2 After studying Chapter 15, you should be able to: Explain how a firm creates value and identify the key sources of value creation.Define the overall “cost of capital” of the firm.Calculate the costs of the individual components of a firm’s cost of capital - cost of debt, cost of preferred stock, and cost of equity.Explain and use alternative models to determine the cost of equity, including the dividend discount approach, the capital-asset pricing model (CAPM) approach, and the before-tax cost of debt plus risk premium approach.Calculate the firm’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and understand its rationale, use, and limitations.Explain how the concept of Economic Value Added (EVA) is related to value creation and the firm’s cost of capital.Understand the capital-asset pricing model's role in computing project-specific and group-specific required rates of return.
3 Required Returns and the Cost of Capital Creation of ValueOverall Cost of Capital of the FirmProject-Specific Required RatesGroup-Specific Required RatesTotal Risk Evaluation
4 Key Sources of Value Creation Industry AttractivenessOther --e.g., patents,temporarymonopolypower,oligopolypricingGrowthphase ofproductcycleBarriers tocompetitiveentryMarketingandpriceSuperiororganizationalcapabilityPerceivedqualityCostCompetitive Advantage
5 Overall Cost of Capital of the Firm Cost of Capital is the required rate of return on the various types of financing. The overall cost of capital is a weighted average of the individual required rates of return (costs).
6 Market Value of Long-Term Financing Type of Financing Mkt Val WeightLong-Term Debt $ 35M 35%Preferred Stock $ 15M 15%Common Stock Equity $ 50M 50%$ 100M 100%
7 Cost of DebtCost of Debt is the required rate of return on investment of the lenders of a company.ki = kd ( 1 - T )nIj + PjP0 =S(1 + kd)jj =1
8 Determination of the Cost of Debt Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has $1,000 par value zero-coupon bonds outstanding. BW bonds are currently trading at $ with 10 years to maturity. BW tax bracket is 40%.$0 + $1,000$ =(1 + kd)10
9 Determination of the Cost of Debt (1 + kd)10 = $1,000 / $ =(1 + kd) = (2.5938) (1/10) = 1.1kd = .1 or 10%ki = 10% ( )ki = 6%
10 Cost of Preferred Stock Cost of Preferred Stock is the required rate of return on investment of the preferred shareholders of the company.kP = DP / P0
11 Determination of the Cost of Preferred Stock Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has preferred stock outstanding with par value of $100, dividend per share of $6.30, and a current market value of $70 per share.kP = $6.30 / $70kP = 9%
12 Cost of Equity Approaches Dividend Discount ModelCapital-Asset Pricing ModelBefore-Tax Cost of Debt plus Risk Premium
13 Dividend Discount Model The cost of equity capital, ke, is the discount rate that equates the present value of all expected future dividends with the current market price of the stock.D D DP0 =+(1+ke)1 (1+ke) (1+ke)
14 Constant Growth ModelThe constant dividend growth assumption reduces the model to:ke = ( D1 / P0 ) + gAssumes that dividends will grow at the constant rate “g” forever.
15 Determination of the Cost of Equity Capital Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has common stock outstanding with a current market value of $64.80 per share, current dividend of $3 per share, and a dividend growth rate of 8% forever.ke = ( D1 / P0 ) + gke = ($3(1.08) / $64.80) + .08ke = = .13 or 13%
16 Growth Phases ModelThe growth phases assumption leads to the following formula (assume 3 growth phases):D0(1+g1)t Da(1+g2)t-aabP0 =S+ S+(1+ke)t (1+ke)tt=1t=a+1Db(1+g3)t-bS(1+ke)tt=b+1
17 Capital Asset Pricing Model The cost of equity capital, ke, is equated to the required rate of return in market equilibrium. The risk-return relationship is described by the Security Market Line (SML).ke = Rj = Rf + (Rm - Rf)bj
18 Determination of the Cost of Equity (CAPM) Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) has a company beta of Research by Julie Miller suggests that the risk-free rate is 4% and the expected return on the market is 11.2%ke = Rf + (Rm - Rf)bj= 4% + (11.2% - 4%)1.25ke = 4% + 9% = 13%
19 Before-Tax Cost of Debt Plus Risk Premium The cost of equity capital, ke, is the sum of the before-tax cost of debt and a risk premium in expected return for common stock over debt.ke = kd + Risk Premium** Risk premium is not the same as CAPM risk premium
20 Determination of the Cost of Equity (kd + R.P.) Assume that Basket Wonders (BW) typically adds a 3% premium to the before-tax cost of debt.ke = kd + Risk Premium= 10% + 3%ke = 13%
21 Comparison of the Cost of Equity Methods Constant Growth Model 13%Capital Asset Pricing Model 13%Cost of Debt + Risk Premium 13%Generally, the three methods will not agree.
