Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 Chapter 25 Money Creation Key Concepts Key Concepts Summary Summary Practice Quiz Internet Exercises Internet Exercises ©2000 South-Western College Publishing.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 25 Money Creation Key Concepts Key Concepts Summary Summary Practice Quiz Internet Exercises Internet Exercises ©2000 South-Western College Publishing."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 25 Money Creation Key Concepts Key Concepts Summary Summary Practice Quiz Internet Exercises Internet Exercises ©2000 South-Western College Publishing

2 2 In this chapter, you will learn to solve these economic puzzles: Exactly how is money created in the economy? That is, how does the money supply increase? What are the major tools the Federal Reserve uses to control the supply of money? Why is there nothing ‘federal’ about the federal funds rate?

3 3 In the Middle Ages, what was used for Money? Gold was the money of choice in most European nations

4 4 Who were the Founders of our Modern-day Banking? Goldsmiths, people who would keep other people’s gold safe for a service charge

5 5 What was the first Currency? People would use the receipts they received from goldsmiths as paper money

6 6 How did the early Goldsmiths act as the First Banks? Some goldsmiths made loans and received interest for more gold than the actual gold held in their vaults

7 7 What is Fractional Reserve Banking? A system in which banks keep only a percentage of their deposits on reserve as vault cash and deposits at the Fed

8 8 What are Required Reserves? The minimum balance that the Fed requires a bank to hold in vault cash or on deposit with the Fed

9 9 What is a Required Reserve Ratio? The percentage of deposits that the Fed requires a bank to hold in vault cash or on deposit with the Fed

10 10 What are Excess Reserves? Potential loan balances held in vault cash or on deposit with the Fed in excess of required reserves

11 11 Typical Bank - Balance Sheet 1 AssetsLiabilities Required Reserves $5 millionCheckable Deposits $50 million Excess Reserves 0 Loans$45 million Total $50 millionTotal$50 million Note: The Fed requires the bank to keep 10% of its checkable deposits in reserve.

12 12 What are Total Reserves? Total Reserves = required reserves + excess reserves

13 13 Required Reserve Ratio of the Fed Type of Deposit Required Reserve Ratio Checkable deposits 3% 0 - $46.5 million Over $46.5 million 10% Source: Federal Reserve Bulletin, April 1999, Table 1.15, p. A8

14 14 Best National Bank - Balance Sheet 2 Assets Liabilities Required Reserves $10,000 Brad Rich Account $100,000 Excess Reserves +$90,000 Total $100,000 Note: The Fed requires the bank to keep 10% of its checkable deposits in reserve. Total  in M1 0

15 15 Best National Bank - Balance Sheet 3 Assets Liabilities Required Reserves $19,000 Brad Rich Account $100,000 Excess Reserves $81,000 Loans +$90,000 Note: The Fed requires the bank to keep 10% of its checkable deposits in reserve. Total  in M1 $90,000 Connie Jones Account +$90,000 Total $190,000

16 16 Best National Bank - Balance Sheet 4 Assets Liabilities Required Reserves $10,000 Brad Rich Account $100,000 Excess Reserves 0 Loans $90,000 Note: The Fed requires the bank to keep 10% of its checkable deposits in reserve.  in M1 0 Connie Jones Account 0 Total $100,000

17 17 Yazoo Bank - Balance Sheet 5 AssetsLiabilities Required Reserves +$9,000Better Health Span Account +$90,000 Excess Reserves +$81,000 Total$90,000 Total$90,000 Note: The Fed requires the bank to keep 10% of its checkable deposits in reserve.

18 18 Expansion of the Money Supply # Bank 1 Best Nat’l Bank $100,000 2 Bank A 3 Total increase Increase in Required Reserves 90,000 Total all other banks 59,049 Increase in Deposits Increase in Excess Reserves Yazoo Nat’l Bank Bank B Bank C Bank D Bank E 81,000 65,610 53,144 72,900 $10,000 9,000 5,905 8,100 6,561 5,314 7,290 $90,000 81,000 53,144 72,900 59,049 47,830 65, ,297 47, ,467 $1,000,000 $100,000 $900,000

19 19 What is the Money Multiplier? The maximum change in the money supply due to an initial change in the excess reserves banks hold

20 20 What is the Money Multiplier equal to? 1 / required reserve ratio

21 21  M1 =  ER x m Actual money supply change Initial change in excess reserves Money multiplier

22 22 Can the Multiplier be smaller than indicated? Yes, because of cash leakages and the chance that banks will not use all of their excess reserves to make loans

23 23 What would the Fed do if we had Inflation? Decrease the money supply What would the Fed do if we had unemployment? Increase the money supply

24 24 What is Monetary Policy? The Fed’s use of - open market operations  in discount rate  in required reserve ratio

25 25 What are Open Market Operations? The buying and selling of government securities by the Federal Reserve System

26 26 Federal Reserve System - Balance Sheet 6 AssetsLiabilities Government securities $472 Fed notes $492 Loans to banks 1 Total $548Total$548 Source: Federal Reserve Bulletin, April 1999, Table 1.18, p. A10 Other assets 75 Deposits 34 Other liabilities and net worth 22

