Presentation on theme: "SELF-EFFICACY THEORY. SELF-EFFICACY SELF-EFFICACY REFERS TO AN INDIVIDUAL’S CONVICTIONS ABOUT HIS/HER ABILITIES TO MOBILIZE COGNITIVE, MOTIVATIONAL, AND."— Presentation transcript:
SELF-EFFICACY SELF-EFFICACY REFERS TO AN INDIVIDUAL’S CONVICTIONS ABOUT HIS/HER ABILITIES TO MOBILIZE COGNITIVE, MOTIVATIONAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACILITIES NEEDED TO SUCCESSFULLY EXECUTE A SPECIFIC TASK WITHIN A GIVEN CONTEXT
The Psychological Process Before they select their choices and initiate their effort, people tend to: 1) Before they select their choices and initiate their effort, people tend to: weigh,weigh, evaluate, andevaluate, and integrate information about their perceived capabilities.integrate information about their perceived capabilities. 2) Expectations of personal efficacy determine whether an individual's coping behavior will be: initiated,initiated, how much task-related effort will be expended, andhow much task-related effort will be expended, and how long that effort will be sustained despite disconfirming evidence.how long that effort will be sustained despite disconfirming evidence. 3) Especially relevant to human performance in organizations is that: employees who perceive themselves as highly efficacious will activate sufficient effort which, if well executed, produces successful outcomes.employees who perceive themselves as highly efficacious will activate sufficient effort which, if well executed, produces successful outcomes. employees who perceive low self-efficacy are likely to cease their efforts prematurely and fail on the task.employees who perceive low self-efficacy are likely to cease their efforts prematurely and fail on the task.
Self-Efficacy Dimensions 1)The Magnitude of Self-Efficacy Expectations which refers to the level of task difficulty that a person believes he or she is capable of executing.which refers to the level of task difficulty that a person believes he or she is capable of executing. 2)The Strength of Self-Efficacy Expectations which refers to whether the judgment about magnitude iswhich refers to whether the judgment about magnitude is –strong (perseverance in coping efforts despite disconfirming experiences), or –weak (easily questioned in the face of difficulty).
Self-Efficacy Measurement A) Magnitude - Whether you believe that you are capable or not (yes, no) of performing this task next time at each of the levels outlined in this scale. Please use column A for these responses. B) Strength - How certain you are (0 - 100 %) about each yes/no response. For example, 0% would indicate no chance, whereas 100% would indicate absolute certainty. Please use column B for these responses. Magnitude = Sum of Yes Strength = Sum of certainty for the number of Yes
Determinants of Self-Efficacy Successful Past Performance Provides the Strongest Information for Enhancing Efficacy Beliefs Provides Direct Performance Information Leads to the Formation of More Accurate Efficacy Judgments ENACTIVEMASTERY
Determinants of Self-Efficacy Observing Others Perform and Be Reinforced by a Similar Task MODELING Behavioral Modeling Strategy Development Verbal Persuasion Gaining (Successful) Enactive Mastery Increase in Self-efficacy VICARIOUSLEARNING
Determinants of Self-Efficacy PHYSIOLOGICALSTATE Physical Fatigue PSYCHOLOGICALAROUSAL Vulnerability to Stress, Fear, Anxiety EMOTIONALAROUSAL PA/NA
Determinants of Self-Efficacy Entity Acquirable Skill Controllable Uncontrollable CONCEPTION OF ABILITY CONTROLABILITY OF THE TASK
TAKE-HOME MESSAGE All Antecedents May Influence Self-Efficacy Beliefs However, the Actual Impact of Any Relevant Information on Self-efficacy Will Depend on How It Is Cognitively Evaluated In Other Words, Self-efficacy Beliefs Are Formed on the Basis of Subjective Perceptions of Reality Rather Than On Objective Situational Determinants
Work-Related Correlates of Self-Efficacy High Self-efficacy Individuals Activate Adequate Cognitive Resources, Sufficient Effort, and Behaviors Which, If Well Executed, Produce Successful Outcomes Those Who Perceive Low Levels of Self-efficacy Are More Likely to Not Even Make an Attempt, Cease Their Efforts Prematurely If They Do Make an Attempt, Fail on the Task, and Retain Self- debilitating Expectations About Their Personal Competence
Self-Efficacy Work Correlates Self-Efficacy Work Correlates : Managerial Performance Sales Learning and Task Related Achievement Job Search Research Productivity Adaptability to Advanced Technology Career Choice and Academic Behavior Coping With Career Related Events Skill Acquisition Newcomer Adjustment to the Organizational Setting Naval Performance at Sea
The Latest Research on Self-Efficacy Stajkovic & Luthans (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related task performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 240-261. To Meta-analytically Aggregate and Analyze Individual Research Findings Pertaining to the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Work-Related Task Performance What is the average magnitude of the relationship between self-efficacy and task-performance? Are there any study characteristics (moderators) that systematically moderate this relationship?
Stajkovic & Luthans (1998) The final sample consisted of: s = 114 studies k = 157 correlation estimates Total sample size N = 21,626 The average sample size per correlation estimate was 138 subjects
Stajkovic & Luthans (1998 Stajkovic & Luthans (1998) An average weighted correlation between self-efficacy and work-related performance of (G)r =.38,,which transforms to an impressive 28 percent gain in task performance. Importantly, for managing today’s human resources, this 28% increase in task performance due to self-efficacy represents a greater gain than those obtained in meta-analyses examining the effects on task performance of: Goal-Setting (10.39%) (Wood et al., 1987), Feedback Interventions (13.6%) (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996) Organizational Behavior Modification (17%) (Stajkovic & Luthans, 1997)