22 Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) nSCost of Capital = kx(Wx)WACC = .35(6%) + .15(9%) (13%)WACC = = or 9.95%x=1
23 Limitations of the WACC 1. Weighting SystemMarginal Capital CostsCapital Raised in Different Proportions than WACC
24 Limitations of the WACC 2. Flotation Costs are the costs associated with issuing securities such as underwriting, legal, listing, and printing fees.a. Adjustment to Initial Outlayb. Adjustment to Discount Rate
25 Economic Value Added A measure of business performance. It is another way of measuring that firms are earning returns on their invested capital that exceed their cost of capital.Specific measure developed by Stern Stewart and Company in late 1980s.
26 Capital x Capital Employed] Economic Value AddedEVA = NOPAT – [Cost ofCapital x Capital Employed]Since a cost is charged for equity capital also, a positive EVA generally indicates shareholder value is being created.Based on Economic NOT Accounting Profit.NOPAT – net operating profit after tax is a company’s potential after-tax profit if it was all-equity-financed or “unlevered.”
27 Adjustment to Initial Outlay (AIO) Add Flotation Costs (FC) to the Initial Cash Outlay (ICO).Impact: Reduces the NPVnCFtS- ( ICO + FC )NPV =(1 + k)tt=1
28 Adjustment to Discount Rate (ADR) Subtract Flotation Costs from the proceeds (price) of the security and recalculate yield figures.Impact: Increases the cost for any capital component with flotation costs.Result: Increases the WACC, which decreases the NPV.
29 Determining Project-Specific Required Rates of Return Use of CAPM in Project Selection:Initially assume all-equity financing.Determine project beta.Calculate the expected return.Adjust for capital structure of firm.Compare cost to IRR of project.
30 Difficulty in Determining the Expected Return Determining the SML:Locate a proxy for the project (much easier if asset is traded).Plot the Characteristic Line relationship between the market portfolio and the proxy asset excess returns.Estimate beta and create the SML.
32 Determining Project-Specific Required Rate of Return 1. Calculate the required return for Project k (all-equity financed).Rk = Rf + (Rm - Rf)bk2. Adjust for capital structure of the firm (financing weights).Weighted Average Required Return = [ki][% of Debt] + [Rk][% of Equity]
33 Project-Specific Required Rate of Return Example Assume a computer networking project is being considered with an IRR of 19%.Examination of firms in the networking industry allows us to estimate an all-equity beta of Our firm is financed with 70% Equity and 30% Debt at ki=6%.The expected return on the market is 11.2% and the risk-free rate is 4%.
34 Do You Accept the Project? ke = Rf + (Rm - Rf)bj= 4% + (11.2% - 4%)1.5ke = 4% % = 14.8%WACC = .30(6%) + .70(14.8%) = 1.8% % = 12.16%IRR = 19% > WACC = 12.16%
35 Determining Group-Specific Required Rates of Return Use of CAPM in Project Selection:Initially assume all-equity financing.Determine group beta.Calculate the expected return.Adjust for capital structure of group.Compare cost to IRR of group project.
36 Comparing Group-Specific Required Rates of Return Company Costof CapitalExpected Rate of ReturnGroup-SpecificRequired ReturnsSystematic Risk (Beta)
37 Qualifications to Using Group-Specific Rates Amount of non-equity financing relative to the proxy firm. Adjust project beta if necessary.Standard problems in the use of CAPM. Potential insolvency is a total-risk problem rather than just systematic risk (CAPM).
