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Chapter 14: Geology and Earth Resources. 14.1 Earth Processes Shape Our Resources Earth is a dynamic planet Tectonic processes reshape continents and.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14: Geology and Earth Resources. 14.1 Earth Processes Shape Our Resources Earth is a dynamic planet Tectonic processes reshape continents and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14: Geology and Earth Resources

2 14.1 Earth Processes Shape Our Resources Earth is a dynamic planet Tectonic processes reshape continents and cause earthquakes and volcanoes

3 The Solid Earth

4 Global Earthquakes

5 Global Volcanoes

6 The Earth’s Plates

7 The Plate Tectonics Model

8 Global Plate Motions

9 14.2 Rocks And Minerals The Rock Cycle Creates And Recycles Rocks Weathering And Erosion Wear Down Rocks

10 The Rock Cycle

11 14.3 Economic Geology And Mineralogy Metals are essential to our economy What Do You Think? Should We Revise Mining Laws? – The Mining Law of 1872 Nommetallic minerals include gravel, clay, sand, and salts

12 Bingham Canyon Pit, Utah

13 Bingham Canyon

14 Everything in Mines is Big

15 Everything in Mines is Very Big

16 My Truck Can Eat Your Truck

17 Where Are They Now? The Krupps

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25 Taconite Pelletizer

26 Taconite Pellets

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28 Smelter, Sudbury, Ontario

29 “Superstack”, Sudbury, Ontario: Once 1% of the entire planet’s sulfur emissions – 40,000 tons/day

30 Slag Pouring, Sudbury, Ontario

31 14.4 Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction Mining can have serious environmental impacts – Acid runoff – Toxic metals Processing ores also has negative effects – Sulfur Emissions – Waste Disposal

32 Tailings, Bingham Canyon, Utah

33 Mercury Mine, California

34 Mine Runoff, Colorado

35 Climax Tailings Ponds, Colorado

36 Coal Tip, England

37 Aberfan Slide, Wales

38 14.5 Conserving Geological Resources Recycling saves energy as well as materials – About 50% of Iron and Steel is Recycled – Recycling Electronics New materials can replace mined resources – New Methods of Mining Low-Grade Ores – Synthesizing Minerals (Quartz, Diamonds) – Alternatives (Plastics for Metals)

39 Recycling Electronics

40 Three Emerging Resource Problems Lithium (Batteries) – Evaporites (Bolivia): Far Easier to Extract – Pegmatites (Lepidolite, Spodumene) Rare Earths (Electronics) – Col-Tan and Congo Civil War – Chinese Monopoly – California mine to reopen Phosphorus (Fertilizer) – Morocco, China, South Africa, Jordan, U.S. = 90%

41 14.6 Geological Hazards Earthquakes can be very destructive – “Earthquakes Don’t Kill People, Buildings Kill People” Volcanoes eject gas and ash, as well as lava – Lava is the Least Dangerous Product of Volcanoes Landslides are examples of mass wasting

42 Products of Eruptions Lava Flows Pyroclastic Debris Bombs Lapilli Ash Mudflows Landslides Gases Steam Carbon Dioxide H 2 S SO 2 HCl HF

43 Environmental Hazards of Volcanoes Pollution SO2, HCl in Water Lava Flows Falling Ejecta Ash Falls Building Collapse Crop Destruction Mudflows Direct Damage (Colombia, 1985) Floods (Several Types) Blast (Mt. St. Helens, 1980) Pyroclastic Flow (St. Pierre, 1902) Gas (Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986)

44 Volcanic Explosivity Index VEIClassificationDescriptionPlume Ejecta volume FrequencyExample 0Hawaiiannon-explosive< 100 m< 10 4 m³dailyMauna Loa 1 Hawaiian Strombolian gentle m> 10 4 m³dailyStromboli 2 Strombolian Vulcanian explosive1-5 km> 10 6 m³weeklyGaleras Vulcanian /Peleansevere3-15 km> 10 7 m³yearlyLassen Pelean/Pliniancataclysmic10-25 km> 0.1 km³≥ 10 yrs Soufrière Hills Plinianparoxysmal> 25 km> 1 km³≥ 50 yrsSt. Helens Plinian/Ultra-Pliniancolossal> 25 km> 10 km³≥ 100 yrsPinatubo Plinian/Ultra-Pliniansuper-colossal> 25 km> 100 km³≥ 1000 yrsTambora Ultra-Plinianmega-colossal> 25 km> 1,000 km³≥ 10,000 yrs Toba (73,000 BP)

45 Major Hazards of Earthquakes Building Collapse Landslides Fire Tsunamis (Not Tidal Waves!)

46 Safest & Most Dangerous Buildings Small, Wood-frame House - Safest Steel-Frame Reinforced Concrete Unreinforced Masonry Adobe - Most Dangerous Loose Concrete Blocks (Haiti, 2010)

47 Not the Best Place to Build?

48 Construction, Turkey

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51 Construction, Bosnia

52 Tile Roof, Costa Rica

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54 Adobe Buttresses, Texas

55 Types of Mass Wasting Creep Slow Landslide Slump Earthflow, Mudflow, Debris Flow Avalanche

56 Soil Creep

57 Slide Lake, Wyoming, 1925

58 Vaiont Slide, Italy, 1962

59 Rear of Dam

60 Yungay, Peru, May 31, 1970

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62 Lituya Bay, Alaska, July 9, 1958

63 Lituya Bay, Before and After

64 The Scour Line

65 The Highest Wave Ever Recorded

66 Dealing With Mass-Wasting Proper Land Use – Stay out of Danger Take warnings seriously Structural Control – Retaining Structures – Drainage – Terraces Warning System Accept the Risk and Responsibility Abolish Insurance ?


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