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FP7/SPACE PROJECT HYDRA Hybrid Ablative Development For Re- Entry In Planetary Atmospheric Thermal Protection J. Barcena 1, S. Florez 1, B. Perez 1, J-M.

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Presentation on theme: "FP7/SPACE PROJECT HYDRA Hybrid Ablative Development For Re- Entry In Planetary Atmospheric Thermal Protection J. Barcena 1, S. Florez 1, B. Perez 1, J-M."— Presentation transcript:

1 FP7/SPACE PROJECT HYDRA Hybrid Ablative Development For Re- Entry In Planetary Atmospheric Thermal Protection J. Barcena 1, S. Florez 1, B. Perez 1, J-M. Bouilly 2, G. Pinaud 2, W. P. P. Fischer 3, A. de Montbrun 4, M. Descomps 4, D. Lorrain 4, C. Zuber 5, W. Rotaermel 5 and H. Hald 5, P. Portela 6, K. Mergia 7, G. Vekinis 7, A. Stefan 8, C. Ban 8, D. Bernard 9, V. Leroy 9, R. Wernitz 10, A. Preci 10 and G. Herdrich 10 1 Tecnalia Research & Innovation, 2 Astrium SAS (France), 3 Astrium GmbH(Germany), 4 Lièges HPK SA (France), 5 DLR (Germany), 6 High Performance Structures – HPS (Portugal), 7 N.C.S.R "Demokritos" (Greece), 8 INCAS (Romania), 9 ICMCB-CNRS (France), 10 IRS – University of Stuttgart (Germany The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ ) under grant agreement n°


3 / 3 Original approaches based on ablative materials and novel TPS solutions are required for space applications where resistance in extreme oxidative environments and high temperatures are required. The atmospheric entry of space vehicles from high-energy trajectories requires high-performance thermal protection systems that can withstand extreme heat loads. A new scenario has appeared due to a worldwide change in space mission planning strategies with entry vehicles going back to capsule designs and ablators are re-gaining attention. Consequently, the development of new, more efficient materials and systems is a must. Such developments, nevertheless, have to be subject to extensive experimental investigations using suitable facilities. In this view, the investigation and development of new materials based on ablative and thermostructural concepts is crucial. A new (hybrid) concept based on the combination of both type of TPS materials is proposed. The advantage of the ceramic for this function is the low density compared to ablative material and the excellent thermal performance in this heat load range, as well as the stability of the shape of TPS which is an advantage for the aerodynamic of the re-entry vehicle. Another asset comes from the reliability and safety point of view. The underneath ceramic core offers extra thermal protection in case of the failure or underestimated design of the ablative external protections (see reference of the Galieos Probe). An accompanying effect is also the lower contamination during all mission phases and especially during re-entry. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION

4 / 4 The concept of the project is based on the development of a novel hybrid heatshield, based on the integration of an external ablative parts with a CMC thermostructural core. This will be carried out by the integration of dissimilar materials. The main advantage of a hybrid TPS heat-shield is based on the capability of the ablative layer of the hybrid TPS of bearing higher heat loads than the ceramic layer underneath. The main challenge is to achieve a sound bonding among the two parts. This will be carried-out by advanced bonding technologies. This will be carried out by the study and development of new adhesives solutions, with improved mechanical and insulating characteristics. The use of advanced high temperature adhesives and hybrid solutions in combination with mechanical attachments will be assessed, as well as other existing hybrid solutions. CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT

5 / 5 CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT Heatflux T (sec) Interface temp, limit 1200 ºC Time ablative full burn-out Ablative based re-entry CMC based re-entry Heatflux peak, From this point of view it will offer improved mechanical properties as well as higher robustness during the entry. Besides, the new moon or interplanetary missions planned cause higher heat loads during earth re-entry than ceramic or metallic TPS can withstand, since these heat loads are characterized by a peak profile the ablator can bear the high heat loads during the peak. For that a comparatively thin layer of ablative material is sufficient. The large integral loads will then be overtaken by the ablative/ceramic interfacial layer.

