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Rome The Political Structure, and the decline of, the Republic M. Bridgeo.

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Presentation on theme: "Rome The Political Structure, and the decline of, the Republic M. Bridgeo."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rome The Political Structure, and the decline of, the Republic M. Bridgeo

2 The RepublicLa République Review: Etruria, the area around the city of Rome, was dominated by the Etruscans The Patriciens (sons of the rich of Rome) overthrew the seventh of 7 Etruscan kings (Tarquin the Proud) in 509 BCE The system the Patriciens established was a Republic, where several rich replaced the tyrant king. Under the Republic, the structure was as follows… M. Bridgeo

3 The Political Structure of the Republic The Senate Group of 300 citizens. Senators for life Create the laws responsible for foreign politics The Consuls 2 citizens elected for one year, then become Senators. Responsible for: The Republic & the army Chose the Senators and needed their approval in important decisions Comises Centuries This was the Assembly of the People Voted the laws Formed by rich patriciens, most of which were soldiers Tribune de la Plèbe 10 citizens chosen from amongst the Plebian population to protect the rights of their class. Had the right of veto for laws that concerned their class. M. Bridgeo This is where the majority of the power rests

4 A chronology in the improvement of laws for the Plebians ~493 The 10 Tribuns: defender of their class ~451 The Twelve Tables: system of written laws ~445 Abolishment of the marriage law (by Canuleian) limiting marriage to their own class. ~367 One of the two consuls must now be a Plebian M. Bridgeo

5 The Republic 509 BCE – 31 BCE Rome was the most powerful nation in the region During this time, war and the army became a national industry helping to drive the economy Rome used their army, well-organized and well-disciplined, to:  capture and control all of Italy (265 BCE)  expand the Republic to the west (Gaul, Spain, Britain) to the south (North Africa) and to the east (Greece, Macedonia) M. Bridgeo

6 The Republic 509 BCE – 31 BCE Whenever Rome would conquer a new territory, it became a roman province. These provinces were responsible to give, to Rome, annual tributes in: Money, and Products of all sorts 1. animals 2. wheat 3. spices, etc… …and Rome was declared the owner of all natural resources in all the conquered provinces, as well. Rome was smart because they would permit the provinces to maintain their: 1.Laws, 2.Customs, and 3.Cultures They were allowed to keep their proper system of government but had to acknowledge the ultimate supremacy of Roman leadership. M. Bridgeo

7 The Republic 509 BCE – 31 BCE H ow did the Republic guarantee peace in the provinces after conquest?  It gave lands in the provinces to citizens of Rome and to soldiers.  It gave the responsibility of administration of the provnices (that were secure) to Senators, but for provinces on the borders of the Republic where the chance of rebellion was greatest the Magistrate (the Consuls) remained in control while choosing a few Senators to aid in the adminsitation  In this way, Rome could be certain of the loyalty of her compatriots: citizens, soldiers and Senators. M. Bridgeo

8 The decline of the Republic I will present three reasons why, even with the conquer of rich provinces, the Republic was in peril:  Economic stability is upset  Political situation is unstable  Military situation is modified M. Bridgeo

9 M. Bridgeo The Republic in peril... Economic stability is upset The rich became richer, while the poor became poorer. Farmers lost their lands because grain was being sent to Rome as annual tributes from the provinces, so the grain was devalued. as a consequence, many moved to Rome looking for a better life and work. Political situaion is unstable Politically, tension grew between the Plebians and the Patricians. Several tried to reform the Senate (Tiberius Gracchus and his brother, Gaius Gracchus) were killed by the Senate over fears of losing theirpower. You could sense a change was imminent Military Situation is modified Gaius Marius, a government official, permitted anyone to join the army (where in the past it was only Landowners) and it became a professional force, full-time. Soldiers were given all they would need, but these poor men wanted something in return for their efforts and when they received nothing, their loyalty turned from Rome to their individual generals, hungry for power themselves.

10 The Struggle for power in Rome The power in Rome and the provinces depended now on generals and their loyal armies. More than one attempt was made to take complete command of Rome. The most famous of these generals was Julius Cesar (103 BCE – 44 BCE) He led his armies to victories in Gaul (France) and Britain. These successes made him a hero and he took the occasion to seize power with two other established, powerful men in Rome. M. Bridgeo

11 The Triumvirate In 60 BCE Cesar formed n alliance with: Crassus, a military leader and one the richest men in all of Rome, and Pompée was a part of the Roman social elite with a military history and a powerful politician. Cesar took control of the military, establishing himself as THE power, limiting the power of the Senate and the Consuls (who were responsible for the army under the Republic) M. Bridgeo

12 The end of the Triumvirate Broken when Crassus died in battle (53 BCE) and Pompée distanced himself from Cesar and aligned himself with the Senate because he was afraid of the power that Cesar had gained. In 49 BCE, the Senate, with the approval of Pompee, asked Cesar to dissolve the army, but he refused. The same year, Cesar (in control of the army) marched on Rome and was accepted as a hero by the citizens. M. Bridgeo

13 Cesar’s reforms as Dictator 1.Declared himself Emperor (and dictator for life) 2.Effectively eliminated the role of the Consuls (responsbile for the army) 3.Diminished the power of the Senate 4.Gave lands in the provinces to Plebians 5.Stopped exploiting the people’s of the provinces (even gave them the right to become citizens) 6.Took control of the lands in Gaul, Northern Africa, Greece, Spain and sent Romans to colonize the regions. 7.Raised the pay for soldiers to guarantee their loyalty M. Bridgeo

14 The death of Julius Cesar …and the result of his reforms was his assassination by Brutus and Cassius to save the Republic, the 15 th of March, 44 BCE (les Ides de mars) … M. Bridgeo

15 The beginning of the Roman Empire After the death of Cesar: His adoptive son Octavius and Mark Anthony combined to avenge his death. They divided the Roman world in two, but the peace would not last. In 31 BCE, the naval forces of Octavius defeated the army of Mark Anthony. 27 BCE Octavius succeeded Cesar (27 BCE – 14 AD) He was known as Cesar Augustus (Augustus= sacred, Cesar synonym of emperor) This was the beginning of the Roman Empire ! M. Bridgeo

16 Why did Augustus have success as emperor? He avoided the appearance of power by keeping the organs of the Republic (the Senate and the Consuls) Even still, it was him who made all decisions, especially about political decisions. He had a personal guard, the Pretorian guard, but he kept it outside the city to avoid the impression of a dictator. He granted citizenship to inhabitants of the provinces …but only to those who adhered to the values of Rome. It was he who was responsible for the Roman Empire at the time of Jesus’ birth. M. Bridgeo

17 FISS 10 – Les civilisations anciennes Rome Présentation II – Rome… La Structure Politique et le déclin de la République M. Bridgeo, WHS Répondez aux questions ci-dessous utilisant l’information présentée contenu dans la presentation powerpoint© Rome… La Structure Politique et le déclin de la République 1.Sous forme d’un diagramme ou d’un tableau, décrivez le gouvernement de la République en Rome avec les tâches spécifique pour chaque groupe là-dedans. 2.Qui étaient les Plébiens sous la République? Notez leurs victoires gouvernamentaux avec la date pour chacun. 3.Quels facteurs menaient à la chute de la République? 4.Qu’est-ce qu’un Triumvirat? Qui faisait partie du 1e Triumvirat romain? 5.Pourquoi, selon vous, est-ce que César était tué le 15 mars, ~44? 6.Qu’est-ce qui s’est passé à la mort de César? 7.Quelle était la date de la fin de la République et le début de l’Empire Romain? M. Bridgeo

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