Presentation on theme: "STRATEGY Leveraging organizational resources"— Presentation transcript:
1STRATEGY Leveraging organizational resources Suggested Reading: Competing for the Future by Hamel and Prahlad and articles on strategic leverage
2Leverage is doing more with less resources. Strategy and LeverageWhile strategy is long-term goal and deciding objectives related to marketing, procurement, financial, and selling areas,Leverage is doing more with less resources.Can you suggest a way to manufacture an I-Pod with limited resources?
3Compared to your competitors, if you organization has more resources Spends more research and development andHas more trained employees,Does that mean that you are likely to be strategically more successful?
4Doing more with less is called Leverage G.M. spends more on research than Honda Motors.Honda has come out with greater quality products than G.M.Philips spends more on research than Sony and yet, Sony is more innovativeBullwhip effect is the distortion caused during information sharing.
5Successful strategyIs not assured because of availability of resources.Resources reflect past successes and not future leadership.Success depends more on: vision, better products, and compatible sub-strategies.
6The common fallacyCompany with more resources: I have more resources than my competitors and therefore, I am more powerful is the mindset of larger companies.Company with less resources: I have less resources and therefore, I must innovate more, offer the best products and compete better. I should outmaneuver rather than outpower.
7Strategic differences Resource-surplus firms: Spend much on technology, R&D, etc.But, they do not match with employee training, technology-absorption, or new product introductions.Result: Not only are resources wasted but, too much of the unwanted can lead to serious problems.
8In contrast, less-resourced firm Exploit opportunities – a niche market (Dell, Amazon)Focus more on core-competencies and doing more with less.Find alternative ways of doing things (Etrade, Dell), leaner manufacturingLess confrontational than bigger firms.
9What do we infer from this? There are no abundant resources.But, you can succeed by your own innovation (instead of imitation)Do not try to match dollar-for-dollar with your larger competitors. But,Work on other competitive advantages andFind out how you can match existing advantages to become strategically more competitive.
10Can a company offer a better product that INNOVATECan a company offer a better product thatReduces manufacturing timeIs less expensive to produce,Has fewer features than its competitorsJust simple to operate andYet capture market share?
11The messageThere is nothing wrong in aiming high.But, dreaming alone is not sufficient.But, don’t also spread yourself thin andFall down.Work on your strengths orAscertain where your strengths lie.
12Now, what is strategic leverage Doing more with less.Creating strategic alliances (Wal-Mart)Building customer bases (Amazon)Transporting skills across business units.
13Before we can discus strategic leverage, we must first understand what is resource-based view of a firm
14Resource-based view of a firm A firm’s resources does not only refer to its financial abilities butA portfolio of resources that includeFinancialTechnicalHumanAnd so on.These portfolio of resources focus is called “Resource-based view of a firm.”
15Importance of resource constraints Resource constraints are not necessarily an impediment to achieving success nor does abundance a ticket to success.Examples: Amazon, E-bay (success with limited resources), or GE, GM, Westinghouse (abundance of resources and yet could not sustain success)
16What could explain the following Dell challenged HP and IBMWal-Mart overtook Sears with limited resourcesHonda stole market share from GM with its quality power train.IBM challenged Xerox in copier business but failed.
17Don’t measure success wrongly Efficiency and success should be measured by profits, revenue (the numerator) andNot by reducing investments (the denominator; e.g. cost cutting through layoffs)Inefficiencies won’t go away. Find the cause and improve technology leadership, brand loyalty, and customer relationships (British airways)
18The messageLaying off employees or selling assembly plants is not innovative; butImproving customer relationships, supply chains, product introductions is creative and shows managerial success.That is resource leverage is more important than resource allocation.
19Indicators of resource leverage A simple measure: ratio of market share to the relative share of investment or resources (Ford versus GM).Revenue growth.“It ‘s not enough to get to the future first, one must also get there for less.” Prahlad.
20How to achieve resource leverage Five basic items to focus:On concentrating resources on key strategic goalsBy accumulating resources efficiently,On efficient use by complementing one resource with another;On conserving resources where possible; and,Earn resources back by spread between outflows and inflows.
21Concentrating resources on key strategic goals Every individual, function, and unit within an organization must concentrate on the same organizational goal.Everyone should know and understand core competencies, investment programs and organizational direction.Multiple goals and conflicting goals would undermine goals.Similarly, multiple focus will undermine strategy.
22The Komatsu example Komatsu’s strategy: quality drive. Komatsu pointed out: quality improvement comes at a cost (at least in the short-run), investment in production equipment, training, technology and so on.After it twice won the Deming price, it continued its focus on quality while increasing focus on product development, cost management, and value engineering.
23Remember: FocusIs not an excuse for concentrating on one item while ignoring the others.It is more on setting priorities and putting resources to its best use.It is a preventive against diluting and dissipating resources.By focusing, Motorola established a 6-sigma quality and reduced defects from 60 per million to 40 per million.
24Accumulating resources Learning from experience (the fourth quadrant of balanced scorecard).Firms that constantly learn and could pick the gem from the pile of garbage succeeds.Just because your company is older and has been there longer, does not mean your firm is more productive and efficient.Often, an older dog does not learn new tricks.Compare Honda to GM or Ford. Honda is younger and offers far fewer variety than either GM or Ford. Honda being smaller helped it in learning more (less garbage to search from). In other words, a firm must consider each new experience, each success or failure as an opportunity to learn (Angarai – exit interviews).
25Borrow Resources to improve strategic leverage Borrowing – joint ventures, alliances, sub-contractors, outsourcing (we will discuss these more during strategic implementation).“In the West, they cut down trees and we build houses.” A Japanese Manager.Sony built the transistor while Bell Labs pioneered it.Amazon knew what to do with the Internet.
26Complimenting Resources Another attribute of strategic leverage.Combine different types of resources to multiple the value – technology, HR, financial and so on.Why couldn’t GM or Ford create a power train than Honda in spite of their resource advantages?Possessing resources is different from blending those resources to advantage.
27Complimenting resources Whether it is product innovation or cost management, blending becomes essential.Example: technology and business process analysis.Other examples: Sony combines headphone and tape recorder to produce WalkmanAnother example: In the early 1970s, EMI, a British company invented CAT scan. EMI’s CAT was technologically superior but EMI lacked the marketing and distribution skills and consequently EMI could not capture and hold on to its CAT market share. Much of what EMI created became money spinners for GE and other competitors.EMI is a classic example of many of the smaller technology firms; they know much about technology but very little about strategic positioning and leverage.Look at Seagrams, Guiness or IDV, suppliers of famous drink products such as Smirnoff, Johnny Walker or Chivas Regal. These firms realized that having a good product is not adequate but it is also necessary to have a good distribution system. Consequently, these firms began to buy or acquire distributors around the world.
28Complimenting Resources Many small companies with good products have these weaknesses.They are strong on product quality but weak on distribution or lack strategy, a good distribution arrangements, the marketing structure, etc.Although they can partner with firms having these resources, they will be better of developing them internally (greater control and bargaining power).
29Last but most important for resource leverage Reduce the time between expenditure outflow and revenue inflowA rapid recovery is a resource multiplier.In simple arithmetic, a firm with rapid recovery is twice better than its competitors.Example: Detroit car makers (8 years to introduce a new model while Japanese, 4.5 years).Japanese manufacturers could recover their investments sooner than its US counterparts.
30The lessons we learntResources are scarce and use them with care.More resources does not mean more success.Multiply the limited resource base through creative approaches.Strategic leverage provides answers to many of these issues.