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Department of Electronics Nanoelectronics 03 Atsufumi Hirohata 17:00 17/January/2014 Friday (P/L 001)

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Presentation on theme: "Department of Electronics Nanoelectronics 03 Atsufumi Hirohata 17:00 17/January/2014 Friday (P/L 001)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Department of Electronics Nanoelectronics 03 Atsufumi Hirohata 17:00 17/January/2014 Friday (P/L 001)

2 Quick Review over the Last Lecture Maxwell equations :  Time-independent case : ( Ampère’s / Biot-Savart ) law  ( Gauss ) law  ( Gauss ) law for magnetism  ( Faraday’s ) law of induction ( Initial conditions ) ( Assumptions ) ( Time-dependent equations ) Electromagnetic wave : ( Electric ) field ( Magnetic ) field Propagation direction propagation speed : in a vacuum,

3 Contents of Nanoelectronics I. Introduction to Nanoelectronics (01) 01 Micro- or nano-electronics ? II. Electromagnetism (02 & 03) 02 Maxwell equations 03 Scalar and vector potentials III. Basics of quantum mechanics (04 ~ 06) IV. Applications of quantum mechanics (07, 10, 11, 13 & 14) V. Nanodevices (08, 09, 12, 15 ~ 18)

4 03 Scalar and Vector Potentials Scalar potential  Vector potential A Lorentz transformation

5 Maxwell Equations Maxwell equations : E : electric field, B : magnetic flux density, H : magnetic field, D : electric flux density, J : current density and  : charge density Supplemental equations for materials :  Definition of an electric flux density  Definition of an magnetic flux density  Ohm’s law

6 Electromagnetic Potentials Scalar potential  and vector potential A are defined as By substituting these equations into Eq. (2), (1) (2) (3) (4)  Similarly, y - and z -components become 0. Here, Also,  Satisfies Eq. (2).

7 Electromagnetic Potentials (Cont'd) (1) (2) (3) (4)  Satisfies Eq. (4). By substituting these equations into Eq. (4),

8 Electromagnetic Potentials (Cont'd)  Gauge transformation Here, A ’ and ’ provide E and B as the same as A and . By assuming x as a differentiable function, we define Therefore, electromagnetic potentials A and  contains uncertainty of x. In particular, when A and  satisfies the following condition :  Laurentz gauge (1) (2) (3) (4) Under this condition, Eqs. (1) and (3) are expressed as  Equation solving at home

9 Einstein's Theory of Relativity In 1905, Albert Einstein proposed the theory of special relativity : Speed of light (electromagnetic wave) is constant. * Lorentz invariance for Maxwell’s equations (1900) Poincaré proved the Lorentz invariance for dynamics.  Lorentz invariance in any inertial coordinates

10 Scalar Potential  Scholar potential holds the following relationship with a force : * The concept was first introduced by Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1773, and named as scalar potential by George Green in **

11 Scalar Potential  and Vector Potential A Scalar potential holds the following relationship with a force : * Voltage potential induced by a positive charge Electrical current Vector potential around a current rot A Magnetic field Vector potential A (decrease with increasing the distance from the current) Electric field E (induced along the direction to decrease the voltage potential) Magnetic field H (induced along the axis of the rotational flux of the vector potential, rot A )

12 Vector Potential A Faraday found electromagnetic induction in 1831 : * Faraday considered that an “electronic state” of the coil can be modified by moving a magnet.  induces current flow. In 1856, Maxwell proposed a theory with using a vector potential instead of “electronic state.”  Rotational spatial distribution of A generates a magnetic flux B.  Time evolution of A generates an electric field E.

13 Maxwell's Vector Potential * magnetic line of forcevector potential electrical current electrical current magnetic field  By the rotation of the vector potentials in the opposite directions, rollers between the vector potentials move towards one direction.  Ampère’s law After the observation of a electromagnetic wave, E and B : physical quantities A : mathematical variable

14 Aharonov-Bohm Effect ** Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm theoretically predicted in 1959 : * Electron can modify its phase without any electrical / magnetic fields. electron source coil shield phase shift interference magnetic field

15 Observation of the Vector Potential ** org/jpn/books/kaishikiji/200012/ html In 1982, Akira Tonomura proved the Aharonov-Bohm effect : * Nb NiFe No phase shift Phase shift = wavelength / 2


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