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**Scientific Measurement**

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**Measurements Quantities with both a number and a unit**

Used to measure a physical property .5 grams Mass 2 liters Volume 1.6 meters Length

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**Why does this matter? In chemistry, we make lots of measurements**

Examples? We need to have a common language of measurement so that we can understand each other’s results.

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Scientific Notation In chemistry, we deal with numbers that are very big and very small How many water molecules are in the beaker? 600,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 What is the width of a water molecule? meters

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Scientific Notation How can we express big and small numbers in a simpler way? Powers of 10 10 = = 100 100 = = 10-1 1000 = = 10-2 10,000 = = 10-3 Exponent = # of places you move the decimal point to get behind the first digit Left = positive Right = negative

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Scientific notation

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**Practice problem Express the following numbers in exponential form:**

100,000 100 0.001 .1 1

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Scientific notation To put a number in scientific notation, express it as the product of A number between 1 and 10 A power of 10 Example: 5000 meters = 5 x 1000 meters = 5 x 103 meters .025 liters = 2.5 x .01 liters = 2.5 x 10-2 liters

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Practice problems Express the following numbers in scientific notation: 5280 feet grams 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 atoms

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Accuracy v. Precision Accuracy = how close your measurements are to the correct value Ex: I can run a mile in 7 minutes If you measure my mile time and get 7 minutes, you are highly accurate If you measure my time and get 8 minutes you are inaccurate

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**Precision Precision = how close your measurements are to each other**

If you measure my mile time and get 7 minutes three times, you are very precise If you measure my mile time and get 8 minutes three times, you are still very precise But you are not very accurate.

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Accuracy v. Precision

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Error Error is the difference between your measurement and the accepted value Error = experimental value – accepted value

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**Practice problem Calculate the error: Experimental value = 1 meter**

Accepted value = 1.02 meters Experimental value = 10.7 seconds Accepted value = 10.5 seconds

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**Percent Error How much error is a lot of error?**

If my measurement of the weight of a car is 10 lbs too much, do I care? If my measurement of the weight of a baby is 10 lbs too much, do I care?

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Percent error Percent error is an expression of error as a percentage of the accepted value 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑐𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑟= |error| 𝑎𝑐𝑐𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 x 100%

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**Percent error practice**

Mr. Tunney’s new car weighs 2795 lbs. The dealership weighs the car at 2805 lbs. What is the error? What is the percent error? When Mr. Tunney was born, he weighed 9.5 lbs. The doctor weighed him at 19.5 lbs.

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**Percent error practice**

Felipe sticks a thermometer in a pot of boiling water, and measures its temperature as 99.1°C. The true temperature of boiling water is 100°C. What is Felipe’s error? What is his percent error?

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Significant Figures The accuracy of our measurements is limited by the accuracy of our tools What’s the smallest increment marked on this scale?

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Significant Figures When making measurements, you can record as many digits as your tool measures, and you can estimate one more digit. All of these digits have useful information, so they are called significant figures

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**Significant figures? Can I measure this length as 11.754325 cm?**

Why/why not? How many significant figures should this measurement have?

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**Significant figure rules**

How do I know how many significant figures a given measurement has? Example: I tell you I am meters tall. How many significant figures are there? Rules: All nonzero digits are significant All zeroes between nonzero digits are significant Leftmost zeroes are not significant Rightmost zeroes are significant if they follow a decimal point or are followed by a decimal point

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**Significant Figures Rules**

All nonzero digits are significant How many significant figures: 220 1000 345

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**Significant figure rules**

All zeroes between nonzero digits are significant How many sig. figs? 202 1050 10,002

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**Significant Figures Rules**

Leftmost zeroes are not significant How many sig. figs? 100 0245 0.003 1.01

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**Homework 9/30 13) Error = -1.6°C, Percent error = 1.3%**

14) a. unlimited b. 5 c d. 3 15) 6.6 x b. 4.0 x c d x e. 1.9 x 1014

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**Significant Figures Rules**

Zeroes at the end of a number to the right of a decimal point are significant How many sig. figs? 1.00 0.01

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**Zeroes at the end of a number are also significant if they are followed by a decimal point**

How many sig figs? 10200 10200.

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**Significant Figures Rules**

Countable or standard measurements have infinite sig. figs How many sig. figs? 4 apples 60 seconds/minute

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**Significant Figures in Calculations**

In general, a calculated answer cannot be more precise than the least precise measurement from which it was calculated.

