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**So You’re a Literacy Coach: What About the Math Department?**

Roland O’Daniel, Danna Green, David Cook IRA Conference, Atlanta, GA, 2008

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**Getting Things Started**

Estimation Activity: Estimate the solution to two of the problems below Show your work, NO CALCULATORS 15% tip on a bill of $ % discount on $ % increase in output of 2.5 tons 55% decrease in 12 sq. yards of material Be prepared to share how you found your answer: Although there are many components to a complete estimation program, one of the most important is the teaching of estimation strategies. Many mathematics curriculum include rounding as the core estimation strategy or, more usually, the only strategy. Although important and useful, it is not the most efficient one for many problems. When students and adults who have been identified as good estimators in a recent study were asked to estimate, they used a variety of strategies. They chose these strategies to fit the context of the problem, including the specific numbers and operations involved. Again, this parallels what we know about problem solving. No one problem-solving strategy is efficient for every problem. Part of the task of becoming a good problem solver (or estimator) is being able to select and use a strategy that fits the problem. Recent research has identified several broad strategies that are used by self-developed good estimators. These include the following: Front-end Clustering Rounding Compatible numbers Special numbers Each of these strategies is best suited to a certain type of problem or operation, and several overlap in their application. Each will be briefly explained and illustrated. A sample format for presenting several of the strategies in a classroom setting will also be included. This format includes a teacher-led discussion of the strategy followed by guided practice. Estimation & Mental Computation-1986 Yearbook, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

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**Estimation Activity (Continued)**

Pair with someone who chose the same problem Compare estimate strategies with neighbor noting differences/similarities Note modifications you want to make to your strategy to make your estimates easier next time

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**Estimation Activity (Continued)**

Reflect on the activity What literacy skills were used in this activity?

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**Admit Slip Find the admit slip in your packet**

Of all the workshops at IRA, why did you choose this one? What do you hope to learn or walk away with as a result of this workshop?

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**Content Standards – The Workshop**

Participants will Understand the concept of content literacy and how it supports learning in math classrooms Reflect on how teacher practice can use literacy as a structure and system for learning Explore research to understand more about recommendations for the inclusion of literacy in mathematic instruction

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**Agenda Estimation Activity CMCL Overview Reading a Graph Activity**

Break (bathroom time) Please follow rule of two feet! What the Research Says Routines/Structures in a Math Classroom Supporting Literacy in a Math Classroom Q & A/Exit Slip

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**Double Entry Organizer**

I wonder how many teachers are involved in the project? I think vocabulary would be very important to math teachers! Collaborative Model for Content Literacy 6 sub-domains of literacy Vocabulary development Reading Comprehension Writing to learn Writing to Demonstrate Fluency Academic Dialogue

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**Who Are We? Danna Green David Cook Roland O’Daniel**

Literacy Coach in the Striving Readers Consortium in KY for West Jessamine Middle School 13 years experience in primary, middle and high math & science, gifted & talented Reading Specialist David Cook Literacy Coach in the Striving Readers Consortium in KY for Belfry Middle School 16 years in education- middle grades math and social studies, and principal Roland O’Daniel Mentor Coach in the Striving Readers Consortium in KY Educational Program Consultant with CTL Middle and high school math/social studies teacher, 15 years experience

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**What is Content Literacy? And What does it look like in math class?**

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**Content Literacy: Overarching Concept**

There are literacy processes that, when brought to bear in a discipline-specific content environment, will support students in learning content at deep levels, and in continuing to develop their basic learning skills.

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**Content Literacy Sub-Domains**

The Collaborative Model for Content Literacy prepares teachers to use strategies from these sub-domains to support student content learning Reading Comprehension Vocabulary Development Writing to Learn Writing to Use What We Know Verbal Fluency Academic Dialogue

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**Vocabulary Development Strategies**

Frayer Model Examples/Non-examples Characteristics/Model Definition Word Wall with Intentional Interactions Routines Developed to Scaffold Understanding

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**Writing to Learn in Mathematics**

Ways of representing content-NAGS Number Algorithm (Algebra) Graph Sentences Note-taking Writing to clarify understanding

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**Reading Comprehension**

Multiple Representations of the same idea and same translation: 12 4 12/4 Twelve divided by four 4 divided into 12 How many groups of 4 are in 12? (Draw a model, act it out…) Reading charts, tables, graphs

