Presentation on theme: "FP7/SPACE PROJECT “HYDRA” Hybrid Ablative Development For Re-Entry In Planetary Atmospheric Thermal Protection J. Barcena1, S. Florez1, B. Perez1, J-M."— Presentation transcript:
1FP7/SPACE PROJECT “HYDRA” Hybrid Ablative Development For Re-Entry In Planetary Atmospheric Thermal ProtectionJ. Barcena1, S. Florez1, B. Perez1, J-M. Bouilly2, G. Pinaud2, W. P. P. Fischer3, A. de Montbrun4, M. Descomps4, D. Lorrain4, C. Zuber5, W. Rotaermel5 and H. Hald5, P. Portela6, K. Mergia7, G. Vekinis7, A. Stefan8, C. Ban8, D. Bernard9, V. Leroy9, R. Wernitz10, A. Preci10 and G. Herdrich101Tecnalia Research & Innovation, 2Astrium SAS (France), 3Astrium GmbH(Germany), 4 Lièges HPK SA (France), 5DLR (Germany), 6High Performance Structures – HPS (Portugal), 7N.C.S.R "Demokritos" (Greece), 8INCAS (Romania), 9ICMCB-CNRS (France), 10IRS – University of Stuttgart (GermanyThe research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/ ) under grant agreement n°
2OUTLINEINTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATIONCONCEPT OF THE PROJECTCONSORTIUM, SCHEDULE AND WPs LOGICMISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONSMATERIALS STATE OF THE ART AND TRADE-OFFMATERIALS SELECTION AND PROCUREMENTBONDING & TPS ASSEMBLYSIMULATION AND TPS DESIGNCHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLANSUMARY AND MAIN CONCLUSIONSACKNOWNLEDMENTS
3INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION Original approaches based on ablative materials and novel TPS solutions are required for space applications where resistance in extreme oxidative environments and high temperatures are required. The atmospheric entry of space vehicles from high-energy trajectories requires high-performance thermal protection systems that can withstand extreme heat loads.A new scenario has appeared due to a worldwide change in space mission planning strategies with entry vehicles going back to capsule designs and ablators are re-gaining attention.Consequently, the development of new, more efficient materials and systems is a must. Such developments, nevertheless, have to be subject to extensive experimental investigations using suitable facilities. In this view, the investigation and development of new materials based on ablative and thermostructural concepts is crucial. A new (hybrid) concept based on the combination of both type of TPS materials is proposed.The advantage of the ceramic for this function is the low density compared to ablative material and the excellent thermal performance in this heat load range, as well as the stability of the shape of TPS which is an advantage for the aerodynamic of the re-entry vehicle.Another asset comes from the reliability and safety point of view. The underneath ceramic core offers extra thermal protection in case of the failure or underestimated design of the ablative external protections (see reference of the Galieo’s Probe). An accompanying effect is also the lower contamination during all mission phases and especially during re-entry.
4CONCEPT OF THE PROJECTThe concept of the project is based on the development of a novel hybrid heatshield, based on the integration of an external ablative parts with a CMC thermostructural core. This will be carried out by the integration of dissimilar materials.The main advantage of a hybrid TPS heat-shield is based on the capability of the ablative layer of the hybrid TPS of bearing higher heat loads than the ceramic layer underneath.The main challenge is to achieve a sound bonding among the two parts. This will be carried-out by advanced bonding technologies. This will be carried out by the study and development of new adhesives solutions, with improved mechanical and insulating characteristics. The use of advanced high temperature adhesives and hybrid solutions in combination with mechanical attachments will be assessed, as well as other existing hybrid solutions.
5CONCEPT OF THE PROJECT Heatfluxpeak, Interfacetemp, limit 1200 ºC Ablative based re-entryCMC based re-entryHeatfluxT (sec)Timeablative full burn-outHeatfluxpeak,Interfacetemp, limit 1200 ºCFrom this point of view it will offer improved mechanical properties as well as higher robustness during the entry. Besides, the new moon or interplanetary missions planned cause higher heat loads during earth re-entry than ceramic or metallic TPS can withstand, since these heat loads are characterized by a peak profile the ablator can bear the high heat loads during the peak. For that a comparatively thin layer of ablative material is sufficient. The large integral loads will then be overtaken by the ablative/ceramic interfacial layer.
