likely would not.Now, take a minute to reflect on a personal goal and ask yourself, “do I believe I can achieve this?”
4 What is Self-Efficacy? - Learning a skill - Performing in a situation Self-Efficacy is defined as, “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments.”(Mechida and Schaubroeck, 2011)Two factors that optimize the strength of self-efficacy.- Learning a skill- Performing in a situationBandura (1977a, 1997) formally defined perceived self-efficacy as personal judgments of one’s capabilities to organize and execute courses of action to attain designated goals, and he sought to assess its level, generality, and strength across activities and contexts.Bandura (1997) suggests that there are two factors that optimally strengthen one’s self-efficacy. Appearing related in context, the two factors differed. Consisting of two distinguishable plateaus, one factor is concerned with learning, while the other is focused on performing in different settings.
5 Learning a SkillThe learning of a skill is also known as preparatory efficacy. This concept of self-efficacy focuses on executing and completing tasks. This differs from one’s beliefs about their general ability to learn, which is learning efficacy.Not to confuse preparatory efficacy with learning efficacy, learning efficacy is defined as being judgments about one’s ability to learn and master a new skill and then use that mastery to accomplish a task in the performance situation
6 Extremely low levels of self-efficacy Having a negative relationship, self-efficacy and learning differ among preparatory situations.Extremely low levels of self-efficacyHarms the learners motivation to develop skills.Moderately low levels of self-efficacyBeneficial during preparatory situations.Without a high level of learning self-efficacy, individuals are likely to suffer from a lack of motivation to learn.So, focusing on executing and completing tasks within a class environment does not necessarily reflect your general ability to learn, but rather your belief in being able to complete the task at hand.In other words, an individual experiencing extremely low self-efficacy beliefs may not be motivated or has experienced negative feedback from past experiences and lacked encouragement from others to try the task again. This in retrospect will harm the learners development of skills. This however is one extreme concerning self-efficacy and learning efficacy; because when individuals are highly efficacious in completing tasks and demonstrating skills in the preparatory or learning process, they often have little incentive to invest further effort into learning the skill.Bandura implied that there is a curvilinear inverted U-shaped relationship between efficacy about the task or skill and motivation, persistence, and learning during preparatorysituations. Therefore, moderate levels of self-efficacy are per se ideal in preparatory situations.
7 SO HAVING HIGH SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS = BEING MORE MOTIVATED? So does having high self-efficacy beliefs = being more motivated?
8 NOAs stated in the previous slide, Bandura implied that there is a curvilinear inverted U-shaped relationship between efficacy about the task or skill and motivation, persistence, and learning during preparatory situations. Therefore, moderate levels of self-efficacy are per se ideal in preparatory situations.So high self-efficacy does not yield more motivation.
9 Performing in a Situation Performing in the situations for which development is targeted, is referred to as performance efficacy. Performance determines whether outcome expectations are satisfactory. Self-efficacy beliefs are continually being updated based on the successes and failures encountered throughout the developmental process.The second factor relating to optimally strengthening self-efficacy beliefs is performance efficacy. Straightforward in meaning, performance efficacy is determined by whether the outcome experienced was satisfactory.However, for developmental tasks to be sufficiently challenging for development to occur, a high probability of failure must be inherent. Yet, a self-correcting cycle must be prevalent, wherein the learners are exposed to indulge in less difficult tasks and reminded of their developmental progress.Dependent on the learners success and failures experienced by the learner, some individuals self-efficacy will fluctuate more rapidly than others. In contrast, all learner’s self-efficacy beliefs will change; however, the intended goal is to positively strengthen our beliefs.
10 Can you depict between the two? Given your current task (reading through this PowerPoint), which type of efficacy are using in completing this task? A. Preparatory efficacy B. Performance efficacyMaking sure that we are all still heading in the same direction, let’s see if we can distinguish between preparatory efficacy and performance efficacy.Given your current task, which type of efficacy are using in completing this task? Preparatory or performance.
11 Can you depict between the two? Given your current task (reading through this PowerPoint), which type of efficacy are using in completing this task? A. Preparatory efficacy B. Performance efficacyIf you selected preparatory efficacy, then you are correct.Reasoning: Reading through this PowerPoint, is the given task at hand. This concept of self-efficacy focuses on executing and completing tasks. However, now that you have just performed in a situation (answering a question), or evaluating your development of the information, you can consider answering the question as performance efficacy
12 Can you depict between the two? Scenario: Hunter is a bright student attending Richwood’s high school. Excelling in math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as hard for the next exam. This is an example of which type of self- efficacy? A. Preparatory B. PerformanceGiven the scenario: Hunter is a bright student attending Richwood’s high school. Excelling in math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as hard for the next exam.Which type of self-efficacy does this scenario depict? Preparatory or performance
13 Can you depict between the two? Scenario: Hunter is a bright student attending Richwood’s high school. Excelling in math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as hard for the next exam. This is an example of which type of self- efficacy? A. Preparatory B. PerformanceIf you answered performance efficacy, then you are correct.Hunter’s performance outcome experience on the test was clearly not satisfactory. However, this experience has motivated him to do better on the next exam. Learning from this experience, it is probably safe to say that Hunter’s preparatory efficacy will be shifting from an extremely high level of self-efficacy to a moderately high level of self-efficacy.
