Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 7 Power Units and Pumps Source of Hydraulic Power.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Power Units and Pumps Source of Hydraulic Power."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 7 Power Units and Pumps Source of Hydraulic Power

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 3 Objectives  Describe the function of a hydraulic power unit and identify its primary components.  Explain the purpose of a pump in a hydraulic system.  Explain the operation of a basic hydraulic pump.  Compare the operating characteristics of positive-displacement and non-positive- displacement hydraulic pumps.

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 4 Objectives  Compare the operating characteristics of rotary and reciprocating hydraulic pumps.  Compare the operating characteristics of constant- and variable-volume hydraulic pumps.  Explain the principles involved in the operation of a pressure-compensated hydraulic pump.

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 5 Objectives  Describe general construction for each of the various hydraulic pump designs.  Explain cavitation and its effect on pump performance and service life.  Interpret performance data supplied by a pump manufacturer.

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 6 Power Unit  The power unit:power unit –Provides energy for the operation of the hydraulic system –Moves fluid through the system –Provides a safe maximum system operating pressure –Assists in maintaining correct system operating temperature and fluid cleanliness

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 7 Power Unit  Power units are often supplied by manufacturers as a package Kim Hotstart Manufacturing Company

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 8 Power Unit  A basic power unit consists of: –Prime mover to power the system –Pump to move fluid –Reservoir to store fluid –Relief valve or pump compensator to control maximum system pressure –Filter to clean the fluid –Plumbing to transport fluid to components

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 9 Power Unit  A prime mover may be an electric motor Continental Hydraulics

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 10 Power Unit  A prime mover may be an internal combustion engine Deere & Co.

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 11 Power Unit  A coupler connects the prime mover to the pump

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 12 Power Unit  The power unit includes a pressure control valve to limit pressure

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 13 Power Unit  Filters and strainers are included in a power unit to remove debris from the fluid

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 14 Basic Pump  The basic operating principle that moves fluid through a pump is similar in all pumps –Enlarging the volume of a chamber allows fluid to enter the pump –Reducing the chamber volume moves fluid to the system –Inlet and discharge valves or ports control fluid movement through the pump

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 15 Basic Pump  Increasing the size of the pumping chamber moves fluid into the pump

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 16 Basic Pump  Reducing the size of the pumping chamber forces fluid into the system

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 17 Basic Pump  The maximum pressure developed in a hydraulic system is determined by: –Resistance to fluid flow in the system –Force the prime mover can exert

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 18 Basic Pump  The output flow rate of a hydraulic pump is determined by: –Volume of the pumping chamber –Operating speed of the prime mover

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 19 Basic Pump Classifications  Hydraulic pumps can be classified using three basic aspects: –Displacement –Pumping motion –Fluid delivery characteristics

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 20 Basic Pump Classifications  Displacement relates to how the output of the pump reacts to system loads –Positive-displacement pumps produce a constant output per cycle –Non-positive-displacement pumps produce flow variations due to internal slippageNon-positive-displacement pumps

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 21 Basic Pump Classifications  A non-positive-displacement pump has large internal clearances –Allows fluid slippage in the pump –Results in varying flow output as system load varies

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 22 Basic Pump Classifications  Non-positive-displacement pump

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 23 Basic Pump Classifications  The basic pumping motions used in hydraulic pumps are: –Rotary –Reciprocating

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 24 Basic Pump Classifications  Gear pumps are rotary pumps Gear pumps Sauer-Danfoss, Ames, IA

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 25 Basic Pump Classifications  Piston pumps are reciprocating pumpsreciprocating pumps Reciprocating piston movement

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 26 Basic Pump Classifications  In a rotary pump, the pumping action is produced by revolving components  In a reciprocating pump, the rotating motion of the pump input shaft is changed to reciprocating motion, which then produces the pumping action

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 27 Basic Pump Classifications  Hydraulic pumps are classified as either fixed or variable delivery –Fixed-delivery pumps have pumping chambers with a volume that cannot be changed; the output is the same during each cycleFixed-delivery pumps –In variable-delivery designs, chamber geometry may be changed to allow varying flow from the pump

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 28 Basic Pump Classifications  Gear pumps are fixed-delivery pumps Courtesy of Eaton Fluid Power Training

