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SELF- EFFICACY BELIEFS By: Micah Day EPFR 515 November 18- December 2.

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Presentation on theme: "SELF- EFFICACY BELIEFS By: Micah Day EPFR 515 November 18- December 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 SELF- EFFICACY BELIEFS By: Micah Day EPFR 515 November 18- December 2

2 Do I really have to finish this assignment? I already know how to do this. Have you been here?

3 IF I BELIEVE IT, I CAN ACHIEVE IT Do You Believe…

4 Self-Efficacy is defined as, “beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments.” (Mechida and Schaubroeck, 2011) Two factors that optimize the strength of self-efficacy. - Learning a skill - Performing in a situation What is Self-Efficacy?

5 The learning of a skill is also known as preparatory efficacy. This concept of self-efficacy focuses on executing and completing tasks. This differs from one’s beliefs about their general ability to learn, which is learning efficacy. Learning a Skill

6 Having a negative relationship, self-efficacy and learning differ among preparatory situations. Extremely low levels of self-efficacy  Harms the learners motivation to develop skills. Moderately low levels of self-efficacy  Beneficial during preparatory situations. Without a high level of learning self-efficacy, individuals are likely to suffer from a lack of motivation to learn.

7

8 NO

9 Performing in the situations for which development is targeted, is referred to as performance efficacy. Performance determines whether outcome expectations are satisfactory. Self-efficacy beliefs are continually being updated based on the successes and failures encountered throughout the developmental process. Performing in a Situation

10 Given your current task (reading through this PowerPoint), which type of efficacy are using in completing this task? A. Preparatory efficacy B. Performance efficacy Can you depict between the two?

11 Given your current task (reading through this PowerPoint), which type of efficacy are using in completing this task? A. Preparatory efficacy B. Performance efficacy Can you depict between the two?

12 Scenario: Hunter is a bright student attending Richwood’s high school. Excelling in math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as hard for the next exam. This is an example of which type of self- efficacy? A. Preparatory B. Performance Can you depict between the two?

13 Scenario: Hunter is a bright student attending Richwood’s high school. Excelling in math, Hunter was placed into an advanced algebra class. Over zealous in his mathematical abilities, Hunter received a C on his first exam within his new algebra class. Upset about his grade, Hunter decides on studying twice as hard for the next exam. This is an example of which type of self- efficacy? A. Preparatory B. Performance Can you depict between the two?

14 Bandura stated that an individual’s self-efficacy varies over time. Self-efficacy is specific to a situation and context The stability of one’s efficacy is largely determined by how one has acquired the belief, the strength of that belief, as well as the strength of that intervening experience. Attending numerous leadership seminars, an individual believes that they are a leader, and supports this belief through interactions with others. But how does one acquire such beliefs??? Self-Efficacy is NOT Constant

15 Bandura suggested four principles that influence self-efficacy beliefs. Acquiring Strong Beliefs

16 The most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs are mastery experiences, which provides feedback on learner’s capabilities. Looks at learners previous success on a task.  Starts on a simple task and progresses to harder tasks = 4>>>2x + 7 = 11 Enactive Mastery Experience

17 Appraisal, feedback, and positive encouragement from others are aspects of verbal persuasion. Individuals are persuaded by others that they are capable of succeeding in specific tasks. Verbal Persuasion

18 Individuals monitor feelings of self-efficacy based on physiological states. Gut feelings convinces learner of probable success or failure. Refers to states of arousal, depending on how that feeling was identified can influence a positive or negative outlook.  Fear = negative outlook  Nervous or anxious = positive outlook Physiological State

19 Learner’s observe a role model attaining success at a task. The role model chosen will affect the extent to which the learner/observer's self-efficacy will be enhanced. Vicarious Experiences Multiple models are superior to one, however, it is not wise to choose several peer models, for this can contribute to handicapping one’s self-efficacy.

20 Do any of the four principles influencing self- efficacy beliefs relate to you? Reflect

21 By the amount of one’s certainty about performing a given task. Focus on performance capabilities rather than on personal qualities. Perceived judgments of how well one will be able to perform in given situations. How is Self-Efficacy Measured

22 He said I can do this! I know I can do it!...

23 Linked to self-efficacy, self-efficacy has three closely related constructs.  Outcome Expectations  Self-Concept  Perceived Control Closely Related Constructs

24 Incentives are used throughout outcome expectations, and emphasized throughout the performance segment of self-efficacy. Incentives, whether positive or negative, influence the level of an individuals motivation towards a specific task.  Can change one’s image or status.  Cause one’s perceived self-efficacy to change over time. Outcome expectations are comprised of three major factors.  Physical affects (pleasure or pain)  Social effects (power, money, approval)  Self-evaluation Self-Efficacy & Outcome Expectations

25 Hypothesized by Bandura, self-efficacy plays a larger role then outcome expectations.

26 Shell, Murphy, and Bruning (1989) measured self-efficacy in terms of perceived capability to perform various reading and writing activities Efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies jointly predicted 32% of the variance in reading achievement.  Perceived efficacy accounting for virtually all the variance.  Only perceived self-efficacy was a significant predictor of writing achievement. This study supported Bandura’s contingent that self- efficacy plays a larger role than outcome expectancies in motivation. Self-efficacy vs. Outcome Expectations

27 Historically, self-concept was defined by phenomenologists (Rogers, 1951) as a global perception of oneself and one’s self- esteem reactions to that self-perception. Conducive of the latter belief, self-concept is a more general self- descriptive construct that incorporates many forms of self- knowledge and self-evaluative feelings. In other words, if an individual has a positive self-concept, then the likelihood of them having high self-efficacy is strong. This global measure of self-belief, however was not found to be related consistently to students’ academic performance Self-Efficacy & Self-Concept

28 Bandura (1997) notes it is possible conceptually to have high self-efficacy about a capability that one does not particularly esteem as well as the reverse. Thus, it was suggested that self-efficacy differs from self- concept in both its specificity and correspondence to varying performance tasks and contexts. Self-Efficacy vs. Self-Concept

29 Locus of control refers to general beliefs about the internality or externality of causality. Two types of perceived control  Internal locus of control  External locus of control Self-Efficacy & Perceived Control

30 Smith (1989) found that locus of control measures did not predict improvements in academic performance. Smith also found that there were no reductions in anxiety in highly self-anxious students, undergoing intensive coping skills training programs. Self-efficacy scales however did predict such improvements. Self-Efficacy vs. Perceived Control

31 Do You Agree? Self-efficacy is linked to self-concept AND motivation is merely a fragment of self-efficacy

32 References Driscoll, M. P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction (3rd ed.) Pearson Hsu, M., Ju, T. L., Yen, C., Chang, C. (2007). Knowledge sharing behavior in virtual communities: The relationship between trust, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations. International Journal of Human-Computer Science. 65, Mechida, M. & Schaubroeck, J. (2011). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in leader development. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies. 18(4), DOI: / Zimmerman, B. (2000). Self-efficacy: An essential motive to learn. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 25, DOI: /ceps


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