27 27 Federal Reserve Bank - Balance Sheet 7 Assets Liabilities Government securities +$100,000 Reserves of Best Nat’l bank +$100,000 Note: The Fed conducted open market operations in order to increase the money supply by purchasing $100,000 in government securities. Initial  in M1 +$100,000

28 28 Federal Reserve Bank - Balance Sheet 8 Assets Liabilities Government securities -$100,000 Reserves of Best Nat’l bank -$100,000 Note: The Fed conducted open market operations in order to decrease the money supply by selling $100,000 in government securities. Initial  in M1 -$100,000

29 29 Fed Fed buys government securities and banks gain reserves Fed sells government securities and banks loose reserves Banks Public $ $ $ $

30 30 What is the Discount Rate? The interest rate the Fed charges on loans of reserves to banks

31 31 What would the Fed do if we have Inflation? A higher discount rate discourages banks from borrowing reserves and making loans

32 32 What would the Fed do if we have Unemployment? A lower discount rate encourages banks to borrow reserves and make more loans

33 33 What is the Federal Funds Market? A private market in which banks lend reserves to each other for less than 24 hours

34 34 What is the Federal Funds Rate? The interest rate banks charge for overnight loans to other banks

35 35 What would the Fed do if we had Inflation? A higher federal funds rate discourages banks from borrowing reserves and making loans

36 36 What would the Fed do if we had Unemployment? A lower federal funds rate encourages banks to borrow reserves and make more loans

37 37 What is a Required Reserve Requirement? The Fed determines how much a financial institution must keep in reserve as a percentage of its total assets

38 38 What is the Required Reserve Ratio? That percentage the Fed stipulates that financial institutions must keep in reserve to meet its reserve requirement

39 39 If the Reserve Ratio is one tenth, what is the multiplier? 1  1/10 = 10

40 40 If the Reserve Ratio is one twentieth, what is the multiplier? 1  1/20 = 20

41 41 What would the Fed do if we had Inflation? Increase the reserve ratio What would the Fed do if we had Unemployment? Decrease the reserve ratio

42 42 Is changing the Reserve Ratio a popular Monetary Tool? No, changing the reserve ratio is considered a heavy- handed approach and is thus infrequently used

43 43 What are the Shortcomings of Monetary Policy? Money multiplier inaccuracy Nonbanks Which money definition should the Fed control? Lag effects

44 44 Key Concepts

45 45 Key Concepts Who were the Founders of our Modern- day Banking?Who were the Founders of our Modern- day Banking? What is Fractional Reserve Banking? What are Required Reserves? What is a Required Reserve Ratio? What are Excess Reserves? What are Total Reserves? What is the Money Multiplier? What is the Money Multiplier equal to?

46 46 Key Concepts cont. What is Monetary Policy? What are Open Market Operations? What is the Discount Rate? What is the Federal Funds Rate? What is a Required Reserve Requirement? What is the Required Reserve Ratio? What are the Shortcomings of Monetary Policy?What are the Shortcomings of Monetary Policy?

47 47 Summary

48 48 Fractional reserve banking, the basis of banking today, originated with the goldsmiths in the Middle Ages. Because depository institutions (banks) are not required to keep all their deposits in vault cash or with the Federal Reserve, banks create money by making loans.

49 49 Required reserves are the minimum balance that the Fed requires a bank to hold in vault cash or on deposit with the Fed. The percentage of deposits that must be held as required reserves is called the required reserve ratio.

50 50 Excess reserves exist when a bank has more reserves than required. Excess reserves allow a bank to create money by exchanging loans for deposits. Money is reduced when excess reserves are reduced and loans are repaid.

51 51 The money multiplier is used to calculate the maximum change (positive or negative) in checkable deposits (money supply) due to a change in excess reserves. As a formula: $ multiplier = 1/required reserve ratio.

52 52 Monetary policy is action taken by the Fed to change the money supply. The Fed uses three basic tools: (1) open market operations, (2) changes in the discount rate and (3) changes in the required reserve ratio.

53 53 Open-market operations are the buying and selling of government securities by the Fed through its trading desk at the New York Federal Reserve Bank. Buying government securities creates extra bank reserves and loans, thereby expanding the money supply. Selling government securities reduces bank reserves and loans, thereby contracting the money supply.

54 54 Fed Fed buys government securities and banks gain reserves Fed sells government securities and banks loose reserves Banks Public $ $ $ $

55 55 Changes in the discount rate occur when the Fed changes the rate of interest it charges on loans of reserves to banks. Dropping the discount rate makes it easier for banks to borrow reserves from the Fed and expands the money supply. Raising the discount rate discourages banks from borrowing reserves from the Fed and contracts the money supply.

56 56 Changes in the required reserve ratio and the size of the money multiplier are inversely related. Thus, if the Fed decreases the required reserve ratio the money multiplier and money supply increase. If the Fed increases the required reserve ratio the money multiplier and money supply decrease.