14 Self-Efficacy is NOT Constant Bandura stated that an individual’s self-efficacy varies over time. Self-efficacy is specific to a situation and context The stability of one’s efficacy is largely determined by how one has acquired the belief, the strength of that belief, as well as the strength of that intervening experience. Attending numerous leadership seminars, an individual believes that they are a leader, and supports this belief through interactions with others. But how does one acquire such beliefs???Self-efficacy beliefs are constantly changing over periods of time; however, self-efficacy beliefs can be stable across a span of time. Yet stable self-efficacy beliefs depends on an impacting experience that is continuously or repetitively being influenced in that same direction.Do any of you remember having spelling tests? Well if you didn’t or can’t remember, it usually went like this. The majority of you probably studied your words that the teacher said all of you will be able to spell because she believes each of you are capable of spelling. So, you take the words home, study the words, your parents might have even quizzed you on the words and told you that you did a great job on your words. Then, the next day you take your spelling test, exchange papers with a classmate and grade one another's test. Receiving your paper back, you realize that you can spell and that your teacher and parents were right. So now you believe that you are a good speller.
15 Acquiring Strong Beliefs Bandura suggested four principles that influence self-efficacy beliefs.Self Efficacy BeliefsEnactive Mastery ExperiencesVerbal PersuasionPhysiological StatesVicarious experiencesFor most individuals, at least one of the four principles Bandura suggests, influencing self-efficacy should apply to you, if not multiple principles.
16 Enactive Mastery Experience The most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs are mastery experiences, which provides feedback on learner’s capabilities.Looks at learners previous success on a task.Starts on a simple task and progresses to harder tasks.2 + 2 = 4 >>> 2x + 7 = 11Please watch video on mastery experiences.
17 Verbal PersuasionAppraisal, feedback, and positive encouragement from others are aspects of verbal persuasion. Individuals are persuaded by others that they are capable of succeeding in specific tasks.When thinking of a principle that influences your self-efficacy, verbal persuasion is the first think that pops into my head. Verbal appraisal or affirmation whether noticed or not probably happens a couple of times throughout your day.For instance, maybe your task this morning was to look presentable for a faculty/staff meeting, and sometime within that day you received a comment(s) from someone reconfirming how nice you look today.
18 Physiological StateIndividuals monitor feelings of self-efficacy based on physiological states.Gut feelings convinces learner of probable success or failure.Refers to states of arousal, depending on how that feeling was identified can influence a positive or negative outlook.Fear = negative outlookNervous or anxious = positive outlookDiffering from your typical positive feedback or encouragement, physiological state deals more so with the physical annotation one mentally harbor.Beginning with a gut feeling, this feeling can inhibit your success or failure at a given task. Given the situation, if the gut feeling at hand is identified as fear, one may begin to perform poorly or not as well as expected, projecting feelings of a negative outlook. However, in the same situation, if a person identifies their gut feeling as being anxious or nervous, they may still be able to perform the task at a high efficiency level, projecting a positive outlook when having that gut feeling.
19 Vicarious Experiences Learner’s observe a role model attaining success at a task. The role model chosen will affect the extent to which the learner/observer's self-efficacy will be enhanced.Multiple models are superior to one, however, it is not wise to choose several peer models, for this can contribute to handicapping one’s self-efficacy.Another principle that may be popular for most individuals is vicarious experience. Vicarious experience is conceptually based on the observing of role models attaining success in a task. Role models can range from someone in close proximity to you, such as parents, teachers, supervisors, church clergy, to more distal individuals such as celebrities and historical figures.Reflecting on influential people that you may have looked up to in your life, can you name at least two role models that enhanced your self-efficacy?
20 ReflectDo any of the four principles influencing self- efficacy beliefs relate to you?Now that you are aware of what each principle entails, do any of the four principles influencing self-efficacy beliefs relate to you?Can you recall a mastery experience of some sort? Can you remember someone providing you with verbal persuasion? Do you remember a time where you have felt fearful or nervous and showed signs of a physiological state? Or have you been enlightened by a vicarious experience?
21 How is Self-Efficacy Measured By the amount of one’s certainty about performing a given task. Focus on performance capabilities rather than on personal qualities. Perceived judgments of how well one will be able to perform in given situations.What makes one’s self-efficacy belief strong? The strength of perceived efficacy is measured by the amount of one’s certainty about performing a given task.Self-efficacy measures focus on performance capabilities rather than on personal qualities, such as one’s physical or psychological characteristics.Bandura hypothesized that both self-efficacy and outcome expectations would affect motivation, suggesting that self-efficacy would play a larger role because ‘‘the types of outcomes people anticipate depends largely on their judgments of how well they will be able to perform in given situations’’(Zimmerman, 2000).