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**Addition and Subtraction**

Round your answer to the largest digit that is the least significant digit of one of your measurements Example: 12.52 349.0 369.76 Answer = 369.7

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**Multiplication and Division**

Round your answer to the same number of sig. figs as the term with the least number of sig. figs 175 m x 0.1 m = 17.5 m Answer = 20 m

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Practice problems

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The Metric System The metric system is an international system of units designed to make measurements simple and easy The five metric units we’ll use in class are Meters Grams Kelvins Seconds Moles

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**Meters and Seconds Meters (m) are the metric unit of distance**

1 meter ≈ 3.3 feet Seconds (s) are the metric unit of time

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**Grams Grams (g) are the metric unit of mass**

A paperclip weighs about 1 gram

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**Kelvins A kelvin (K) is the metric degree of temperature**

1 degree Kelvin = 1 degree Celsius BUT the Kelvin scale starts at the lowest temperature possible, -273°C To convert from Celsius to Kelvin, subtract 273.

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**Moles A mole is the metric unit of quantity 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023**

Very large, usually used for talking about how many atoms or molecules are in an object.

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Metric prefixes We can use a standard set of prefixes to make the scale of metric units more convenient Mega = 1 million times the unit Kilo = 1 thousand times the unit Hecto = 100 times the unit Deka = 10 times the unit Deci = 1/10 of the unit Centi = 1/100 of the unit Milli = 1/1000 of the unit Micro = 10-6 of the unit Nano = 10-9 of the unit Pico = of the unit

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Volume Volume is the amount of space an object occupies. Volume = length x width x height The most common units we’ll use are a cubic centimeter (cm3) and a liter (L) A liter equals 1000 cm3

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**Energy Energy is the capacity to do work or produce heat**

The Joule (J) is the metric unit of energy. The calorie is another (non-metric) unit of energy 1 calorie = 4.18 Joules

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Homework 10/3 21) a. 1/1000 or b c. 1/10 or d. 1/100 or 10-2 22) m3, L, dL, cL, mL, μL 23) 8.8 x 102 cm3 25) C = K – 273 26) 443 K 41) 1 hour/60 min b) 103mg/1g c) 103mL/1dm3 42) 1.48 x 107 micrograms b) 3.72 g c) 6.63 x 104 cm3

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**Practice problems How many: Meters in a kilometer?**

Centigrams in a gram? Milliliters in a liter? Microkelvins in a kelvin? Joules in a Megajoule? Nanometers in a meter? Moles in a hectomole?

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Conversion Problems A quantity can usually be expressed in several different ways 1 dollar = 4 quarters = 10 dimes = 20 nickels The same is true of scientific quantities 1 meter = 10 decimeters = 100 centimeters How do we convert from one unit to another?

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**Conversion problems How do we convert from one unit to another?**

Conversion factors A conversion factor is a ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert one unit to another. Example: 1 meter (m) = 100 centimeters (cm) Convert 2 m to cm 2 m x 100 𝑐𝑚 1 𝑚 = 200 cm

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**Conversion problems How do I choose a conversion factor?**

Find an equivalency between the unit your measurement is in and the unit you’re changing to Set up a ratio of equivalent measurements Place your desired unit on top Converting 760 grams to kilograms 1000 g = 1 kg 760 g x 1 𝑘𝑔 1000 𝑔 = 760 𝑘𝑔 = 0.76 kg

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**Practice problems Convert using conversion factors:**

750 milliliters to liters 15 centimeters to meters 1.5 decimeters to meters 750 kilojoules to Megajoules 5 nanograms to grams 4.5 kilokelvins to centikelvins

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Dimensional Analysis Solve the following problems with conversion factors: How many seconds are in 8 hours? How many inches are in a mile? How many Joules are in 200 calories?

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**Density Use your intuition**

What is more dense, a bucket of pennies or a bucket of feathers? What is more dense, a block of wood or a block of iron? What does density mean?

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**Density What is density?**

Density is the ratio of an object’s mass to it’s volume Density = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 Stated another way, density is a measure of how tightly matter is packed in an object

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Practice problem You have four blocks of different elements. Use a ruler and a balance to calculate the density of each.

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Buoyancy Density determines whether an object will sink or float in a fluid. More dense sink Less dense float Is wood more or less dense than water? Is a rock more or less dense than water? Is a person more or less dense than water?

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