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Cs205: engineering software university of virginia fall 2006 Specifying Procedures David Evans www.cs.virginia.edu/cs205.

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Presentation on theme: "Cs205: engineering software university of virginia fall 2006 Specifying Procedures David Evans www.cs.virginia.edu/cs205."— Presentation transcript:

1 cs205: engineering software university of virginia fall 2006 Specifying Procedures David Evans

2 2 cs205: engineering software Procedural Specifications Specification for a procedure describes: –What its inputs are –What the mapping between inputs and outputs are –What it can do the state of the world

3 3 cs205: engineering software Requires and Effects Header: name of procedure, types of parameters and return value –Java declaration Clauses (comments in Java) –REQUIRES- precondition the client must satisfy before calling –EFFECTS – postcondition the implementation satisfy at return

4 4 cs205: engineering software Contract Client promises to satisfy the precondition in the requires clause Implementer promises if client satisfies the precondition, the return value and state when the function returns will satisfy the postcondition.

5 5 cs205: engineering software Specification Contract f () REQUIRES: precondition EFFECTS: postcondition precondition { f () ; } postcondition If the precondition is true, after we call f (), the postcondition is true.

6 6 cs205: engineering software Specification Example public String bestStock () // REQUIRES: false // EFFECTS: Returns the name of the // best stock to buy on the NASDAQ // tomorrow. Can we implement a procedure that satisfies this specification? Yes, any implementation will satisfy this specification! If the precondition in the requires clause is not satisfied, the procedure can do anything and still satisfy its specification!

7 7 cs205: engineering software Specification Example public String bestStock () // REQUIRES: true // EFFECTS: Returns the name of the // best stock to buy on the NASDAQ // tomorrow. Can we implement a procedure that satisfies this specification?

8 8 cs205: engineering software Requires Clauses The weaker (more easy to make true) the requires clause: –The more useful a procedure is for clients –The more difficult it is to implement correctly Avoid requires clauses unless there is a good reason to have one –Default requires clause is: REQUIRES true –Client doesn’t need to satisfy anything before calling

9 9 cs205: engineering software Specification Example public static int biggest (int [ ] a) // REQUIRES: true // EFFECTS: Returns the value of the // biggest element of a. Is this a reasonable specification? No, what should client expect to happen if a is empty.

10 10 cs205: engineering software Specification Example public static int biggest (int [ ] a) // REQUIRES: a has at least one element. // EFFECTS: Returns the value of the // biggest element of a. Is this a good specification? Maybe, depends on the client. Its risky…

11 11 cs205: engineering software Specification Example public static int biggest (int [ ] a) // REQUIRES: true // EFFECTS: If a has at least one // element, returns the value biggest // element of a. Otherwise, returns // Integer.MIN_VALUE (smallest int // value). Better, but client has to deal with special case now. Best would probably be to use an exception…

12 12 cs205: engineering software Bad Use of Requires Clause Bug discovered in Microsoft Outlook that treats messages that start with “begin ” as empty attachments (can be exploited by viruses) To workaround this problem: Do not start messages with the word "begin" followed by two spaces. Use only one space between the word "begin" and the following data. Capitalize the word "begin" so that it is reads "Begin." Use a different word such as "start" or "commence ". from (this is no longer available, was “revoked” by Microsoft)

13 13 cs205: engineering software Modifies How does a client know a is the same after biggest returns? public static int biggest (int [ ] a) // REQUIRES: true // EFFECTS: If a has at least one element, // returns the value biggest element of a. // Otherwise, returns Integer.MIN_VALUE // (smallest int value). Reading the effects clause is enough – if biggest modifies anything, it should describe it. But, that’s a lot of work.

14 14 cs205: engineering software Modifies Modifies clause: any state not listed in the modifies clause may not be changed by the procedure. public static int biggest (int [ ] a) // REQUIRES: true // MODIFIES: nothing // EFFECTS: If a has at least one element, // returns the value biggest element of a. // Otherwise, returns Integer.MIN_VALUE // (smallest int value).

15 15 cs205: engineering software Modifies Example public static int replaceBiggest (int [ ] a, int [] b) // REQUIRES: a and b both have at least one // element // MODIFIES: a // EFFECTS: Replaces the value of the biggest // element in a with the value of the biggest // element in b.

16 16 cs205: engineering software Defaults What should it mean when there is no requires clause? What should it mean when there is no modifies clause? What should it mean when there is no effects clause? REQUIRES: true MODIFIES: nothing Meaningless.

17 17 cs205: engineering software PS1 Question 2 was very ambiguous: Modify the program so that instead of dying instantly, cells go through a dying state where they are displayed in a different color for one step before they die. How should the life rules deal with dying cells?

18 18 cs205: engineering software Dealing with Bad Specs When a specification is ambiguous: –Ask the provider to figure out what it means –Or, state very clearly what additional assumptions you make Good (easy to implement) assumption here: dying cells are not alive (as far as neighbors are concerned), and don’t become alive (whatever their neighbor states are)

19 19 cs205: engineering software Avoid Changing Interfaces If we change this, need to examine all code that uses isAlive If we just change its implementation, don’t need to examine anything else boolean isAlive() // EFFECTS: Returns true if the cell is alive, false otherwise.

20 20 cs205: engineering software enum (added to Java 1.5) public enum StateValue { dead, dying, alive } ;... public Color getColor() { switch (alive) { case alive: return Color.green; case dying: return Color.red; case dead: return Color.white; }

21 21 cs205: engineering software PS1 Grading Full credit even for inelegant code Later assignments: need clear, elegant, economical code for full credit

22 22 cs205: engineering software PS2 You will need to write a fair bit of code yourself Challenge is to make your specification and implementation cover all possible inputs Next class: some hints on PS2

23 23 cs205: engineering software Charge Specifications in CS205 –Will be informal: written in English (aided by common mathematical notations) –...but must be precise and clear –REQUIRES/MODIFIES/EFFECTS style


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