61 - TECNALIA (Coordinator) CONSORTIUMCONSORTIUM MEMBERS LOCATIONThe core group of HYDRA project is composed of 10 public and private organisations coming from 5 different European countries: France, Greece, Germany, Romania and Spain.2 – ASTRIUM-G5 – DLR8 – INCAS3 – ASTRIUM-F1 - TECNALIA (Coordinator)10 – IRS6 – HPS4 – HPK9 – ICMCB7 – DEMOKRITOS
7Relevant expertise for the project CONSORTIUMPart.No.Part. Short NameProfileRelevant expertise for the projectRole in the projectWPs Involvement1TECNALIAResearch centreCeramic composite materials design, processing, bonding terisation. Background on disseminations and technology transfer.Coordination, materials developer, materials joining, centre in charge of dissemination actions.WP2, WP5, WP8, WP9. Technical coordination in (WP1, WP3, WP4, WP6, Wp7)2ASTRIUM-GEnd user, large company, large system integratorCMC material development, design, analysis, manufacturing & flight/ground testing as well as applicationDeveloping, designing, manufacturing and characterization testing of C/SiC CMC's.WP4, WP83ASTRIUM-FEnd user, large companyKnowledge of management of atmospheric entry programs. Competence in heatshield thermal protection materials : development, production, characterisation, modelling and analysisMission specification, Material developer and producer, heatshield analysisWP1, WP3, WP6, WP84HPKSME, material supplierCork composite materials (formulations and manufacturing), tooling, bonding, moulding and prototypingAblative cork materials and TPS breadboard part supplier.WP3, WP85DLRResearch centre, space systems manufacturer,DLR is the German space agency. CMC material development and charactersiationDeveloping, designing, manufacturing and characterization testing of C/C-SiC CMC's. Characterisation of hybrid joints.WP4, WP5, WP6, WP7, WP86HPSSME, technology providerTPS technology provider. Konow-how on materials selection.Technology advisory. Engineering consulting.WP2, WP5, WP6, WP7, WP87NCSRDAblative-ceramic joining. Ceramic composite materials characterization & coatings.Materials joining and characterization.WP3, WP4, WP5, WP7, WP8.8INCASComposite materials CFRP, C-C composite and partially ceramic matrix design, processing, thermo-mechanical characterisation and morfostructural investigationCharacterisation of space materialsWP7, WP89ICMCBNumerical modeling of coupled phenomenon occurring at local scale, 3D imaging of multi materialsModelling and characterisationWP6, WP7, WP810IRSUniversityCharacterisation of TPS comments and hot structures.Ground re-entry characterisation and validation of the technology sampleWP1, WP7, WP8
10MATERIALS TESTING & CHARACTERISATION PLAN MANUFACTUREWP3 & WP4ASSEMBLYWP5CHARACTERISATIONWP7ICMCB - Thermal Characterisation:Only ablatorsLaser Flash (RT )Linear Dilatometry (RT-1600 ºC).(No. samples & Dimension TBD)AST-F Manufacture of 10 ASTERM plates(550 x 550 x 70 mm)NCRSDAdditional testing & surface treatments (K. Mergia)Ablative-ablative interfaces (G. Veknis)NCRSDNeutron Tomography20 samples, Ø 40 x 40 mm aprox (special assembly). Before and after PWTHPK Manufacture of 10 NORCOAT LIEGES plates(550 x 550 x 70 mm)TECNALIAMaterials machiningBasic Thermal & Mechanical CharacterisationGluing & JoiningMaterials & Breadboard storeINCAS – Thermo-mechanical:Compression & Flexural (RT)Thermal shock QST2 (RT-1500 ºC)Microstructural study< 75 samples & 30 x 50 x 10 mmAST-G Manufacture of SICARBON samples1 m2 in different pannels, 5mmDLRThermo-mechanical at INDUTHERM facility (RT-2000ºC)X-Ray tomography45 sa mples - 60x 60 x 60HPK“in-situ” Cork Composite manufacture on top of a CMC plateDLR Manufacture of C-C/SiC samples1 m2 in different pannels, 5mmIRSPlasma Wind Tunnel.20 samples, Ø 39.8 x 40 mm aprox (special assembly)Emissivity (few samples are possible)
11MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS Mission review and trade-off (by Astrium SAS): analysis of the current mission and European roadmaps for planetary re-entry
12MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS Final selection based on Earth re-entry: CSTS (from Low lunar orbit) and CTV/ARV (from ISS)CTV/ ARV (Credit Astrium SAS)CSTS (Credit Astrium GmbH)
13MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS CTV/ARV (CREW TRANSFER VEHICLE / ADVANCED RE-ENTRY VEHICLE)Control PointsHeatflux evolutionLocal stagnation pressureHeat-flux vs. Local stagnation pressure
14MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS CSTS (CREW SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM)Heatflux evolutionControl PointsLocal stagnation pressureHeat-flux vs. Local stagnation pressure