22 He said I can do this! I know I can do it! ... Looking at the caption within the image, “He said I can do this! I know I can do it!,”This is an example of verbal persuasion.
23 Closely Related Constructs Linked to self-efficacy, self-efficacy has three closely related constructs.Outcome ExpectationsSelf-ConceptPerceived ControlIn a current research study, focusing on the influence self-efficacy has on academic motivation, researchers found that three constructs, outcome expectations, self-concept, and perceived control were closely related to self-efficacy.
24 Self-Efficacy & Outcome Expectations Incentives are used throughout outcome expectations, and emphasized throughout the performance segment of self-efficacy.Incentives, whether positive or negative, influence the level of an individuals motivation towards a specific task.Can change one’s image or status.Cause one’s perceived self-efficacy to change over time.Outcome expectations are comprised of three major factors.Physical affects (pleasure or pain)Social effects (power, money, approval)Self-evaluationOutcome expectations was the first construct to be measured. Identifying outcome expectations, incentives are used. Incentives are used to influence an individuals level of self-efficacy. Whether positive or negative, incentives can be revealed in the form of money power, approval (verbal affirmation), or through the experience of a form of pleasure or pain.
25 Hypothesized by Bandura, self-efficacy plays a larger role then outcome expectations. Hypothesizing that self-efficacy plays a greater role then outcome expectations, Bandura states that performance clearly determines whether outcome expectations are satisfied, yet self-efficacy beliefs control performance.
26 Self-efficacy vs. Outcome Expectations Shell, Murphy, and Bruning (1989) measured self-efficacy in terms of perceived capability to perform various reading and writing activitiesEfficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies jointly predicted 32% of the variance in reading achievement.Perceived efficacy accounting for virtually all the variance.Only perceived self-efficacy was a significant predictor of writing achievement.This study supported Bandura’s contingent that self- efficacy plays a larger role than outcome expectancies in motivation.Psychometrically measured, in reading and writing, Shell, Murphy, and Bruning (1989) measured self-efficacy in terms of perceived capability to perform various reading and writing activities, and assessed outcome expectancies regarding the value of these activities in attaining various outcomes in employment, social pursuits, family life, education, and citizenship.Efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies jointly predicted 32% of the variance in reading achievement, with perceived efficacy accounting for virtually all the variance. Only perceived self-efficacy was a significant predictor of writing achievement.This study supported Bandura’s contingent that self-efficacy plays a larger role than outcome expectancies in motivation.
27 Self-Efficacy & Self-Concept Historically, self-concept was defined by phenomenologists (Rogers, 1951) as a global perception of oneself and one’s self- esteem reactions to that self-perception. Conducive of the latter belief, self-concept is a more general self- descriptive construct that incorporates many forms of self- knowledge and self-evaluative feelings. In other words, if an individual has a positive self-concept, then the likelihood of them having high self-efficacy is strong. This global measure of self-belief, however was not found to be related consistently to students’ academic performanceConsidered the closest related construct to self-efficacy, self-concept is defined as being a global perception of oneself and one’s self-esteem reactions to that self-perception. Or in other words, self-concept relates to how you view yourself, how you value yourself, and what you wish you were like.Mahatma Gandhi said, “a man is but the product of his thoughts, what he thinks, he becomes.”
28 Self-Efficacy vs. Self-Concept Bandura (1997) notes it is possible conceptually to have high self-efficacy about a capability that one does not particularly esteem as well as the reverse. Thus, it was suggested that self-efficacy differs from self- concept in both its specificity and correspondence to varying performance tasks and contexts.
29 Self-Efficacy & Perceived Control Locus of control refers to general beliefs about the internality or externality of causality.Two types of perceived controlInternal locus of controlExternal locus of controlPerceived control refers to general expectancies about whether outcomes are controlled by one’s behavior or by external forces, and it is theorized that an internal locus of control should support self-directed courses of action, whereas an external locus of control should discourage them
30 Self-Efficacy vs. Perceived Control Smith (1989) found that locus of control measures did not predict improvements in academic performance. Smith also found that there were no reductions in anxiety in highly self-anxious students, undergoing intensive coping skills training programs. Self-efficacy scales however did predict such improvements.
31 Do You Agree?Self-efficacy is linked to self-concept AND motivation is merely a fragment of self-efficacyJudging from what you have learned so far, compared to any kind of prior knowledge on this subject, do you agree that self-efficacy is linked to self-concept, and if motivation is merely a fragment of self-efficacy?
32 ReferencesDriscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.) PearsonHsu, M., Ju, T. L., Yen, C., Chang, C. (2007). Knowledge sharing behavior in virtual communities: The relationship between trust, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. International Journal of Human-Computer Science. 65,Mechida, M. & Schaubroeck, J. (2011). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in leader development. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 18(4), DOI: /Zimmerman, B. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 25, DOI: /ceps