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 29 Basic Pump Classifications  Piston pumps may be designed as variable- delivery pumps Courtesy of Eaton Fluid Power Training

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 30 Basic Pump Classifications  When selecting a pump for a circuit, factors that must be considered are: –System operating pressure –Flow rate –Cycle rate –Expected length of service –Environmental conditions –Cost

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 31 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gear pumps are positive-displacement, fixed- delivery, rotary units  Gear pumps are produced with either external or internal gear teeth configurations

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 32 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gear pumps are commonly used

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 33 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Pumping action of gear pumps results from unmeshing and meshing of the gears –As the gears unmesh in the inlet area, low pressure causes fluid to enter the pump –As the pump rotates, fluid is carried to the pump discharge area –When the gears mesh in the discharge area, fluid is forced out of the pump into the system

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 34 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gear pumps are available in a wide variety of sizes –Flow outputs from below 1 gpm to 150 gpm –Pressure rating range up to 3000 psi

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 35 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  The gerotor pump design is an internal-gear pumpgerotor pump design –Uses two rotating, gear-shaped elements that form sealed chambers –The chambers vary in volume as the elements rotate –Fluid comes into the chambers as they are enlarging and is forced out as they decrease in size

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 36 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  The gerotor is a common internal-gear design

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 37 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gerotor operation

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 38 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gerotor operation

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 39 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gerotor operation

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 40 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Gerotor operation

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 41 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Vane pumps are positive-displacement, fixed or variable delivery, rotary units. –Design is commonly used in industrial applications –Delivery can range up to 75 gpm –Maximum pressure of about 2000 psi

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 42 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Vane pump consists of a slotted rotor, fitted with moveable vanes, that rotates within a cam ring in the pump housing –Rotor is off center in the ring, which creates pumping chambers that vary in volume as the pump rotates –As chamber volume increases, pressure decreases, bringing fluid into the pump –As volume decreases, fluid is forced out into the system

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 43 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Operation of a typical vane pump

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 44 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Parts of a typical vane pump Courtesy of Eaton Fluid Power Training

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 45 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Vane pump may be pressure unbalanced or pressure balanced –Unbalanced has only one inlet and one discharge, which places a side load on the shaft –Balanced has two inlets and two discharges opposite each other, creating a pressure balance and, therefore, no load on the shaft

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 46 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Piston pumps are positive-displacement, fixed- or variable-delivery, reciprocating units –Several variations –Many provide high volumetric efficiency (90%), high operating pressure (10,000 psi or higher), and high-speed operationvolumetric efficiency

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 47 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  A basic piston pump consists of a housing that supports a pumping mechanism and a motion- converting mechanism –Pumping mechanism is a block containing cylinders fitted with pistons and valves –Motion converter changes rotary to reciprocating motion via cams, eccentric ring, swash plate, or bent-axis designsswash plate –Rotating the pump shaft causes piston movement that pumps the fluid

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 48 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Piston pump classification is based on the relationship between the axes of the power input shaft and piston motion –Axial –Radial –Reciprocating

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 49 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Axial piston pumps use two design variations: Axial piston pumps –Inline –Bent axis

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 50 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Inline has the cylinder block and pistons located on the same axis as the pump input shaft –Pistons reciprocate against a swash plate –Very popular design used in many applications

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 51 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  An inline axial-piston pump The Oilgear Company

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 52 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Bent axis has the cylinder block and pistons set at an angle to the input shaft –Geometry of the axis angle creates piston movement –Considered a more rugged pump than inline –Manufactured in high flow rates and maximum operating pressures

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 53 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  A bent-axis axial-piston pump

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 54 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Radial piston pumps have the highest continuous operating pressure capability of any of the pumps regularly used in hydraulic systems  Models are available with operating pressure ratings in the 10,000 psi range

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 55 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Two variations of radial piston pumps: –Stationary-cylinder design uses springs to hold pistons against a cam that rotates with the main shaft of the pumpStationary-cylinder design –Rotating-cylinder design uses centrifugal force to hold pistons against a reaction ring  When the main shaft is rotated, each piston reciprocates, causing fluid to move through the pump

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 56 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  A stationary-cylinder radial-piston pump

