14.3 Economic Geology And Mineralogy Metals are essential to our economy What Do You Think? Should We Revise Mining Laws? – The Mining Law of 1872 Nommetallic minerals include gravel, clay, sand, and salts
14.5 Conserving Geological Resources Recycling saves energy as well as materials – About 50% of Iron and Steel is Recycled – Recycling Electronics New materials can replace mined resources – New Methods of Mining Low-Grade Ores – Synthesizing Minerals (Quartz, Diamonds) – Alternatives (Plastics for Metals)
Three Emerging Resource Problems Lithium (Batteries) – Evaporites (Bolivia): Far Easier to Extract – Pegmatites (Lepidolite, Spodumene) Rare Earths (Electronics) – Col-Tan and Congo Civil War – Chinese Monopoly – California mine to reopen Phosphorus (Fertilizer) – Morocco, China, South Africa, Jordan, U.S. = 90%
14.6 Geological Hazards Earthquakes can be very destructive – “Earthquakes Don’t Kill People, Buildings Kill People” Volcanoes eject gas and ash, as well as lava – Lava is the Least Dangerous Product of Volcanoes Landslides are examples of mass wasting
Products of Eruptions Lava Flows Pyroclastic Debris Bombs Lapilli Ash Mudflows Landslides Gases Steam Carbon Dioxide H 2 S SO 2 HCl HF
Environmental Hazards of Volcanoes Pollution SO2, HCl in Water Lava Flows Falling Ejecta Ash Falls Building Collapse Crop Destruction Mudflows Direct Damage (Colombia, 1985) Floods (Several Types) Blast (Mt. St. Helens, 1980) Pyroclastic Flow (St. Pierre, 1902) Gas (Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986)
Dealing With Mass-Wasting Proper Land Use – Stay out of Danger Take warnings seriously Structural Control – Retaining Structures – Drainage – Terraces Warning System Accept the Risk and Responsibility Abolish Insurance ?