2SELF-EFFICACYSELF-EFFICACY REFERS TO AN INDIVIDUAL’S CONVICTIONS ABOUT HIS/HER ABILITIES TO MOBILIZE COGNITIVE, MOTIVATIONAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACILITIES NEEDED TO SUCCESSFULLY EXECUTE A SPECIFIC TASK WITHIN A GIVEN CONTEXT
3The Psychological Process 1) Before they select their choices and initiate their effort, people tend to:weigh,evaluate, andintegrate information about their perceived capabilities.2) Expectations of personal efficacy determine whether an individual's coping behavior will be:initiated,how much task-related effort will be expended, andhow long that effort will be sustained despite disconfirming evidence.3) Especially relevant to human performance in organizations is that:employees who perceive themselves as highly efficacious will activate sufficient effort which, if well executed, produces successful outcomes.employees who perceive low self-efficacy are likely to cease their efforts prematurely and fail on the task.
4Self-Efficacy Dimensions 1) The Magnitude of Self-Efficacy Expectationswhich refers to the level of task difficulty that a person believes he or she is capable of executing.2) The Strength of Self-Efficacy Expectationswhich refers to whether the judgment about magnitude isstrong (perseverance in coping efforts despite disconfirming experiences), orweak (easily questioned in the face of difficulty).
5Self-Efficacy Measurement A) Magnitude - Whether you believe that you are capable or not (yes, no) of performing this task next time at each of the levels outlined in this scale. Please use column A for these responses.B) Strength - How certain you are ( %) about each yes/no response. For example, 0% would indicate no chance, whereas 100% would indicate absolute certainty. Please use column B for these responses.Magnitude = Sum of YesStrength = Sum of certainty for the number of Yes
6Determinants of Self-Efficacy ENACTIVEMASTERYSuccessful Past PerformanceProvides the Strongest Information for Enhancing Efficacy BeliefsProvides Direct Performance InformationLeads to the Formation of More Accurate Efficacy Judgments
7Determinants of Self-Efficacy VICARIOUSLEARNINGObserving Others Perform and Be Reinforced by a Similar TaskMODELINGBehavioral ModelingStrategy DevelopmentVerbal PersuasionGaining (Successful) Enactive MasteryIncrease in Self-efficacy
9Determinants of Self-Efficacy Vulnerability to Stress, Fear, Anxiety PHYSIOLOGICALSTATEPhysical FatiguePSYCHOLOGICALAROUSALVulnerability to Stress, Fear, AnxietyEMOTIONALAROUSALPA/NA
10Determinants of Self-Efficacy CONCEPTION OFABILITYEntityAcquirable SkillCONTROLABILITYOF THE TASKControllableUncontrollable
11TAKE-HOME MESSAGE All Antecedents May Influence Self-Efficacy Beliefs However, the Actual Impact of Any Relevant Information onSelf-efficacy Will Depend on How It IsCognitively EvaluatedIn Other Words, Self-efficacy Beliefs Are Formed on theBasis of Subjective Perceptions of Reality Rather ThanOn Objective Situational Determinants
12Work-Related Correlates of Self-EfficacyHigh Self-efficacy Individuals Activate Adequate Cognitive Resources, Sufficient Effort, and Behaviors Which, If Well Executed, Produce Successful OutcomesThose Who Perceive Low Levels of Self-efficacy Are More Likely to Not Even Make an Attempt, Cease Their Efforts Prematurely If They Do Make an Attempt, Fail on the Task, and Retain Self-debilitating Expectations About Their Personal Competence
13Self-Efficacy Work Correlates: Managerial PerformanceSalesLearning and Task Related AchievementJob SearchResearch ProductivityAdaptability to Advanced TechnologyCareer Choice and Academic BehaviorCoping With Career Related EventsSkill AcquisitionNewcomer Adjustment to the Organizational SettingNaval Performance at Sea
14The Latest Research on Self-Efficacy Stajkovic & Luthans (1998). Self-efficacy and work-related task performance: Ameta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 124,To Meta-analytically Aggregate and Analyze Individual Research Findings Pertaining to the Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Work-Related Task PerformanceWhat is the average magnitude of the relationship between self-efficacy and task-performance?Are there any study characteristics (moderators) that systematically moderate this relationship?
15Stajkovic & Luthans (1998) The final sample consisted of: s = 114 studiesk = 157 correlation estimatesTotal sample size N = 21,626The average sample size per correlation estimate was 138 subjects
16Stajkovic & Luthans (1998) Goal-Setting (10.39%) An average weighted correlation between self-efficacy and work-relatedperformance of (G)r = .38,,which transforms to an impressive 28 percent gain intask performance.Importantly, for managing today’s human resources, this 28% increase in taskperformance due to self-efficacy represents a greater gain than those obtained inmeta-analyses examining the effects on task performance of:Goal-Setting (10.39%)(Wood et al., 1987),Feedback Interventions (13.6%)(Kluger & DeNisi, 1996)Organizational Behavior Modification (17%)(Stajkovic & Luthans, 1997)