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 57 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Large, reciprocating-plunger pump designs were widely used when factories had a central hydraulic power source  Today, plunger pumps are typically found in special applications requiring high-pressure performance

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 58 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Screw pumps have pumping elements that consist of one, two, or three rotating screws Screw pumps  As the screws rotate, fluid is trapped and carried along to the discharge of the pump  The design of screw pumps allows them to operate at a very low noise level

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 59 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  A typical screw pump

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 60 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  The lobe pump is a close relative of the gear pump –Two three-lobed, gear-shaped units are often used to form the pumping element –Output flow is larger than a gear pump of comparable physical size because of pumping chamber geometry –Lower pressure rating than gear pumps –Tend to have a pulsating output flow

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 61 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Operation of a lobe pump

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 62 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Centrifugal pumps are non-positive- displacement units –Use centrifugal force generated by a rotating impeller to move fluid impeller –Large clearances between the impeller and the pump housing allow internal pump slippage when resistance to fluid flow is encountered in the system –Typically used in hydraulic systems as auxiliary fluid transfer pumps

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 63 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Operation of a centrifugal pump

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 64 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Propeller and jet pumps are non-positive- displacement pumps –Sometimes used to transfer fluid within hydraulic systems –Propeller pump consists of a rotating propeller- shaped pumping element –Jet pump creates flow by pumping fluid through a nozzle concentrically located within a venturi

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 65 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Construction of a propeller pump

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 66 Pump Design, Operation, and Application  Construction of a jet pump

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 67 Additional Design Features of Pumps  Some basic pump designs can be modified to allow the unit to produce variable flow outputs at constant operating speeds  This is achieved by including pump elements that allow the volume of the pumping chamber to be changed, either manually or by pressure- sensing devices

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 68  Unbalanced-vane pumps can be designed to produce variable flow outputs –A cam ring moves in relation to the center of the rotor –No flow output is produced when the centers of the ring and rotor are concentric –Flow increases as the centers move apart Additional Design Features of Pumps

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 69 Additional Design Features of Pumps  A variable-flow, unbalanced-vane pump

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 70 Additional Design Features of Pumps  Axial- and radial-piston pumps can include variable flow outputradial-piston pumps –Variable flow is created by varying the length of the piston stroke –Inline design varies the angle of the swash plate –Bent-axis design varies the angle between the cylinder barrel and pump input shaft –Radial-piston design uses a moveable reaction ring

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 71 Additional Design Features of Pumps  Pressure compensation allows a pump to sense system pressure and vary pumping chamber volume –Provides only sufficient fluid to maintain the desired system operating pressure –When system resistance is low, the pump produces maximum flow

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 72 Additional Design Features of Pumps –When system load increases, the pump adjusts and supplies only sufficient flow to maintain the desired operating pressure –When the actuator stalls, fluid flow only sufficient to compensate for system leakage is produced –Reduces the time the prime mover must spend producing maximum flow against maximum system pressure –Reduces energy consumption

73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 73 Additional Design Features of Pumps  Pressure compensation reduces energy consumption

74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 74 Additional Design Features of Pumps  Pressures that occur in a hydraulic system exert force on all of the internal surfaces of pumps and other components –Pressure differences within a pump can cause uneven loads on bearings –Pressure balancing delivers pressurized fluid to critical locations to counteract these forces –Helps reduce wear and improve sealing between components

75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 75 Additional Design Features of Pumps  System pressure can be used to help create a seal

76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 76 Additional Design Features of Pumps  Dual pumps are two pumps housed in a single case and driven by a single prime mover Dual pumps –Some units include integral valving to provide relief and unloading capabilities –Typical application is a high-low circuit where a large cylinder quickly extends followed by high- pressure clamping

77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 77 Additional Design Features of Pumps  A dual-pump design Sauer-Danfoss, Ames, IA

78 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 78 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Manufacturers supply considerable information about their pumps: –General specifications –Performance data –Installation drawings –Application informationApplication information

79 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 79 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Careful analysis of these sheets provides the detailed information needed for selecting, installing and operating a hydraulic pump

80 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 80 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  The size of the prime mover is established by the peak power needed during the system operating cycle  Determining peak power requires careful system analysis as changes in actuator loads, pump efficiency, operating temperature, and fluid viscosity will change the power need