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**Content Reading Speaking/Listening Writing**

Multiple texts for multiple purposes Content Speaking/Listening In a variety of configurations For a variety of purposes Writing Writing to Learn- Symbolic & graphical, as well as text Writing to Use What You Know

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**Learning Structures Scaffolding Culture**

Building learning relationships Creating a literate space Learning and practicing new concepts and strategies Process Transparency Metacognition Zone of Proximal Development Scaffolding I do you watch I do you help You do I help You do I watch

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**How do we help students apply literacy strategies to support content learning?**

Take time to teach them how to learn what we need them to learn Be metacognitive in your instruction – talk with students about how effective learners learn Collaborate with colleagues for systematic planning to support student learning Be selective about the strategies you use – make sure that students read, write, speak, listen, and observe in service of learning in your discipline.

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**Mathematical Literacy**

“The ability to read, listen, think creatively, and communicate about problem situations, mathematical representations, and the validation of solutions…” “The ability to translate between a mathematical representation (which may include words and symbols) and that which the model represents.” “The ability to create and interpret mathematical models.” (NCTM Standards; Galef Institute – Different Ways of Knowing)

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**Mathematics as Language**

Includes elements, notation, syntax, grammar, vocabulary, conventions, sentence structure, and paragraph structure Is the language (science) of patterns and change Is a way of thinking about the world Is a necessary ingredient for developing & demonstrating understanding – both oral & written language Has language features unparalleled in other languages (for example, theorems expressed using the letter "x" also apply to "b" and "2x-5"). (Sensible, Sense-Making Mathematics, by Steve Leinwand )

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**Time for Reflection/Sharing**

Take this opportunity to interact with your notes Turn to your neighbor and share questions or important points Questions?

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**Reading in a Math Classroom**

Reading a graph activity Individual work Find a partner with the same colored graph and share your answers With your partner discuss the different literacy sub-domains involved in this activity. How could the use of literacy enhance the learning of the mathematics?

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**Reading Next Recommendations**

To Build Adolescent Literacy Skills Embed effective instructional principals into content learning Apply motivating and self-directed learning strategies Provide direct strategy instruction Engage students in collaborative work around rigorous text and concepts Use diverse texts Implement an intensive cross-disciplinary writing approach Provide extended time and opportunities for literacy work Reading Next, Alliance for Excellent Education, 2004

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**Reading Next Recommendations**

To Build Adolescent Literacy Skills Engage in teacher professional development that is long-term and ongoing Work in teacher teams to plan for strategy use Apply technology as a learning and literacy tool Gather evidence about student skills, both formative and summative and respond to that evidence through instructional change Provide strategic intervention for those students who have specific learning difficulties Reading Next, Alliance for Excellent Education, 2004

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**Instructional Programs Pre K-12 Should Enable All Students to:**

Organize & consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others Analyze & evaluate the mathematical thinking & strategies of others Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely (NCTM Standards, pp269)

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**NCTM Recommendations Effective teaching requires--**

knowing and understanding mathematics, students as learners, and pedagogical strategies. a challenging and supportive classroom learning environment. continually seeking improvement. Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics (Principals and Standards for School Mathematics, The Teaching Principle, NCTM, 2000)

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**National Mathematics Panel 2008**

The mastery of whole number arithmetic is a critical step in children’s mathematical education. Conceptual understanding is critical for children’s ability to identify and correct errors, for appropriately transferring algorithms to solve novel problems, and for understanding novel problems in general. Pictorial representations... Number line representation… Words also seem to influence the mental representations that children form…

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**National Mathematics Panel 2008**

The best predictors of the ability to solve word problems are computational skills and knowledge of mathematical concepts, as well as intelligence, reading ability, and vocabulary. … these abilities in conjunction with reading comprehension to solve word problems… (Report of the Task Group on Learning Processes, 2008)

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“Mathematical communication is closely tied to problem solving and reasoning. Thus as students’ mathematical language develops, so does their ability to reason and solve problems. Additionally, problem-solving situations provide a setting for the development & extension of communication skills & reasoning ability.” (NCTM Standards, pp 80) The issue is – you can’t have one without the other – the ability to communicate mathematically provides one with the tools to solve problems and reason. And then- to be able to solve problems and reason – I must have the language of the science. Thus I must know the vocabulary and symbols; must be able to read the problem and write about my understanding of the solution. An understanding of the symbols we associate with mathematics come from within a long process of exploring, questioning, challenging, and of doing mathematics. How do you create an environment that is safe and encourages students to investigate, make & test conjectures, look for patterns, reflect & rewrite, communicate mathematically,…..?