6 / 6 CONSORTIUM MEMBERS LOCATION 1 - TECNALIA (Coordinator) The core group of HYDRA project is composed of 10 public and private organisations coming from 5 different European countries: France, Greece, Germany, Romania and Spain. 3 – ASTRIUM-F 6 – HPS 7 – DEMOKRITOS 9 – ICMCB 4 – HPK 2 – ASTRIUM-G 5 – DLR 10 – IRS 8 – INCAS CONSORTIUM

7 / 7 Part.No. Part. Short Name ProfileRelevant expertise for the projectRole in the projectWPs Involvement 1TECNALIAResearch centre Ceramic composite materials design, processing, bonding terisation. Background on disseminations and technology transfer. Coordination, materials developer, materials joining, centre in charge of dissemination actions. WP2, WP5, WP8, WP9. Technical coordination in (WP1, WP3, WP4, WP6, Wp7) 2ASTRIUM-G End user, large company, large system integrator CMC material development, design, analysis, manufacturing & flight/ground testing as well as application Developing, designing, manufacturing and characterization testing of C/SiC CMC's. WP4, WP8 3ASTRIUM-FEnd user, large company Knowledge of management of atmospheric entry programs. Competence in heatshield thermal protection materials : development, production, characterisation, modelling and analysis Mission specification, Material developer and producer, heatshield analysis WP1, WP3, WP6, WP8 4HPKSME, material supplier Cork composite materials (formulations and manufacturing), tooling, bonding, moulding and prototyping Ablative cork materials and TPS breadboard part supplier. WP3, WP8 5DLR Research centre, space systems manufacturer, DLR is the German space agency. CMC material development and charactersiation Developing, designing, manufacturing and characterization testing of C/C- SiC CMC's. Characterisation of hybrid joints. WP4, WP5, WP6, WP7, WP8 6HPSSME, technology provider TPS technology provider. Konow-how on materials selection. Technology advisory. Engineering consulting. WP2, WP5, WP6, WP7, WP8 7NCSRDResearch centre Ablative-ceramic joining. Ceramic composite materials characterization & coatings. Materials joining and characterization. WP3, WP4, WP5, WP7, WP8. 8INCASResearch centre Composite materials CFRP, C-C composite and partially ceramic matrix design, processing, thermo-mechanical characterisation and morfostructural investigation Characterisation of space materials WP7, WP8 9ICMCBResearch centre Numerical modeling of coupled phenomenon occurring at local scale, 3D imaging of multi materials Modelling and characterisationWP6, WP7, WP8 10IRSUniversity Characterisation of TPS comments and hot structures. Ground re-entry characterisation and validation of the technology sample WP1, WP7, WP8 CONSORTIUM


9 / 9 M8 SCHEDULE STATUS Status at M13

10 / 10 MATERIALS TESTING & CHARACTERISATION PLAN AST-F Manufacture of 10 ASTERM plates (550 x 550 x 70 mm) HPK Manufacture of 10 NORCOAT LIEGES plates (550 x 550 x 70 mm) AST-G Manufacture of SICARBON samples 1 m 2 in different pannels, 5mm DLR Manufacture of C- C/SiC samples 1 m2 in different pannels, 5mm TECNALIA Materials machining Basic Thermal & Mechanical Characterisation Gluing & Joining Materials & Breadboard store ICMCB - Thermal Characterisation: Only ablators Laser Flash (RT ) Linear Dilatometry (RT-1600 ºC). (No. samples & Dimension TBD) INCAS – Thermo-mechanical: Compression & Flexural (RT) Thermal shock QST2 (RT-1500 ºC) Microstructural study < 75 samples & 30 x 50 x 10 mm NCRSD Neutron Tomography 20 samples, Ø 40 x 40 mm aprox (special assembly). Before and after PWT NCRSD Additional testing & surface treatments (K. Mergia) Ablative-ablative interfaces (G. Veknis) DLR Thermo-mechanical at INDUTHERM facility (RT-2000ºC) X-Ray tomography 45 sa mples - 60x 60 x 60 IRS Plasma Wind Tunnel. 20 samples, Ø 39.8 x 40 mm aprox (special assembly) Emissivity (few samples are possible) MANUFACTURE WP3 & WP4 ASSEMBLY WP5 CHARACTERISATION WP7 HPK in-situ Cork Composite manufacture on top of a CMC plate

11 / 11 Mission review and trade-off (by Astrium SAS): analysis of the current mission and European roadmaps for planetary re-entry MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS

12 / 12 Final selection based on Earth re-entry: CSTS (from Low lunar orbit) and CTV/ARV (from ISS) CSTS (Credit Astrium GmbH) CTV/ ARV (Credit Astrium SAS) MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS

13 / 13 MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS CTV/ARV (CREW TRANSFER VEHICLE / ADVANCED RE-ENTRY VEHICLE) Control Points Heatflux evolution Local stagnation pressure Heat-flux vs. Local stagnation pressure

14 / 14 MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS Control Points Heatflux evolution Local stagnation pressure Heat-flux vs. Local stagnation pressure CSTS (CREW SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM)

15 / 15 MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS Set of requirements defined with regards to the following criteria:

16 / 16 MATERIALS STATE OF THE ART AND TRADE-OFF State of the art considering: Analysis of previous hybrid concepts: SEPCORE® (ablator on top), SPA (CMC on top), HybridTPS (Porous ceramic infiltrated). Review of ablative materials at worldwide level with emphasis on European supplier. Locate the project partners in this state-of-the-art Trade-off Consider relevant ablative TPS materials at worldwide level. Elaborate a TPS material selection matrix -> Trade-off criteria Establish a materials ranking Locate project partner in the ranking Tailor this selection matrix to mission definition from WP1 SEPCORE® (Herakles) SPA (Astrium GmbH)

17 / 17 MATERIALS SELECTION & PROCUREMENT Two types of phenolic ablator envisaged for the project: Cork based materials: NORCOAT FI (backshield) Graphite based materials: ASTERM (frontshield) NORCOAT (HPK Liéges) ASTERM (Astrium SAS)

18 / 18 Two manufacturers CMC (Cf/SiC) envisaged for the project: C/C-SiC (from DLR stuttgart). SICARBON© (EADS) C/C-SiC (DLR) (EADS) MATERIALS SELECTION & PROCUREMENT

19 / 19 Selection of materials combination FRONT SHIELD Hybrid TPS selected ASTERM + SICARBON EADS DLR + HPK BACK SHIELD NORCOAT + C/C-SiC BONDING & TPS ASSEMBLY

20 / 20 BONDING & TPS ASSEMBLY Selection of adhesive: Inorganic based adhesive for the ablator/ceramic joint Organic adhesive for the ablator/ablator interface Criteria of selection: o Performance at the different phases (launching, ascent, re-entry) o Nature of the inorganic filler (alumina, silica, graphite, etc..) o Wettability with the surfaces o Curing temperature o Ablator/ceramic interface temperature (aided by modeling) o Thermal properties (CTE, Thermal conductivity) First stage of the re-entry Second stage of the re-entry

21 / 21 SIMULATION & TPS DESIGN Simulation at different levels: Local thermo-chemical model o At the micro/nano range o Aided by 3D model technologies by the use of a nano-tomographic system (ICMCB) 1D Thermal ablation model (Astrium SAS) -> Assessment of ablator thickness and interfacial temperature -> Lecture by G. Pinaud. Thermal analysis (2D model) -> Materials properties as input TPS Design Tile breadboard: o Foreseen dimensions of 100 mm x 100 mm (planar) o Including ablator/ablator joints and ablator/ceramic bonding. Further mass saving calculation wrt a whole capsule vehicle (i.e. CTV/ARV) Local model on ablators1D model (thickness vs. interface temperature and recession)

22 / 22 CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Characterization of materials and bonded structures: ASTERM ablator. Full characterization of thermal and mechanical properties o Emissivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and conductivity o Tensile, compressive and flexural strength (including cryogenic temperatures) Adhesive: o First screening based on bonding results and shear strength test o Second screening based on thermal shock (QST-2 at INCAS) and cyclic test at INDUTHERM (DLR Stuttgart) o Final selection based on the performance and the plasma wind tunnel (correlation with WP1 specifications). Final test of the breadboard at the PWT (IRS, Stuttgart). Comparison of perfirmace vs. requirements. Shear test at NCSR Demokritos Thermal schock furnace at INCAS


24 / 24 CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Final test of the breadboard at the PWT (IRS Stuttgart):

25 / 25 CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Final test of the breadboard at the PWT (IRS Stuttgart): o Facility PWK2 for CTV/ARV conditions o Facility PWK1 for CSTS, using either RD5 or RD7 as plasma source for 5.7 MW/m2 condition

26 / 26 MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK HYDRA is a new TPS concept that combines a low density ablator and a underneath hot substructure. Main advantages are: 1) Mass reduction as compared with a solution based on a single ablator solution, while 2) Increase the temperature limits as compared with a re-usable system The project is running for one third of the total duration, the mission is selected, the requirements complied and the characterisation/verification plan is ready. The materials trade-off is almost finished and the materials are have been just procured to the partners. The simulation phase and bonding study has been initiated. Future effort will include the selection of the adhesive based on a complete screening study (2 nd year) and the execution of the verification plan (3 rd Year) including characterisation under Plama Wind Tunnel conditions. A mass saving analysis will be carried-out with regards to a full shield concept.

27 / 27 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS European Space Agency (M. Bottacini and B. Jeusset) European Commission Research Executive Agency (C. Ampatzis) EADS-Innovation Works (C. Wilhelmi). NCSRD (K. Triantou). IRS (T. Marynowski) ASTRIUM SAS (Y. Aspa)

28 / 28 For more details visit the Project webpage: WEB PAGE

29 / 29 END OF PRESENTATION Many thanks for your attention

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