81 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 81 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Horsepower is defined as 33,000 foot pounds of work per minute  In a hydraulic system, pressurized fluid is moved instead of an object  The formula for general hydraulic horsepower is:general hydraulic horsepower pounds of the fluid moved per minute  pressure in feet of head 33,000 foot pounds per minute

82 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 82 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  The pounds of fluid moved for use in the general hydraulic horsepower formula is calculated as: pump flow rate in gallons per minute  weight of water  specific gravity of the fluid gallons in a cubic foot of fluid

83 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 83 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  The pressure in feet of head for use in the general hydraulic horsepower formula is calculated as: system pressure in pounds per square inch  number of square inches in a square foot weight of a cubic foot of water  specific gravity of the system fluid

84 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 84 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  The general hydraulic formula can be reduced:  Stated in mathematical form: pump flow rate  system pressure 1714 gpm  psi 1714 gpm  psi  or

85 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 85 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Prime mover power actually required for the operation of a system will be greater than that calculated using the general hydraulic horsepower formula  This is because of power losses in both the prime mover and the pump –Internal leakage –Internal friction

86 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 86 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Internal leakage: –Caused by clearances in the pump resulting from manufacturing tolerances and component wear –Expressed as volumetric efficiency –Volumetric efficiency is calculated as: actual pump flow rate theoretical pump flow rate  100

87 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 87 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Internal friction: –Caused by bearings, close contact of machined surfaces, fluid viscosity, and turbulence –Expressed as mechanical efficiencymechanical efficiency –Mechanical efficiency is calculated as: theoretical horsepower needed to operate the pump actual horsepower required to operate the pump  100

88 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 88 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Overall efficiency of a pump considers all energy losses in the unit –Combines the volumetric and mechanical efficiency ratings –Overall efficiency is calculated as: volumetric efficiency  mechanical efficiency 100

89 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 89 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Required prime mover input horsepower is equal to the calculated general hydraulic horsepower for the system divided by the overall efficiency of the pump: gpm  psi 1714  overall efficiency

90 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 90 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  All of the fluid used in the operation of a hydraulic system enters the system through the inlet line of the pump  The low pressure differential between the system reservoir and pump inlet can create problems –CavitationCavitation –Air entrainment

91 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 91 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Cavitation is caused when inlet line pressure drops below the vapor pressure of the fluid and bubbles formvapor pressure –Reduces lubricity of the system fluid –Collapsing bubbles produce severe shock waves that can damage pump parts –Collapsing bubbles also produce noisy pump operation

92 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 92 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Factors that influence the point at which a liquid begins to form a vapor: –Chemical makeup of the liquid –Pressure applied on the liquid –Temperature of the liquid

93 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 93 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Point at which liquid begins to form vapor depends on system pressure, temperature, and fluid characteristics

94 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 94 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  Entrained air is air suspended in fluid –Enters the inlet line through leaks –Can produce a result similar to cavitation –Testing inlet line pressure can help indicate which condition exists High negative pressure (vacuum) indicates cavitation Pressure closer to 0 psi may indicate entrained air

95 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 95 Pump and Power Unit Design and Operating Considerations  The inlet line of the pump must be carefully sized and configured to eliminate cavitation and air entrainment –Fluid velocity in the line should not exceed 4 feet per second –Lines should be no smaller than the diameter of the pump inlet fitting –Strainer and inlet line filters must not restrict fluid flow

96 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 96 Review Question Name the five functions of a hydraulic system power unit. A. Provide the energy for the operation of the system, B. move fluid through the system, C. limit the maximum pressure of the system, D. aid in maintaining proper system operating temperature, and E. aid in maintaining fluid cleanliness

97 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 97 Review Question The device that is used to move fluid through a hydraulic system is called the _____. pump

98 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 98 Review Question During the _____ phase of basic pump operation, the pressure in the pumping chamber is below atmospheric pressure. intake

99 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 99 Review Question In a centrifugal pump, the primary element of the pumping mechanism is called a(n) _____. impeller

100 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 100 Review Question A(n) _____ valve found in some power units is set at a pressure slightly higher than the normal system operating pressure for protection if the relief valve fails. safety

101 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 101 Review Question Describe how variable flow can be achieved in an unbalanced-vane pump. By incorporating a moveable cam ring.