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**Routines in the Mathematics Classroom**

In small group discuss different routines that might be observed in a typical math classroom Discuss which literacy sub-domains lend themselves most effectively to the mathematics classroom

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**Traditional Vocabulary Instruction**

How to extend this strategy into a strategy that allows students to develop stronger understanding of the content?

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**Interactive Word Wall Terms Symbols Representations Graphs**

Student generated

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**Vocabulary Development- Interactive Word Walls**

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**Interactive Word Wall- adaptation**

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“We”

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**Vocabulary Development w/ Frayer Model**

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Alpha Boxes

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Foldables Word Definition Drawing

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Fortune Tellers Terms Definition Questions Examples FUN!

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**Multiple Representations**

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**Frayer Model Adaptations Multiple words per page Integrate into**

routine Develop understanding of Characteristics

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**Vocabulary Development Adaptation- Pictionary**

Square Root

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**What I have learned about math teachers in my building!**

They appreciate me presenting information to them in a direct way. Most did not realize that the vocabulary strategies they have been doing are literacy strategies. They like to have trainings done by real math people.

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**They, like all teachers, need frequent reminders of the literacy strategies.**

They need to see the value of the literacy strategies to their students When they value the strategy, they use them in frequent, systematic ways.

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David’s Story

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**Coaching with a Math Teacher**

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**Targeted specific goals**

Focused on mathematical processes/content Providing students opportunities to communicate about content Expectations

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**The First Hundred Days of School**

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**Using Symbols and Text to Communicate Mathematically**

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**“Using literacy strategies within the math classroom is a necessity**

“Using literacy strategies within the math classroom is a necessity. My students need the knowledge of how to solve mathematical problems, but also how to verbalize their steps and solutions. When working a problem in my class students know that it is expected to show their work and write [respond to the work to show understanding]; one is incomplete without the other. As an educator it is my job to prepare my students for life outside the classroom. ” -M. Smith

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**“Using literacy strategies within the math classroom is a necessity**

“Using literacy strategies within the math classroom is a necessity. My students need the knowledge of how to solve mathematical problems, but also how to verbalize their steps and solutions. When working a problem in my class students know that it is expected to show their work and write [respond to the work to show understanding]; one is incomplete without the other. As an educator it is my job to prepare my students for life outside the classroom. ” -M. Smith

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**Math Notes: Number Properties**

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**Double Entry Organizer (Developing Understanding)**

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**Double Entry Organizer**

Allow for student reflection Allows students to summarize Provides teacher with source for monitoring comprehension Provides another tool (graphic organizer) to help students to better understand concepts.

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**Interactions w/ Material**

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Note-Taking

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**Open Response Questions**

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**Student Writing/Problem Solving**

Clear expectations (what is a proficient product). Authentic purpose for writing, real-world connection. Weave use of math, problem-solving, & communication skills.

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**Writing for Publication**

Student choice Authentic audience Content rich Uses appropriate form and features Teacher support and feedback

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**Reading & Writing in Math**

Students are supported in the use of literacy strategies in the classroom. Students use the reading and writing skills they have practiced. Students interact with the text to: question make predictions organize their thoughts look for details respond using higher order thinking skills. respond with evidence of mathematical reasoning.

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**Graphic Organizer- Compare/Contrast**

Interact with text/information Organize information Retention of learning

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**Lollipop Be Creative Incorporate different learning styles**

Make it Real Don’t just do math/use math

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**Does Writing to Learn Make a Difference?**

“…explains so that I can understand…” Model Repetition Cooperative Learning Activities Writing to Explain “…she went from I don’t like school to school’s okay…” “…she went from I can’t do math to I like math…”

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A Final Thought “As educators we must integrate math skills and concepts into a meaningful experience for our students. Learning must be relevant and have an intended purpose. Math should not be taught in isolation but as part of a curriculum that stresses communication of math topics through reading and writing.”

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Practice w/ a Purpose

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Closing Activities PowerPoint- Questions? Exit Slip Three points I want to remember. Something that squared with my beliefs. Something that keeps going ‘round and ‘round in my head.

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