Presentation on theme: "Report Writing & Referencing A lecture for Year 1 B.Ed students By Karen Dellar Study & Learning Centre RMIT University."— Presentation transcript:
Report Writing & Referencing A lecture for Year 1 B.Ed students By Karen Dellar Study & Learning Centre RMIT University
2 A Report : Is a structured written presentation directed to interested readers for a specific purpose, aim or request It’s function is to Give an account of something, Answer a question Offer a solution
What is the difference between an Essay and a Report???
RMIT University4 Essay Report Establish a proposition or responds to a question or proposition Has linked and fluent paragraph structure Uses fluent sentence structure to express ideas. Investigates, presents and analyzes information to help make decisions or account for decisions. Has defined sections with (sub)- headings and numbering Uses lists and bullet points for clarity and brevity
RMIT University5 Essay Report Needs to be read as a whole Presents a writers opinion or interpretation (albeit supported with evidence.) Is aimed at a broad academic audience Sections are easily identified and can be read in isolation. Is a factual and objective presentation of data. Has a specific audience appropriate to its purposes.
RMIT University6 Ideally, completely text based Supporting information is woven into the text Includes diagrams, tables and graphs Large amounts of supporting information are included in appendices. Essay Report
RMIT University8 An Effective Report is: Appropriate to its purpose and audience Accurate Logical Clear and concise Well organized under headings
RMIT University9 General Structure of a Report Transmittal document ( for business purposes) Title page Table of contents Abstract/Executive Summary Introduction Discussion Conclusions Recommendations Bibliography
RMIT University10 More Detailed Structure of a Report Title Executive summary / Abstract Table of Contents 1.Introduction 1.1Purpose of the report 1.2Issues 1.3Research methods 1.4Limitations and assumptions
RMIT University11 Structure of a Report 2.Discussion 2.1Literature Review 2.1.1.Issue #1 2.1.2.Issue #2 2.2Method 2.2.1.Procedure 2.2.2.Sample Size 2.3Discussion and analysis of data 2.3.1.Issue #1 2.3.2.Issue #2 2.3.3.Reliability /accuracy of data
RMIT University12 Structure of a Report 3.Conclusions 4.Recommendations 5.References 6.Appendices
The Assignment: The Case Study of a Child’s Literacy
RMIT University14 The report is about your student Literacy Needs of C21 Child’s background Child’s Involvement with Reading Needs analysis of student Actual Reading Test and Analysis of observations Recommendations for student Related to your student A (unique) Title
RMIT University15 Use literature to support what you want to say about your student Literacy Needs of C21 Child’s background Child’s Involvement with Reading Needs analysis of student Actual Reading Test and Analysis of observations Recommendations for student literature Related to your student
RMIT University16 A recommended procedure Complete all observations and analyses of student first. Think about the overall picture of your student, the main issues, strengths or needs. With these in mind: Write up the background, observations and analyses Compile supporting material for appendices Write the Recommendations Write the Introduction
RMIT University17 A recommended procedure Final compilation of reference list / bibliography Write Abstract (if required) Insert Table of Contents
RMIT University19 You must cite a reference source when you use: a direct quote information expressed in your own words (ie. paraphrase) statistics diagrams, tables, graphs photos
RMIT University20 You do not need to cite a reference when you use: Your own personal experience or opinion Common knowledge (definition?)
RMIT University21 In-Text Referencing DeFazio (1999) claims that referencing conventions for technological resources will become more consistent with wider use. Conventions for referencing the internet will gain greater consistency with increased use in scholastic work. (DeFazio, 1999) The rules for referencing sources are “formulaic and very strict” (DeFazio, 1999, p.107)
RMIT University22 Paragraph Example (APA) Disadvantaged groups within society also experience inequalities in health care. Thompson (1999) states that a person’s health has a direct relationship to their social and economic standing within the community. Groups with a low socioeconomic status have poorer health than those with a high socioeconomic status (National Health Strategy, 1998). The high infant mortality rates for Indigenous Australians and the lower life expectancy for Aboriginal women (Brown, 2001) are two examples that show inequalities in health care for particular groups within the Australian community. Therefore, for health programs to be more effective, the community needs to look at …
RMIT University23 Other examples Use of et al. for 3 to 5 authors of a book or journal article Harter, Schmidt and Hayes (2002) argue that individual, group and organisation level factors are related to performance and retention. Harter et al. (2002) also state that job satisfaction is important and is directly related to retention. Secondary sources Brown and Martin (as cited in Harmon, 2002) have reported a case study of a student with differing literacy issues in his first and second languages.
RMIT University24 The Reference List A new page at the end of your assignment Arranged in alphabetical order according to author’s surname cited in-text Includes all references cited in-text
RMIT University25 Reference List Entry DeFazio, T. (1999) Studying in Australia: a guide for international students, Sydney, Allen & Unwin.
RMIT University30 The main reasons for referencing To show you have read widely on a topic & you have identified important ideas in other writers’ research To draw on experts to support the points you are making and hence make them more persuasive To allow the reader to locate, check and follow up the sources used
RMIT University31 Plagiarism If you do not indicate the sources of your ideas, it could appear that you are wrongfully claiming another author’s ideas or words to be your own This is known as plagiarism
RMIT University32 How to avoid plagiarism Become familiar with the American Psychological Association (APA) referencing system Develop a system to record bibliographic information for all sources you use Take careful notes and develop a system to distinguish: *Text you have copied from the source *Text you have paraphrased or summarised *Your own ideas
RMIT University33 How to avoid plagiarism with every draft Include APA in-text referencing (author, date) with every draft Compile your reference list as you write your assignment Get into the habit of paraphrasing appropriately
RMIT University34 Paraphrasing Preferred Please Lecturer’s usually prefer paraphrasing to direct quotations. Why?