102 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 102 Review Question The pressure-compensating feature of a hydraulic pump is available only on those pump designs that are also capable of _____-flow delivery. variable

103 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 103 Review Question The type of pump that delivers the best pulse- free flow of fluid throughout the full range of operating speeds uses a(n) _____ pumping mechanism design. screw

104 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 104 Review Question A condition known as _____ exists when bubbles of vapor begin to appear in the inlet line of a pump. This is caused when the inlet pressure is too far below atmospheric pressure. cavitation

105 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 105 Review Question Overall efficiency and volumetric efficiency is typically found in the _____ section of pump information sheets. performance data

106 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 106 Glossary  Application information –Information supplied by a manufacturer describing conditions and limits of operation in which a product may be expected to successfully operate.  Axial piston pump –A hydraulic pump using a design in which the reciprocating motion of the pistons is parallel to the power input shaft.

107 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 107 Glossary  Balanced-vane pump –A hydraulic vane pump using a design with two inlet and outlet chambers that balance the load forces on the bearings of the pump rotor shaft.

108 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 108 Glossary  Cavitation –The formation of gas within a liquid stream that occurs when pressure drops below the vapor pressure of the liquid; may result in excessive noise and pump damage. The condition in a hydraulic pump can result from restricted inlet flow or excessive oil viscosity.

109 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 109 Glossary  Dual pump –A design in which two pumps are built into a single case. The pumps may be rated at different pressures and flow outputs to provide additional flexibility.  Fixed-delivery pump – Any hydraulic pump design that has a nonadjustable fluid delivery rate.

110 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 110  Gear pump –A hydraulic pump design that uses gears to move fluid through the pumping chamber of the component. Gears may have internal or external teeth. Glossary

111 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 111 Glossary  General hydraulic horsepower –A computed figure used in hydraulic systems based on fluid flow and pressure. Equal to fluid flow weight in pounds per minute multiplied by the pressure in feet of head divided by 33,000 foot pounds per minute.

112 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 112  Gerotor design –A common internal-gear pump or motor design. The pumping chamber of these units has two gear-shaped elements that form varying-size chambers as they rotate. Glossary

113 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 113 Glossary  Impeller –The rotating component of a dynamic compressor or impeller pump. Energy is increased in the fluid as centrifugal force causes flow through the unit.

114 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 114  Mechanical efficiency –The theoretical horsepower needed to operate a pump or compressor divided by the actual horsepower required.  Non-positive-displacement pump –A pump that does not have a variable-volume pumping chamber. An impeller or other device is used to move the fluid. The inertia of that fluid movement produces pressure when flow is resisted. Glossary

115 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 115 Glossary  Power unit –The unit in a hydraulic system that provides energy for the system, moves fluid through the system, provides a safe maximum limit of system pressure, and maintains desired system temperature and fluid cleanliness.

116 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 116 Glossary  Radial-piston pump –A positive-displacement piston pump design in which the pistons are located in a cylinder block or housing that is perpendicular to the power input shaft.

117 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 117 Glossary  Reciprocating pump –One of a variety of pump designs using reciprocating pistons to move fluid. The drive mechanisms vary, but a reciprocating piston moves the fluid against resistance from the system actuator.

118 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 118 Glossary  Screw pump –A pump unit that uses intermeshing screws to form chambers that linearly move hydraulic oil through the pump. The design provides a continuous, positive displacement of the oil.

119 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 119 Glossary  Stationary-cylinder design –A radial-piston hydraulic pump design in which a cam operates pistons located in a fixed cylinder block.  Swash plate –An inclined disk in a hydraulic axial-piston pump or motor that causes the pistons to reciprocate.

120 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 120 Glossary  Vapor pressure –The pressure at which a liquid will begin to form a vapor. Vapor pressure varies with fluid type and formulation.

121 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. 121  Volumetric efficiency –A ratio of the volume of air admitted to a compressor cylinder at a given temperature and pressure to the full displacement of the cylinder. Glossary


Download ppt "Chapter 7 Power Units and Pumps Source of Hydraulic Power."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google