Presentation on theme: "Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Tahseen Muhammad ED 7202 NET."— Presentation transcript:
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy Tahseen Muhammad ED 7202 NET
Abstract This action research was conducted with 10 fifth grade students at PS 52, located in the Sheepshead Bay of Brooklyn, New York. The intervention aimed to increase participants’ attitudes towards social studies and overall academic experience, by which participants received intervention of two 45-minute sessions per week over the span of four weeks. Students’ were given a pre-test in the beginning of the study and a post-test to assess and improve their knowledge of the subject matter. A survey was used, which consisted of student’s demographics including their race, gender, age, and ethnicity. The independent variable followed the methods of creating a way to maximize learning opportunities for students, by teachers gaining knowledge about the cultures represented in the classroom and so translating this knowledge into instructional practice (Gay, 2000; Ladson- Billings, 1994; Villegas, 1991). The research showed that students attitudes and knowledge positively increased after the treatment session. The findings conclude that there is limited research in the involvement of selecting effective instructional techniques for classrooms filled with students from diverse cultures and backgrounds.
Statement of Problem There is currently a great shifts in the teacher evaluations in which schools are held accountable for the improved achievement of all students. The overriding problem is, meeting the educational needs of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds is a major challenge for most teachers. How can teachers work effectively with students who speak a different language and come from a distinctly different culture? Culturally relevant pedagogy refers to instructional practices that build on the premise that the way students learn differs across cultures.
Literature Review The “No Child Left Behind” provides the milieu for current education practices, it is essential for teachers to accommodate diverse learners through culturally responsive practices within their classrooms. There are likely to be a variety of staff needs to increase cultural responsivity, including adjustments in pedagogy, capacity building for collaborative work, improved skills in identifying and addressing varying learning styles, and training in ELL instructional methods (Cadeiro-Kaplan & Rodriguez, 2008). In order to maximize learning opportunities for students, teachers must gain knowledge about the cultures represented in the classrooms, and then translate this knowledge into instructional practices (Gay, 2000; Ladson- Billings, 1994; Villegas, 1991). Finally, teachers should continually seek to understand what is relevant to students and find ways to connect with them in a variety of cultural ways. Teacher support. The Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale (CASS; Malecki, Demaray, Elliot, & Nolten, 1999) a 60-item assessment of students’ perceived social support. Sample items include: “My teacher (s) care about me”; and “My teacher (s) makes it okay to ask questions.” CASS provides five subscale scores of perceived support from teachers, parents, classmates, close friends, and the school.
Statement of the Hypothesis Hypothesis: Students’ who perceive their teachers to be culturally responsive would perceive a greater sense of teacher support and a greater sense of belonging within the school. The purpose of the current study is to develop a measure of students’ perceptions of culturally responsive teaching practices. The increasing disparity between the cultural backgrounds of students and teachers in the public schools has prompted the need for teaching practices that are culturally sensitive and responsive (Gay, 2002). The need for culturally responsive pedagogy is further exemplified by reports indicating that students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds experience academic achievement at significantly lower rates than others (U.S. Department of Education, 2005). As our understanding of the importance of culturally responsive teaching continues to develop, it is important to have adequate measures of culturally responsive teaching practices.
Methods Parental consent form Pre-Test/Survey/questionnaire Post-Test/Survey/questionnaire 2(45 minute) periods per week for 4 weeks 10 fifth grade students from PS 52 Sheepshead Bay, Brooklyn
Experimental Design Quasi-Experimental Design known as Nonequivalent Control Group Design The participants come from one classroom. The group was not randomly assigned. One designated treatment group Parental consent form Pre-Test survey/questionnaire Post-Test survey/questionnaire 2(45 minute) periods per week for 4 weeks
Threats of Validity Internal ValidityExternal Validity Generalizable Conditions It is likely that this study could be reproduced in another school setting and possibly improves literacy comprehension for students. Experimental Effects The interaction the experimenter will have with the teachers in the study will be passing out of the surveys and permission to access their classrooms during literacy lessons twice a week. The experimenter’s gender and age compared to the student’s teacher may have an impact on how students feel about the experimenter. History Historical events can cause an internal validity threat. is a possibility of natural disaster or bad weather that may cause schools in the area to close down, therefore delaying any progress in the research. Students may also lose focus if a change in weather occurs outside their windows during periods of research, therefore impacting their pre and post test treatments. Testing/Pre-test Sensitization Surveys will only be conducted once, therefore no threats are seen. Pretest can affect posttest if students become more familiar or comfortable with exams and their formats. Instrumentation There will be no instrumentation changes affecting the internal validity of the main conclusion. Selection-Maturation Interaction Participants in the study could mature and/or have a change of mind about their feelings towards their teachers due to their adjustment into normal classroom routine.
Survey Question: “I feel my teacher cares about me” Based on a four point likert scale, students were asked how well they agreed with the following statement ”I feel my teacher cares about me” Likert Scale 1. Strongly disagree 2. Disagree 3. Agree 4. Strongly agree This data shows that after the treatment students felt that their teacher cared about him/her, based on survey responses from pre/post treatment.
Correlation: Students’ knowledge with students’ comfort StudentKnowledgeComfort #113 #234 #333 #432 #523 #623 #745 #833 #933 #1022 rxy0.512 This data shows that as students knowledge-Pre Test (test scores) increased so did their comfort levels Post Survey(survey responses). Trendline=Comfort
Correlation: Students attitudes towards Social Studies Pre Survey/ Post Survey StudentPrePost #134 #213 #323 #445 #534 #634 #724 #845 #934 #10234 rxy0.878
Discussion Results Research results show that students indicated culturally responsive practices to be important (Mean= 5.08, Standard Deviation = 0.59). Teachers gave the highest rating to the item “I help all students to connect and apply what they have learned to the home and the community” (Mean=5.49, Standard Deviation= 0.73); supporting the concept that making the link between home and school is critical (Villegas, 1991). After being exposed to cultural characteristics student’s learning has improved, and their overall knowledge of their culture has increased dramatically. Based on the findings it can be concluded that students will benefit from this research study, after being exposed to educational materials which incorporate their cultural backgrounds Implications Students live in a culturally diverse population, where their lives are constantly intertwined with people from cultures other than their own. The main reason for conducting this type of research provides students with an opportunity to understand the people who do not derive from the same culture as they do. Previous research has examined the role of diversity preparation in fostering cultural responsivity among teachers (Bustos Flores & Smith, 2008). While levels of diversity preparation were not explored in the present study, respondents clearly indicated that culturally responsive practices were perceived to be important (M= 5.08, SD = 0.59).`
References O’Connor Petruso, S. (2008, February). Descriptive Statistics. Seminar in Applied Theory and Research II. Course at Brooklyn College Graduate School of Education, Brooklyn, New York, USA. Gay, G. (2002). Culturally responsive teaching in special education for ethnically diverse students: Setting the stage. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(6), doi: / Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching. New York: Teachers College Press. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53 (2), doi: / U. S. Department of Education, NCES. (2005). The condition of education NCES , Washington, D.C., U. S. Government Printing Office. Schultz, S. (2010). Judging a book by its cover: An evaluation tool for the evaluation, selection and inclusion of multicultural children’s literature in the elementary classroom. Multicultural Children's Literature. Retrieved from Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, V 32(3), Retrieved from No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 20 U.S.C. 70 § 6301 et seq. Available at