38 Project Evaluation Based on Total Risk Risk-Adjusted Discount Rate Approach (RADR)The required return is increased (decreased) relative to the firm’s overall cost of capital for projects or groups showing greater (smaller) than “average” risk.
39 Adjusting for risk correctly may influence the ultimate RADR and NPVAdjusting for risk correctlymay influence the ultimateProject decision.$000s1510RADR – “low”risk at 10%(Accept!)Net Present Value5RADR – “high”risk at 15%(Reject!)-4Discount Rate (%)
40 Project Evaluation Based on Total Risk Probability Distribution ApproachAcceptance of a single project with a positive NPV depends on the dispersion of NPVs and the utility preferences of management.
41 Firm-Portfolio Approach IndifferenceCurvesCBEXPECTED VALUE OF NPVACurves show“HIGH”Risk AversionSTANDARD DEVIATION
42 Firm-Portfolio Approach IndifferenceCurvesCBEXPECTED VALUE OF NPVACurves show“MODERATE”Risk AversionSTANDARD DEVIATION
43 Firm-Portfolio Approach IndifferenceCurvesBEXPECTED VALUE OF NPVACurves show“LOW”Risk AversionSTANDARD DEVIATION
44 Adjusting Beta for Financial Leverage bj = bju [ 1 + (B/S)(1-TC) ]bj: Beta of a levered firm.bju: Beta of an unlevered firm (an all-equity financed firm).B/S: Debt-to-Equity ratio in Market Value terms.TC : The corporate tax rate.
45 Adjusted Present Value Adjusted Present Value (APV) is the sum of the discounted value of a project’s operating cash flows plus the value of any tax-shield benefits of interest associated with the project’s financing minus any flotation costs.UnleveredProject ValueValue ofProject FinancingAPV =+
46 NPV and APV ExampleAssume Basket Wonders is considering a new $425,000 automated basket weaving machine that will save $100,000 per year for the next 6 years. The required rate on unlevered equity is 11%.BW can borrow $180,000 at 7% with $10,000 after-tax flotation costs. Principal is repaid at $30,000 per year (+ interest). The firm is in the 40% tax bracket.
47 Basket Wonders NPV Solution What is the NPV to an all-equity-financed firm?NPV = $100,000[PVIFA11%,6] - $425,000NPV = $423,054 - $425,000NPV = -$1,946
48 Basket Wonders APV Solution What is the APV?First, determine the interest expense.Int Yr 1 ($180,000)(7%) = $12,600 Int Yr 2 ( 150,000)(7%) = 10,500 Int Yr 3 ( 120,000)(7%) = 8,400 Int Yr 4 ( 90,000)(7%) = 6,300 Int Yr 5 ( 60,000)(7%) = 4,200 Int Yr 6 ( 30,000)(7%) = 2,100
49 Basket Wonders APV Solution Second, calculate the tax-shield benefits.TSB Yr 1 ($12,600)(40%) = $5,040TSB Yr 2 ( 10,500)(40%) = 4,200TSB Yr 3 ( 8,400)(40%) = 3,360TSB Yr 4 ( 6,300)(40%) = 2,520TSB Yr 5 ( 4,200)(40%) = 1,680TSB Yr 6 ( 2,100)(40%) =
50 Basket Wonders APV Solution Third, find the PV of the tax-shield benefits.TSB Yr 1 ($5,040)(.901) = $4,541TSB Yr 2 ( 4,200)(.812) = 3,410TSB Yr 3 ( 3,360)(.731) = 2,456TSB Yr 4 ( 2,520)(.659) = 1,661TSB Yr 5 ( 1,680)(.593) =TSB Yr 6 ( )(.535) = PV = $13,513
51 Basket Wonders NPV Solution What is the APV?APV = NPV + PV of TS - Flotation CostAPV = -$1,946 + $13,513 - $10,000APV = $1,567
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