57 57 Monetary policy limitations include the following: (1) The money multiplier can vary. (2) Nonbanks, such as insurance companies, finance companies, and Sears, can offer loans and other financial services not directly under the Fed’s control. (3) The Fed might control M1 while the public can shift funds to M2, M3, or another money supply definition. (4) Time lags occur.

58 58 Chapter 25 Quiz ©2000 South-Western College Publishing

59 59 1. If a bank has total deposits of $100,000 with $10,000 set aside to meet reserve requirements of the Fed, its required reserve ratio is a. $10,000. b. 10 percent. c. 0.1 percent. d. 1 percent. B. Required reserve ratio = required deposits  total deposits x 100 = $10,000  $100,000 x 100

60 60 2. Assume a simplified banking system in which all banks are subject to a uniform required reserve ratio of 30 percent and demand deposits are the only form of money. A bank that receives a new deposit of $10,000 is able to extend new loans up to a maximum of a. $3,000. b. $7,000. c. $10,000. d. $30,000. B. Excess reserves can be loaned. Excess reserves = total reserves - required reserves = $10,000 - (0.3 x $10,000) = $10,000 - $3,000 = $7,000

61 61 3. The Best National Bank operates with a 10 percent required reserve ratio. One day a depositor withdraws $400 from his or her checking account at the bank. As a result, the bank’s excess reserves a. fall by $400. b. fall by $360. c. fall by $40. d. rise by $400. B. Excess reserves = total reserves - required reserves = -$400 - (0.10 x $400) = -$400 + $40 = -$360

62 62 4. If an increase of $100 in excess reserves in a simplified banking system can lead to a total expansion in bank deposits of $400, the required reserve ratio must be a. 40 percent. b. 400 percent. c. 25 percent. d. 4 percent. e. 2.5 percent. C. $ multiplier =  in bank deposits  initial  in excess reserves = 400  $100 = 4 = 1  required reserve ratio = 1  money multiplier x 100.

63 63 5. In a simplified banking system in which all banks are subject to a 25% required reserve ratio, a $1,000 open sale by the Fed would cause the money supply to a. increase by $1,000. b. decrease by $1,000. c. decrease by $4,000. d. increase by $4,000. C. Money supply change (  M1) = initial  in excess reserves x money multiplier (MM). MM = 1  required reserve ratio = 1  25/100 = 4.  M1 = $1,000 x 4 = -$4,000.

64 64 6. In a simplified banking system in which all banks are subject to a 20% required reserve ratio, a $1,000 open market purchase by the Fed would cause the money supply to a. increase by $100. b. decrease by $200. c. decrease by $5,000. d. increase by $5,000. D. Money supply change (  M1) = initial change in excess reserves x money multiplier (MM) MM = 1  required reserve ratio = 1  20/100 = 5  M1 = $1,000 x 5 = $5,000.

65 65 7. The cost to a member bank of borrowing from the Federal Reserve is measured by the a. reserve requirement. b. price of securities in the open market. c. discount rate. d. yield on government bonds. C. The Fed provides a discount window at each of the Federal Reserve districts banks to make loans of reserves to banks and change an interest rate called the discount rate.

66 66 Exhibit 5 Balance Sheet of Best National Bank Assets Liabilities Required Reserves $ Checkable deposits $100,000 Excess Reserves Total $100,000Total$100,000 Loans80,000

67 67 8. The required reserve ratio in Exhibit 5 isExhibit 5 a. 10%. b. 15%. c. 20%. d. 25%. C. Excess reserves = total reserves - required reserves = $80,000 = $100,000 - required reserves = $20,000 Required reserve ratio = required deposits  total deposits = $20,000  $100,000 x 100 = 20%

68 68 9. If the bank in Exhibit 5 received $100,000 in new deposits, its new required reserves would beExhibit 5 a. $10,000. b. $20,000. c. $30,000. d. $40,000. B. Required reserves = required reserve ratio x new deposits =.20 x $100,000 = $20,000

69 Suppose Brad Jones deposits $1,000 in the bank shown in Exhibit 5. The result would be a. a $200 increase in excess reserves. b. a $200 increase in required reserves. c. a $1,200 increase in required reserves. d. zero change in required reserves. B. Required reserves = required reserve ratio x new deposits =.20 x $1,000 = $200

70 If all banks in the system are identical to Best National Bank in Exhibit 5. A $1,000 open market sale by the Fed would a. 5. b. 10. c. 15. d. 20. A. Money multiplier = 1  required reserve ratio = 1  20/100 = 5

71 Assume all banks in the system are identical to Best National Bank in Exhibit 5. A $1,000 open market sale by the Fed would a. expand the money supply by $1,000. b. expand the money supply by $15,000. c. contract the money supply by $1,000. d. contract the money supply by $5,000. D. Money supply change (  M1) = initial change in excess reserves x money multiplier (MM) MM = 1  required reserve ratio = 1  20/100 = 5  M1 = $1,000 x 5 = -$5,000.

72 72 Internet Exercises Click on the picture of the book, choose updates by chapter for the latest internet exercises

73 73 END


Download ppt "1 Chapter 25 Money Creation Key Concepts Key Concepts Summary Summary Practice Quiz Internet Exercises Internet Exercises ©2000 South-Western College Publishing."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google