15MISSION REVIEW AND TPS SPECIFICATIONS Set of requirements defined with regards to the following criteria:
16MATERIALS STATE OF THE ART AND TRADE-OFF State of the art considering:Analysis of previous “hybrid” concepts: SEPCORE® (ablator on top), SPA (CMC on top), HybridTPS (Porous ceramic infiltrated).Review of ablative materials at worldwide level with emphasis on European supplier.Locate the project partners in this state-of-the-artTrade-offConsider relevant ablative TPS materials at worldwide level.Elaborate a TPS material selection matrix -> Trade-off criteriaEstablish a materials rankingLocate project partner in the rankingTailor this selection matrix to mission definition from WP1SEPCORE® (Herakles)SPA (Astrium GmbH)
17MATERIALS SELECTION & PROCUREMENT Two types of phenolic ablator envisaged for the project:Cork based materials: NORCOAT FI (backshield)Graphite based materials: ASTERM (frontshield)ASTERM(Astrium SAS)NORCOAT(HPK Liéges)
20BONDING & TPS ASSEMBLY Selection of adhesive: Inorganic based adhesive for the ablator/ceramic jointOrganic adhesive for the ablator/ablator interfaceCriteria of selection:Performance at the different phases (launching, ascent, re-entry)Nature of the inorganic filler (alumina, silica, graphite, etc..)Wettability with the surfacesCuring temperatureAblator/ceramic interface temperature (aided by modeling)Thermal properties (CTE, Thermal conductivity)First stage of the re-entrySecond stage of the re-entry
21SIMULATION & TPS DESIGN Simulation at different levels:Local thermo-chemical modelAt the micro/nano rangeAided by 3D model technologies by the use of a nano-tomographic system (ICMCB)1D Thermal ablation model (Astrium SAS) -> Assessment of ablator thickness and interfacial temperature -> Lecture by G. Pinaud.Thermal analysis (2D model) -> Materials properties as inputTPS DesignTile breadboard:Foreseen dimensions of 100 mm x 100 mm (planar)Including ablator/ablator joints and ablator/ceramic bonding.Further mass saving calculation wrt a whole capsule vehicle (i.e. CTV/ARV)Local model on ablators1D model (thickness vs. interface temperature and recession)
22CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Characterization of materials and bonded structures:ASTERM ablator. Full characterization of thermal and mechanical propertiesEmissivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat, thermal diffusivity and conductivityTensile, compressive and flexural strength (including cryogenic temperatures)Adhesive:First screening based on bonding results and shear strength testSecond screening based on thermal shock (QST-2 at INCAS) and cyclic test at INDUTHERM (DLR Stuttgart)Final selection based on the performance and the plasma wind tunnel (correlation with WP1 specifications).Final test of the breadboard at the PWT (IRS, Stuttgart). Comparison of perfirmace vs. requirements.Thermal schock furnace at INCASShear test at NCSR “Demokritos”
23CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Cyclic test at INDUTHERM (DLR Stuttgart)
24CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Final test of the breadboard at the PWT (IRS Stuttgart):
25CHARACTERISATION & VERIFICATION PLAN Final test of the breadboard at the PWT (IRS Stuttgart):Facility PWK2 for CTV/ARV conditionsFacility PWK1 for CSTS, using either RD5 or RD7 as plasma source for 5.7 MW/m2 condition
26MAIN CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK HYDRA is a new TPS concept that combines a low density ablator and a underneath hot substructure.Main advantages are:Mass reduction as compared with a solution based on a single ablator solution, whileIncrease the temperature limits as compared with a re-usable systemThe project is running for one third of the total duration, the mission is selected, the requirements complied and the characterisation/verification plan is ready.The materials trade-off is almost finished and the materials are have been just procured to the partners. The simulation phase and bonding study has been initiated.Future effort will include the selection of the adhesive based on a complete screening study (2nd year) and the execution of the verification plan (3rd Year) including characterisation under Plama Wind Tunnel conditions.A mass saving analysis will be carried-out with regards to a full shield concept.
27ACKNOWLEDGMENTS European Space Agency (M. Bottacini and B. Jeusset) European CommissionResearch Executive Agency (C. Ampatzis)EADS-Innovation Works (C. Wilhelmi).NCSRD (K. Triantou).IRS (T. Marynowski)ASTRIUM SAS (Y. Aspa)
28For more details visit the Project webpage: www.hydra-space.eu
29Many thanks for your attention END OF PRESENTATIONMany thanks for your attention